• Title, Summary, Keyword: low-dose radiation

Search Result 822, Processing Time 0.044 seconds

DOSE AND DOSE RATE EFFECTS OF IRRADIATION ON BLOOD COUNT AND CYTOKINE LEVEL IN BALB/c MICE

  • Son, Yeonghoon;Jung, Dong Hyuk;Kim, Sung Dae;Lee, Chang Geun;Yang, Kwangmo;Kim, Joong Sun
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
    • /
    • v.38 no.4
    • /
    • pp.179-184
    • /
    • 2013
  • The biological effects of radiation are dependent on the dose rate and dose of radiation. In this study, effects of dose and dose rate using whole body radiation on plasma cytokines and blood count from male BALB/c mice were evaluated. We examined the blood and cytokine changes in mice exposed to a low (3.49m Gy $h^{-1}$) and high (2.6 Gy $min^{-1}$) dose rate of radiation at a total dose of 0.5 and 2 Gy, respectively. Blood from mice exposed to radiation were evaluated using cytokine assays and complete blood count. Peripheral lymphocytes and neutrophils decreased in a dose dependent manner following high dose rate radiation. The peripheral lymphocytes population remained unchanged following low dose rate radiation; however, the neutrophils population increased after radiation. The sera from these mice exhibited elevated levels of flt3 ligand and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), after high/low dose rate radiation. These results suggest that low-dose-rate radiation does not induce blood damage, which was unlike high-dose-rate radiation treatment; low-dose-rate radiation exposure activated the hematopoiesis through the increase of flt3 ligand and G-CSF.

CHANGES IN BODY AND ORGAN WEIGHTS, HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS, AND FREQUENCY OF MICRONUCLEI IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD ERYTHROCYTES OF ICR MICE EXPOSED TO LOW-DOSE-RATE $\gamma$-RADIATION

  • Kang, Yu-Mi;Shin, Suk-Chul;Jin, Young-Woo;Kim, Hee-Sun
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
    • /
    • v.34 no.3
    • /
    • pp.102-106
    • /
    • 2009
  • We exposed ICR mice to low-dose (0.2 Gy) and low-dose-rate (0.7 mGy/h) $\gamma$-radiation ($^{137}Cs$) in the Low-dose-rate Irradiation Facility at the Radiation Health Research Institute to evaluate systemic effects of low-dose radiation. We compared the body and organ weights, number of blood cells (white and red blood cells and platelets), levels of biochemical markers in serum, and frequency of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes between low-dose irradiated and non-irradiated control mice. The ICR mice irradiated with total doses of 0.2 and 2 Gy showed no changes in body and organ weights, number of blood cells (white and red blood cells), or frequency of micronuclei in the polychromatic erythrocytes of peripheral blood. However, the number of platelets (P = 0.002) and the liver weight (P < 0.01) were significantly increased in mice exposed to 0.2 and 2 Gy, respectively. These results suggest that a low-dose-rate of 0.7 mGy/h does not induce systemic damage. This dose promotes hematopoiesis in the bone marrow microenvironment and the proliferation of liver cells. In the future, the molecular biological effects of lower doses and dose rates need to be evaluated.

CHANGING OF RGS TRANSCRIPTS LEVELS BY LOW-DOSE-RATE IONIZING RADIATION IN MOUSE TESTIS

  • Kim, Tae-Hwan;Baik, Ji Sue;Heo, Kyu;Kim, Joong Sun;Lee, Ki Ja;Rhee, Man Hee;Kim, Sung Dae
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
    • /
    • v.40 no.3
    • /
    • pp.187-193
    • /
    • 2015
  • Deleterious effects of high dose radiation exposure with high-dose-rate are unarguable, but they are still controversial in low-dose-rate. The regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) is a negative regulator of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. In addition, it is reported that irradiation stress led to GPCR-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-k) signaling. The RGS mRNA expression profiles by whole body radiation with low-dose-rate has not yet been explored. In the present study, we, therefore, examined which RGS was modulated by the whole body radiation with low-dose-rate ($3.49mGy{\cdot}h^{-1}$). Among 16 RGS expression tested, RGS6, RGS13 and RGS16 mRNA were down-regulated by low-dose-rate irradiation. This is the first report that whole body radiation with low-dose-rate can modulate the different RGS expression levels. These results are expected to reveal the potential target and/or the biomarker proteins associated with male testis toxicity induced by low-dose-rate irradiation, which might contribute to understanding the mechanism beyond the testis toxicity.

