• Title, Summary, Keyword: low and middle income countries

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Current Status and the Future of Occupational Safety and Health Legislation in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

  • Ncube, France;Kanda, Artwell
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.365-371
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    • 2018
  • This article addresses three key issues. First, the commonalities, differences, strengths, and limitations of existing occupational safety and health (OSH) legislation of low- and middle-income countries were determined. Second, required revisions were identified and discussed to strengthen the laws in accordance with the best international practice. Finally, proposals for additional OSH laws and interventions were suggested. A literature search of OSH laws of 10 selected low- and middle-income countries was carried out. The laws were subjected to uniform review criteria. Although the agricultural sector employs more than 70% of the population, most of the reviewed countries lack OSH legislation on the sector. Existing OSH laws are gender insensitive, fragmented among various government departments, insufficient, outdated, and nondeterrent to perpetrators and lack incentives for compliance. Conclusively, the legal frameworks require reformation and harmonization for the collective benefit to employees, employers, and regulatory authorities. New OSH legislation for the agricultural sector is required.

Economic Growth, Total Factor Productivity, and Institution Quality in Low-Middle Income Countries in Asia

  • NGO, Minh Ngoc;NGUYEN, Loc Duc
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.7 no.7
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    • pp.251-260
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of total factor productivity (TFP), institutional quality, and interactive variable between them on economic growth in 13 low-middle income countries in Asia for the period 2000-2018. The paper uses the difference Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) to explore the dataset provided by the World Bank. The empirical results show that TFP and the interactive variable positively impact on the economic growth, while the institutional determinants have a negative influence. The negative effect is explained by the weak institutions in these low-middle income countries. The findings of the study suggest two points. First, the government should continue to improve TFP, which is associated with the application of technical advances, technological innovations, improvement of management methods, and skilled workers. Second, far more important, is that the authorities should pay special attention to implement institutional reform and strengthen the governance in the future. The successful experiences from Japan, Korea and Singapore will help other governments in Asian low-middle income countries to build developmental state. Probably, the developmental state actively interfere in the market to promote and realize the development goals. By doing so, these economies might overcome the so-called "middle-income trap".

Does ODA Improve the Business Climate of Low and Middle Income Countries? (공적개발원조(ODA)가 개발도상국가의 창업/금융 환경을 개선시킬 수 있는가?)

  • Jun, Sung Hee
    • International Commerce and Information Review
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.69-93
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    • 2015
  • Developing countries including poor countries cannot accumulate enough domestic saving and government budget for their industrialization. They need to finance the capital for development from abroad sources; foreign direct investment (FDI) and official development assistance (ODA). The developing countries can improve their business climate for more ODA. This paper examines whether ODA improve the business climate of developing countries. In this paper, the business climate are measured by the starting business scores and the scores of credit and protecting investor in Doing Business project of World Bank. According to the empirical result, ODA has significant effect on the starting business scores for low and lower middle income countries, but insignificant effect for upper middle countries. In the case of the scores of credit and protecting investor, ODA has significant effect only for lower middle income countries.

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Sun Protection Use Behaviour among University Students from 25 Low, Middle Income and Emerging Economy Countries

  • Pengpid, Supa;Peltzer, Karl
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.1385-1389
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the sun protection use behaviour among university students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 18,687 undergraduate university students aged 18-30 years (mean age 20.8, SD=2.8) from 26 universities in 25 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 57.2% of university students reported liking to sunbathe and of those only 48.1% used sun protection when sunbathing. In multivariate logistic regression, younger age, being female, coming from a wealthy or quite well off economic family background, living in an upper middle or high income country, lighter skin tone, and other health behaviours were found to be associated with sun protection use behaviour. Low sun protection use calls for health promotion programmes to prevent unprotected sun exposure.

Current Status of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) and Screening for Cervical Cancer in Countries at Different Levels of Development

  • Raychaudhuri, Sreejata;Mandal, Sukanta
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4221-4227
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    • 2012
  • Cancer of the uterine cervix is a worldwide menace taking innumerable womens' lives. The literature is vast and a large number of studies have been conducted in this field. Analyses have shown significant differences exist in terms of screening and HPV testing facilities among high income and low to middle income countries. In addition, acute lack of awareness and knowledge among the concerned population is particularly noted in rural areas of the low income countries. A detailed review of Indian case studies revealed that early age of marriage and childbirth, multiparity, poor personal hygiene and low socio-economic status among others are the principal risk factors for this disease. This review concludes that a two pronged strategy involving strong government and NGO action is necessary to minimize the occurrence of cervical cancer especially in low and medium income countries.

How do Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and Logistics Development Interrelate?

  • HE, Yugang
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.71-83
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: Because the energy consumption, economic growth and logistics development are still the heated topics which have attracted many scholars' interests. Therefore, this paper attempts to analyze the effect of logistics development on the economic growth, explore the effect of the economic growth on energy consumption and to discuss the effect of the logistics development on energy intensity. Research design, data and methodology: Using the panel data over the period 2000-2017 of 156 countries and employing the country & year fixed effect model, system generalized method moments and random effect model, the empirical analyses of this propositions are performed. Results: The empirical findings present that the logistics development is positively related to the economic growth. The energy consumption in the t-1 period and economic growth are positively related to the current energy consumption. The logistics development is negatively related to the energy intensity. Meanwhile, the empirical findings also indicate that there is a great difference about these effects among the four sub-samples (low income 18 countries, low middle income 49 countries, upper middle income 44 countries, high income 49 countries). Conclusions: Based on the evidences in this paper provided, we can find that these variables can affect each other.

