• Title, Summary, Keyword: low-income country

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Non-Timber Forest Products Consumption Behaviors According to Dietary Lifestyle (식생활 스타일에 따른 단기소득임산물의 소비행태)

  • Yoo, Hyun Jung;Song, Eugene
    • Family and Environment Research
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    • v.54 no.1
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    • pp.107-118
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    • 2016
  • This study examined differences in consumers' images of short-term income forest products, preference, willingness to pay prices and purchase behavior according to dietary lifestyle as well as investigated what factors influence the degree of satisfaction when purchasing short-term income forest products and willingness to repurchase. According to dietary lifestyle, the results classified consumers as 'frugal housewife type,' 'convenience-seeking type,' and 'food high-involvement type.' A 'food high-involvement group' is defined as a group that wants high quality products regardless of price. In the 'frugal housewife type,' country of origin and hygiene/safety (considered when purchasing food) had positive influences on the degree of satisfaction. In the 'convenience-seeking type,' country of origin (considered when purchasing food) had a positive influence on the degree of satisfaction while country of origin (checked when purchasing food) had a negative influence on degree of satisfaction. Consumers had a lack of perception for short-term income forest products; subsequently, short-term income forest products had a weakness of low access to consumers. Therefore, farms for short-term income forest products need to divide products into 'high-priced' luxury products and 'low-priced' frugal products according to dietary lifestyle characteristics, improve packaging status to enable consumers to check quality certificates, and clearly indicate country of origin as well as improve distribution processes and increase consumer access to products.

The 'Middle-Income Country Trap' and Technological Catch-up: The Case of the Machine Tools Industry in Korea (기계산업에서의 중진국 함정과 기술추격: 한국 기계산업의 사례)

  • Kim Yoon-Zi
    • Journal of Technology Innovation
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.147-175
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    • 2006
  • One of the biggest problems of Korean economy is polarization of firms for export and domestic demand and that of conglomerates and SME's achievement. One of the culprits lies weakness of intermediate industry such as machine tool. Since intermediate industry is important path where export performance affects domestic demand and whose actor usually is SMEs with high spill over effect in labor market. Especially, intermediate industry Is vulnerable because of industrial policy biased In backward linkage effect. However if a country fails to develop intermediate industry above some critical point, that country would fall in low-tech equilibrium without growth. In case of benign circle where final goods industry growth leads growth of intermediate industry and again it leads that of final goods industry, it can reach high-tech equilibrium. By contrast, in opposite case where in industrialization latecomer fails to link industries likewise above some critical point that country would fall in low-tech equilibrium without growth. Moreover, for several reasons, machine tool firms of Korea have difficulty in catching up technology above critical point. Firstly. Conglomerate demander neglects their product. Secondly, even after success of development overcoming difficulties they fail to get market share for response of dumping of foreign competitors. And the last one is patent litigation of foreign competitors that incapacitate the technology development. For these, Korean machine tool firms fell in 'middle-income country trap' itself, since they stuck in some extent when they technologically catch up. Consequently, for latecomer country in machine tool industry to leapfrog meaningfully policy support is necessary, Weak intermediate industry does not Induce domestic firms and remained fragile. Therefore, localization, policy should reflect condition of technological catch up more than before, in order to be effective and fruitful. There should be turning point over relationship between conglomerates, major demander of machine tool and SME's, for only with active purchasing of conglomerate Korean machine industry can grow.

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Sun Protection Use Behaviour among University Students from 25 Low, Middle Income and Emerging Economy Countries

  • Pengpid, Supa;Peltzer, Karl
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.1385-1389
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the sun protection use behaviour among university students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 18,687 undergraduate university students aged 18-30 years (mean age 20.8, SD=2.8) from 26 universities in 25 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 57.2% of university students reported liking to sunbathe and of those only 48.1% used sun protection when sunbathing. In multivariate logistic regression, younger age, being female, coming from a wealthy or quite well off economic family background, living in an upper middle or high income country, lighter skin tone, and other health behaviours were found to be associated with sun protection use behaviour. Low sun protection use calls for health promotion programmes to prevent unprotected sun exposure.