Adaptive Response Induced by Low Dose Ionizing Raditation in Human Cervical Carcinoma Cells

  • Kim, Jeong -Hee;Lee, Kyung -Jong;Cho, Chul -Koo;Yoo, Seong -Yul;Kim, Tae -Hwan;Ji, Young -Hoon;Kim, Sung -Ho
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
    • /
    • v.18 no.6
    • /
    • pp.410-414
    • /
    • 1995
  • Adaptive response induced by low dese .gamma.-ray irradiation in human cervical carcinoma cells was examined. Cells were exposured to low dose of .gamma.-ray irradiation in human cervical carcinoma cells was examined. Cells were exposured to low dose of .gamma.-ray (1-cGy) followed by high doses of r-ray irradiation (0,1,2,3,5,7 and 9Gy for chlnogenic assay or 1.5Gy for micronucleus assay) with various time intervals. Survival fractions of cells in both low dose-irradiated and unirrated groups were analyzed by clonogenic assay. Surviva fractions of low dose-irradiated in cell survival was maximum when low and high dose irradiation time interval was 4 hr. Frequencies of micronuclei which is an indicative of chromosome aberration were also enutained from survival fractions analyzed by clonogenic assay, maximum when low and high dose irradiation time interval was 4hr. Frequencies of micronuclei which is an indicative of chromosome aberration were also enumerated in both low dose-irradiated and unirradiated groups. In consiststent with the result obtained from survival fractions analyzed by clonogenic assay, maximum reduction in frquencies of micronuclei was observed when low dose radiation was given 4 hr prior to high response to subsequent high dose .gamma.-ray irradiation in human cervical carcinomal cells. Our data suggest that one of the possible mechanisms of adaptive response induced by low dose rediation is the increase in repair of DNA double strand breaks in low dose radiation-adapted cells.

  • PDF

Dosimetric Effects of Low Dose 4D CT Using a Commercial Iterative Reconstruction on Dose Calculation in Radiation Treatment Planning: A Phantom Study

  • Kim, Hee Jung;Park, Sung Yong;Park, Young Hee;Chang, Ah Ram
    • Progress in Medical Physics
    • /
    • v.28 no.1
    • /
    • pp.27-32
    • /
    • 2017
  • We investigated the effect of a commercial iterative reconstruction technique (iDose, Philips) on the image quality and the dose calculation for the treatment plan. Using the electron density phantom, the 3D CT images with five different protocols (50, 100, 200, 350 and 400 mAs) were obtained. Additionally, the acquired data was reconstructed using the iDose with level 5. A lung phantom was used to acquire the 4D CT with the default protocol as a reference and the low dose (one third of the default protocol) 4D CT using the iDose for the spine and lung plans. When applying the iDose at the same mAs, the mean HU value was changed up to 85 HU. Although the 1 SD was increased with reducing the CT dose, it was decreased up to 4 HU due to the use of iDose. When using the low dose 4D CT with iDose, the dose change relative to the reference was less than 0.5% for the target and OARs in the spine plan. It was also less than 1.1% in the lung plan. Therefore, our results suggests that this dose reduction technique is applicable to the 4D CT image acquisition for the radiation treatment planning.

THE SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF LOW-DOSE-RATE RADIATION ON EL4 LYMPHOMA CELL

  • Bong, Jin-Jong;Kang, Yu-Mi;Shin, Suk-Chul;Choi, Moo-Hyun;Choi, Seung-Jin;Lee, Kyung-Mi;Kim, Hee-Sun
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
    • /
    • v.37 no.2
    • /
    • pp.56-62
    • /
    • 2012
  • To determine the biological effects of low-dose-rate radiation ($^{137}Cs$, 2.95 mGy/h) on EL4 lymphoma cells during 24 h, we investigated the expression of genes related to apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, iron transport, and ribonucleotide reductase. EL4 cells were continuously exposed to low-dose-rate radiation (total dose: 70.8 mGy) for 24 h. We analyzed cell proliferation and apoptosis by trypan blue exclusion and flow cytometry, gene expression by real-time PCR, and protein levels with the apoptosis ELISA kit. Apoptosis increased in the Low-dose-rate irradiated cells, but cell number did not differ between non- (Non-IR) and Low-dose-rate irradiated (LDR-IR) cells. In concordance with apoptotic rate, the transcriptional activity of ATM, p53, p21, and Parp was upregulated in the LDR-IR cells. Similarly, Phospho-p53 (Ser15), cleaved caspase 3 (Asp175), and cleaved Parp (Asp214) expression was upregulated in the LDR-IR cells. No difference was observed in the mRNA expression of DNA repair-related genes (Msh2, Msh3, Wrn, Lig4, Neil3, ERCC8, and ERCC6) between Non-IR and LDR-IR cells. Interestingly, the mRNA of Trfc was upregulated in the LDR-IR cells. Therefore, we suggest that short-term Low-dose-rate radiation activates apoptosis in EL4 lymphoma cells.