The User Fee Introduction and Its Effect in the Health System of Low and Middle Income Countries: An Exploratory Study Using Realist Review Method (중·저소득 국가의 건강보장제도에서 이용자 부담 도입과 효과: Realist Review 방법을 활용한 탐색적 연구)

  • Son, Kyung Bok;Kim, Chang-Yup
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.207-220
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    • 2015
  • Background: The purpose of this exploratory study is to explain where, when and how the introduction of user fee system works in low and middle income countries using context, mechanism, and outcome configuration. Methods: Considering advanced research in realist review approach, we made a review process including those following 4 steps. They are identifying the review question, initial theory and mechanism, searching and selecting primary studies, and extracting, analyzing, and synthesizing relevant data. Results: User fee had a detrimental effect on medical utilization in low and middle income countries. Also previous and current interventions and community participation were critical context in user fee system. Those contexts were associated with intervention initiation and recognition and coping strategies. Such contexts and mechanisms were critical explanatory factors in medical utilization. Conclusion: User fee is a series of interventions that are fragile and dynamic. So the introduction of user fee system needs a comprehensive understanding of previous and new intervention, policy infrastructure, and other factors that can influence on medical utilization.

The Socioeconomic Burden of Cancer in Member Countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) - Stakeholder Meeting Report

  • Jan, Stephen;Kimman, Merel;Kingston, David;Woodward, Mark
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.407-409
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    • 2012
  • The ACTION (Asean CosTs In ONcology) Study will be one of the largest observational studies of the burden of cancer ever conducted in Asia. The study will involve 10,000 newly diagnosed patients with cancer and will be carried out across eight low- and middle income countries within the ASEAN region (Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Cambodia, Myanmar, Viet Nam, Laos and the Philippines). Patients will be interviewed three times over 12 months to assess their health, use of health care services, out of pocket costs related to their illness, social and quality of life issues. The project is a collaboration between the George Institute for Global Health, the ASEAN Foundation and Roche. The aim of the study is to assess the health and socioeconomic impact of cancer on patients in ASEAN communities, and the factors that may impact on these outcomes.

Comparison of the Universal Health Coverage Index among Africa Countries (아프리카 국가 간 보편적 의료보장(UHC) 지표 비교)

  • Oh, Chang Seok
    • The Korean Journal of Health Service Management
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.89-99
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    • 2018
  • Objectives : To compare the degree of achievement of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) among 39 developing countries in Africa and to investigate the correlation between health care financing and the UHC index. Methods : For data, 14 UHC indexes were used in 2015 supplied by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, this study used a 10% of threshold point corresponding to the catastrophic health expenditures and a 25% of threshold points as a health care financing index. Results : It was found that there were significant difference among Least Low Developed Countries (LLDCs), Other Low Income Countries (Other LICs), Lower Middle Income Countiies (LMICs), Upper Middle Income Countires (UMICs) to compare the average value by nation on the UHC index. This study showed that the UHC index of LLDCs was lowest, but the average value was higher as it moved towards LMICs and UMICs. In addition, it was found that there was an average value difference among the groups like LLDCs, Other LICs, LMICs and UMICs. As a result of comparison, it was found that the spending of household health expenditure increased as LLDCs moved towards UMICs when the burden of household health expenditure was 25%. Conclusions : This study aimed to compare the UHC indexes of African nations and to investigate the correlation between the degree of spending of total expenditure on health and burden of household health expenditure and UHC, and its effect.

A Cross-Country Comparison of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices about Tobacco Use: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey

  • Gupta, Bhawna;Kumar, Narinder
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.12
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    • pp.5035-5042
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    • 2014
  • Background: Knowledge and individual perceptions about adverse effects of all forms of tobacco exert direct influence on the level of tobacco consumption in various socio-demographic groups. The objective of this study was to determine the nature, extent and demographic correlates of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of use of tobacco among adults in low and middle income countries. Materials and Methods: The Global Adult Tobacco Survey, conducted in fourteen different countries from 2008-2010, was sourced for the data analyzed in this study. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted to determine the prevalent knowledge and individual perceptions amongst adults about all forms of tobacco consumption. Results: There was relatively high awareness about the harmful effects of smoking tobacco with main awareness being about its relationship with lung cancer (>90% in most countries). In contrast, there was relatively low awareness about harmful effects of smokeless tobacco (< 90% in all countries except India and Bangladesh), and observed correlation of smoking tobacco with heart attack (40.6% in China, 65.1% in India) and stroke (28.2% in China, 50.5% in India). Conclusions: A large proportion of adults living in low and middle income countries possess adequate knowledge about smoking tobacco but have inadequate awareness as well as false perceptions about smokeless forms of tobacco. Popular beliefs of inverse relationships of tobacco consumption with knowledge, attitudes and perception of populations towards tobacco are challenged by the findings of this study.