Current Status of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) and Screening for Cervical Cancer in Countries at Different Levels of Development

  • Raychaudhuri, Sreejata;Mandal, Sukanta
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4221-4227
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    • 2012
  • Cancer of the uterine cervix is a worldwide menace taking innumerable womens' lives. The literature is vast and a large number of studies have been conducted in this field. Analyses have shown significant differences exist in terms of screening and HPV testing facilities among high income and low to middle income countries. In addition, acute lack of awareness and knowledge among the concerned population is particularly noted in rural areas of the low income countries. A detailed review of Indian case studies revealed that early age of marriage and childbirth, multiparity, poor personal hygiene and low socio-economic status among others are the principal risk factors for this disease. This review concludes that a two pronged strategy involving strong government and NGO action is necessary to minimize the occurrence of cervical cancer especially in low and medium income countries.

Current Status and the Future of Occupational Safety and Health Legislation in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

  • Ncube, France;Kanda, Artwell
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.365-371
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    • 2018
  • This article addresses three key issues. First, the commonalities, differences, strengths, and limitations of existing occupational safety and health (OSH) legislation of low- and middle-income countries were determined. Second, required revisions were identified and discussed to strengthen the laws in accordance with the best international practice. Finally, proposals for additional OSH laws and interventions were suggested. A literature search of OSH laws of 10 selected low- and middle-income countries was carried out. The laws were subjected to uniform review criteria. Although the agricultural sector employs more than 70% of the population, most of the reviewed countries lack OSH legislation on the sector. Existing OSH laws are gender insensitive, fragmented among various government departments, insufficient, outdated, and nondeterrent to perpetrators and lack incentives for compliance. Conclusively, the legal frameworks require reformation and harmonization for the collective benefit to employees, employers, and regulatory authorities. New OSH legislation for the agricultural sector is required.

How do Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and Logistics Development Interrelate?

  • HE, Yugang
    • Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.71-83
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: Because the energy consumption, economic growth and logistics development are still the heated topics which have attracted many scholars' interests. Therefore, this paper attempts to analyze the effect of logistics development on the economic growth, explore the effect of the economic growth on energy consumption and to discuss the effect of the logistics development on energy intensity. Research design, data and methodology: Using the panel data over the period 2000-2017 of 156 countries and employing the country & year fixed effect model, system generalized method moments and random effect model, the empirical analyses of this propositions are performed. Results: The empirical findings present that the logistics development is positively related to the economic growth. The energy consumption in the t-1 period and economic growth are positively related to the current energy consumption. The logistics development is negatively related to the energy intensity. Meanwhile, the empirical findings also indicate that there is a great difference about these effects among the four sub-samples (low income 18 countries, low middle income 49 countries, upper middle income 44 countries, high income 49 countries). Conclusions: Based on the evidences in this paper provided, we can find that these variables can affect each other.

Analysis of Factors Affecting Unmet Healthcare Needs of Married Immigrant Women (결혼 이주 여성의 미충족 의료에 미치는 영향 요인 분석)

  • Kim, Su Hee;Lee, Chung Yul
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.770-780
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the factors affecting the unmet healthcare needs of married immigrant women. Methods: This study was a secondary data analysis using data from the 2009 National Survey of Multicultural Families. Data collected from 58,735 married immigrant women who had spouses were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and logistic regression. Results: Overall, 9.9% of married immigrant women have unmet healthcare needs. The significant predictors related to unmet healthcare needs were young age, high level of education, employed, country of origin, long period of residence, low income, uninsured, urban area, low level of subjective health status, and illness experience over past two weeks. In particular, four variables (long period of residence, low income, subjective health status, and illness experience over past two weeks) significantly predicted unmet healthcare needs for women from all countries of origin. Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that common predictors related to unmet healthcare needs of married immigrant women are a long period of residence, low income, subjective health status, and illness experience over past two weeks. Therefore intervention strategies to decrease unmet healthcare needs should focus on these significant predictors.