Low-dose Radiation Induces Antitumor Effects and Erythrocyte System Hormesis

  • Yu, Hong-Sheng;Liu, Zi-Min;Yu, Xiao-Yun;Song, Ai-Qin;Liu, Ning;Wang, Hao
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.14 no.7
    • /
    • pp.4121-4126
    • /
    • 2013
  • Objective: Low dose radiation may stimulate the growth and development of animals, increase life span, enhance fertility, and downgrade the incidence of tumor occurrence.The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor effect and hormesis in an erythrocyte system induced by low-dose radiation. Methods: Kunming strain male mice were subcutaneously implanted with S180 sarcoma cells in the right inguen as an experimental in situ animal model. Six hours before implantation, the mice were given 75mGy whole body X-ray radiation. Tumor growth was observed 5 days later, and the tumor volume was calculated every other day. Fifteen days later, all mice were killed to measure the tumor weight, and to observe necrotic areas and tumor-infiltration-lymphoreticular cells (TILs). At the same time, erythrocyte immune function and the level of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid (2,3-DPG) were determined. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of EPO and VEGFR of tumor tissues. Results: The mice pre-exposed to low dose radiation had a lower tumor formation rate than those without low dose radiation (P < 0.05). The tumor growth slowed down significantly in mice pre-exposed to low dose radiation; the average tumor weight in mice pre-exposed to low dose radiation was lighter too (P < 0.05). The tumor necrosis areas were larger and TILs were more in the radiation group than those of the group without radiation. The erythrocyte immune function, the level of 2,3-DPG in the low dose radiation group were higher than those of the group without radiation (P < 0.05). After irradiation the expression of EPO of tumor tissues in LDR group decreased with time. LDR-24h, LDR-48h and LDR-72h groups were all statistically significantly different from sham-irradiation group. The expression of VEGFR also decreased, and LDR-24h group was the lowest (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Low dose radiation could markedly increase the anti-tumor ability of the organism and improve the erythrocyte immune function and the ability of carrying $O_2$. Low-dose total body irradiation, within a certain period of time, can decrease the expression of hypoxia factor EPO and VEGFR, which may improve the situation of tumor hypoxia and radiosensitivity of tumor itself.

Dose Distribution of Rectum and Bladder in Intracavitary Irradiation (자궁경부암 강내 방사선 조사장치에 의한 직장 및 방광의 피폭선량 평가)

  • Chu S. S.;Oh W. Y.;Suh C. O.;Kim G. E.
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
    • /
    • v.2 no.2
    • /
    • pp.261-270
    • /
    • 1984
  • The intrauterine irradiation is essential to achieve adequate tumor dose to central tumor mass of uterine malignancy in radiotherapy. The complications of pelvic organ are known to be directly related to radiation dose and physical parameters. The simulation radiation and medical records of 203 patients who were treated with intrauterine irradiation from Feb. 1983 to Oct. 1983, were critically analized. The physical parameters to include distances between lateral walls of vaginal fornices, longitudinal and lateral angles of tandem applicator to the body axis, the distance from the external os of uterine cervix to the central axis of ovoids were measured for low dose rate irradiation system and high dose rate remote control afterloading system. The radiation doses and dose distributions within cervical area including interesting points and bladder, rectum, according to sources arrangement and location of applicator, were estimated with personal computer. Followings were summary of study results ; 1. In distances between lateral walls of vaginal fornices, the low dose rate system showed as $4\~7cm$ width and high dose rate system showed as $5\~6cm$. 2. In horizontal angulation of tandem to body axis, the low dose rate system revealed mid position$64.6\%$, left deviation $19.2\%$and right deviation $16.2\%$. 3. In longitudinal angulation of tandem to body axis, the mid position was $11.8\%$ and anterior angulation $88.2\%$ in low dose rate system but in high dose rate system, anterior angulation was $98.5\%$. 4. Down ward displacement of ovoids below external os was only $3\%$ in low dose rate system and $66.7\%$ in high dose rate system. 5. In radiation source arrangement, the most activities of tandem and ovoid were 35 by 30 in low dose rate system but 50 by 40 in high dose rate system. 6. In low and high dose rate system, the total doses an4 TDF were 50, 70 Gy and 141, 123, including 40 Gy external irradiation. 7. The doses and TDF in interesting points Co, B, were 93, 47 Gy and 230, 73 in high dose rate system but in low doss rate system, 123, 52 Gy and 262, 75 respectively. 8. Doses and TDF in bladder and rectum were 70, 68 Gy and 124, 120 in low dose rate system, but in high dose rate system, 58, 64 Gy 98, 110 respectively, and then grades of injuries in bladder and rectum were 25, $30\%$ and 18, $23\%$ respectively.

  • PDF

Novel Dosimeter for Low-Dose Radiation Using Escherichia coli PQ37

  • Park, Seo-Hyoung;Kim, Tae-Hwan;Cho, Chul-Koo;Lee, Yeon-Hee
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.11 no.3
    • /
    • pp.524-528
    • /
    • 2001
  • The measurement of radiation response using simple and informative techniques would be of great value in studying the genetic risk following occupational, therapeutic, or accidental exposure to radiation. When patients receive radiation therapy, many suffer from side effects. Since each patient receives a different dose due to different physical conditions, it is important to measure the exact dose of radiation received by each patient to lessen the side effects. Even though several biological dosimetric systems have already been developed, there is no ideal system that can satisfy all the criteria for an idean dosimetric system, especially for low-dose radiation as used in radiation therapy. In this study, an SOS Chromotest of E. coli PQ37 was evaluated as a novel dosimeter for low-dose gamma-rays. E. coli PQ37 was originally developed to screen chemical mutagens using the SOS Chromotest-a colorimtric assay, based on the induction of ${\beta}$-galactosidase ue to DNA damage. The survival fraction of E. coli PQ37 decreased dose-dependently with an increasing dose of cobalt-60 gamma-rays. Also, a good linear correlation was found between the biological damage revealed by the ${\beta}$-galactosidase expression and the doses of gamma-rays. The expression of ${\beta}$-galactosidase activity that responded to low-dose radiation under 1 Gy was $Y=0.404+(0.089{\pm}0.3)D+(-0.018{\pm}0.16)D^2$ (Y, absorbance at 420 nm; D, Dose of irradiation) as calculated using Graph Pad In Plot and Excel. When a rabbit was fed with capsules containing an agar block embdded with E. coli PQ37 showed a linear response to the radiation doses. Accordingly, the results confirm that E. coli PQ37 can be used as a sensitive biological dosimeter fro cobalt-60 gamma-rays. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a bacterium has been used as a biological dosimeter, especially for low-dose radiation.

  • PDF

Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes as In Vitro Model to Evaluate Genomic Instability Caused by Low Dose Radiation

  • Tewari, Shikha;Khan, Kainat;Husain, Nuzhat;Rastogi, Madhup;Mishra, Surendra P;Srivastav, Anoop K
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.17 no.4
    • /
    • pp.1773-1777
    • /
    • 2016
  • Diagnostic and therapeutic radiation fields are planned so as to reduce side-effects while maximising the dose to site but effects on healthy tissues are inevitable. Radiation causes strand breaks in DNA of exposed cells which can lead to chromosomal aberrations and cause malfunction and cell death. Several researchers have highlighted the damaging effects of high dose radiation but still there is a lacuna in identifying damage due to low dose radiation used for diagnostic purposes. Blood is an easy resource to study genotoxicity and to estimate the effects of radiation. The micronucleus assay and chromosomal aberration can indicate genetic damage and our present aim was to establish these with lymphocytes in an in vitro model to predict the immediate effects low dose radiation. Blood was collected from healthy individuals and divided into 6 groups with increasing radiation dose i.e., 0Gy, 0.10Gy, 0.25Gy, 0.50Gy, 1Gy and 2Gy. The samples were irradiated in duplicates using a LINAC in the radiation oncology department. Standard protocols were applied for chromosomal aberration and micronucleus assays. Metaphases were stained in Giemsa and 200 were scored per sample for the detection of dicentric or acentric forms. For micronuclei detection, 200 metaphases. Giemsa stained binucleate cells per sample were analysed for any abnormality. The micronuclei (MN) frequency was increased in cells exposed to the entire range of doses (0.1-2Gy) delivered. Controls showed minimal MN formation ($2.0%{\pm}0.05$) with triple MN ($5.6%{\pm}2.0$) frequency at the lowest dose. MN formation increased exponentially with the radiation dose thereafter with a maximum at 2Gy. Significantly elevated numbers of dicentric chromosomes were also observed, even at doses of 0.1-0.5Gy, compared to controls, and acentric chromosomes were apparent at 2Gy. In conclusion we can state that lymphocytes can be effectively used to study direct effect of low dose radiation.