Attitudes and Practice of Cervical Cancer Screening among Female University Students from 25 Low, Middle Income and Emerging Economy Countries

  • Pengpid, Supa;Peltzer, Karl
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.17
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    • pp.7235-7239
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    • 2014
  • Cervical cancer, the third commonest cancer in women worldwide, can be prevented through early detection by cervical screening (Pap smear). The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes and practice of cervical cancer screening among female undergraduate university students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 9,194 female undergraduate university students aged 18-26 years (mean age 20.9, SD=2.0) from 26 universities in 25 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 11.6% of the female students indicated that they had conducted one or more times a cervical (Pap) smear test; 8.3% among 18-20 year-olds and 15.6% among 21-26 year-old students. There was considerable country variation on having had a cervical (Pap) smear test among 21-26 year-old female university students, ranging from 59.2% in Colombia and 50.9% in Barbados to 0% in India and 1.0% in Tunesia. Logistic regression showed that cervical cancer screening importance or positive attitude were highly associated with the cervical screening practice. Moreover, risky sexual behaviour and tobacco use, two cervical cancer risk factors, were associated with screening. Cervical cancer screening practices were found to be inadequate and e fforts should be made to develop programmes that can increase the uptake of cervical cancer screening.

HPV Infection and Cervical Abnormalities in HIV Positive Women in Different Regions of Brazil, a Middle-Income Country

  • Freitas, Beatriz C;Suehiro, Tamy T;Consolaro, Marcia EL;Silva, Vania RS
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8085-8091
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    • 2016
  • Human papillomavirus is a virus that is distributed worldwide, and persistent infection with high-risk genotypes (HR-HPV) is considered the most important factor for the development of squamous cell cervical carcinoma (SCC). However, by itself, it is not sufficient, and other factors may contribute to the onset and progression of lesions. For example, infection with other sexually transmitted diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be a factor. Previous studies have shown the relationship between HPV infection and SCC development among HIV-infected women in many regions of the world, with great emphasis on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Brazil is considered a LMIC and has great disparities across different regions. The purpose of this review was to highlight the current knowledge about HPV infection and cervical abnormalities in HIV+ women in Brazil because this country is an ideal setting to evaluate HIV impact on SCC development and serves as model of LMICs and low-resource settings.

The Type of Medical Service Desired by Those Communities Which at Present have None (일부(一部) 무의면 주민(住民)들이 원(願)하는 의료시설의 형태(形態)에 관(關)한 조사(調査))

  • Lee, Dong-Bae
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.49-58
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    • 1978
  • To try to determine the type of medical service wanted by the rural population, in Chungnam Province, a survey amongst the populations of 6 counties was conducted; Within the 6 counties, 2 local communities, which had no access to local medical services, were surveyed. The 12 communities were actively involved in Sae-maul activities, and total number of households surveyed, was 822. The survey was conducted over a 1 month period, from July 16th, 1976, thru August 20th, and the followings are the results, summarised. 1. The largest number of respondents desired a combination of Public Health Center and Country Hospital, followed in order by Private Clinic and Modern Medical Facility. 2. The respondents, aged under 40 years, desired the Private Clinic type medical service, whilst those over 40 years of age, wanted the County Hospital, and as the numbers in this age bracket, were larger, so the ratio was much higher. 3. Sex, educational background, and occupation did not play any particular emphasis in the decisions. 4. Monthly income affected the responses to the survey. These in the lower-income bracket, wanted the County Hospital, and the ratio was high. These in the high income bracket desired the Modern Medical Service, accordingly. Those with an income of 50,000 won or less, amongst the low-income bracket, favored the Public Health Sub-center type of service. The ratio for this service was very high.

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