• Title, Summary, Keyword: long term outcomes

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Long Term Outcomes after Pediatric Liver Transplantation

  • Yazigi, Nada A.
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.207-218
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    • 2013
  • Long term outcomes after liver transplantation are major determinants of quality of life and of the value of this heroic treatment. As short term outcomes are excellent, our community is turning to take a harder look at long term outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review these outcomes, and highlight proposed treatments, as well as pressing topics needing to be studied. A systemic review of the English literature was carried in PubMed, covering all papers addressing long term outcomes in pediatric liver transplant from 2000-2013. Late outcomes after pediatric liver transplant affect the liver graft in the form of chronic liver dysfunction. The causes include rejection particularly humoral rejection, but also de novo autoimmune hepatitis, and recurrent disease. The metabolic syndrome is a major factor in long term cardiovascular complication risk. Secondary infections, kidney dysfunction and malignancy remain a reality of those patients. There is growing evidence of late cognitive and executive function delays affecting daily life productivity as well as likely adherence. Finally, despite a good health status, quality of life measures are comparable to those of children with chronic diseases. Long term outcomes are the new frontier in pediatric liver transplantation. Much is needed to improve graft survival, but also to avoid systemic morbidities from long term immunosuppression. Quality of life is a new inclusive measure that will require interventions and innovative approaches respectful not only on the patients but also of their social circle.

Long-Term Follow-Up Results of Anterior Cervical Inter-Body Fusion with Stand-Alone Cages

  • Kim, Woong-Beom;Hyun, Seung-Jae;Choi, Hoyong;Kim, Ki-Jeong;Jahng, Tae-Ahn;Kim, Hyun-Jib
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.59 no.4
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    • pp.385-391
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    • 2016
  • Objective : The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term follow-up radiologic/clinical outcomes of patients who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and inter-body fusion (ACDF) with stand-alone cages (SAC) in a single academic institution. Methods : Total 99 patients who underwent ACDF with SAC between February 2004 and December 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. A total of 131 segments were enrolled in this study. Basic demographic information, radiographic [segmental subsidence rate, fusion rate, C2-7 global angle, and segmental angle changes)/clinical outcomes (by Odom's criteria and visual analog score (VAS)] and complications were evaluated to determine the long-term outcomes. Results : The majority were males (55 vs. 44) with average age of 53.2. Mean follow-up period was 62.9 months. The segmental subsidence rate was 53.4% and fusion rate was 73.3%. In the subsidence group, anterior intervertebral height (AIH) had more tendency of subsiding than middle or posterior intervertebral height (p=0.01). The segmental angle led kyphotic change related to the subsidence of the AIH. Adjacent segmental disease was occurred in 18 (18.2%) patients. Total 6 (6%) reoperations were performed at the index level. There was no statistical significance between clinical and radiological outcomes. But, overall long-term clinical outcome by Odom's criteria was unsatisfactory (64.64%). The neck and arm VAS score were increased by over time. Conclusion : Long-term outcomes of ACDF with SAC group were acceptable but not satisfactory. For optimal decision making, more additional comparative long-term outcome data is needed between ACDF with SAC and ACDF with plating.

Short-term and long-term treatment outcomes with Class III activator

  • Ryu, Hyo-kyung;Chong, Hyun-Jeong;An, Ki-Yong;Kang, Kyung-hwa
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.226-235
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    • 2015
  • Objective: The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate short-term and long-term skeletodental outcomes of Class III activator treatment. Methods: A Class III activator treatment group (AG) comprised of 22 patients (9 boys, 13 girls) was compared with a Class III control group (CG) comprised of 17 patients (6 boys, 11 girls). The total treatment period was divided into three stages; the initial stage (T1), the post-activator treatment or post-mandibular growth peak stage (T2), and the long-term follow-up stage (T3). Cephalometric changes were evaluated statistically via the Mann-Whitney U-test and the Friedman test. Results: The AG exhibited significant increases in the SNA angle, ANB angle, Wits appraisal, A point-N perpendicular, Convexity of A point, and proclination of the maxillary incisors, from T1 to T2. In the long-term follow-up (T1-T3), the AG exhibited significantly greater increases in the ANB angle, Wits appraisal, and Convexity of A point than the CG. Conclusions: Favorable skeletal outcomes induced during the Class III activator treatment period were generally maintained until the long-term follow-up period of the post-mandibular growth peak stage.

Impact of Nurse, Nurses' Aid Staffing and Turnover Rate on Inpatient Health Outcomes in Long Term Care Hospitals (요양병원의 간호사와 간호조무사 확보수준과 이직률이 입원환자의 건강결과에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yunmi;Lee, Ji Yun;Kang, Hyuncheol
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.21-30
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to explore the impact of registered nurse/nurses' aid (RN/NA) staffing and turnover rate on inpatient health outcomes in long term care hospitals. Methods: A secondary analysis was done of national data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Services including evaluation of long term care hospitals in October-December 2010 and hospital general characteristics in July-September 2010. Final analysis of data from 610 hospitals included RN/NA staffing, turnover rate of nursing staff and 5 patient health outcome indicators. Results: Finding showed that, when variables of organization and community level were controlled, patients per RN was a significant indicator of decline in ADL for patients with dementia, and new pressure ulcer development in the high risk group and worsening of pressure ulcers. Patients per NA was a significant indicator for new pressure ulcer development in the low risk group. Turnover rate was not significant for any variable. Conclusion: To maintain and improve patient health outcomes of ADL and pressure ulcers, policies should be developed to increase the staffing level of RN. Studies are also needed to examine causal relation of NA staffing level, RN staffing level and patient health outcomes with consideration of the details of nursing practice.

Acute Pulmonary Thromboembolism: 14 Years of Surgical Experience

  • Park, Jiye;Lim, Sang-Hyun;Hong, You Sun;Park, Soojin;Lee, Cheol Joo;Lee, Seung Ook
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.78-84
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    • 2019
  • Background: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is a life-threatening disease with high mortality. This study aimed to assess the outcomes of surgical embolectomy and to clarify the sustained long-term effects of surgery by comparing preoperative, postoperative, and long-term follow-up echocardiography outcomes. Of 22 survivors, 21 were followed up for a mean (median) period of $6.8{\pm}5.4years$ (4.2 years). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 27 surgical embolectomy cases for massive or submassive acute PTE from 2003 to 2016. Immediate and long-term follow-up outcomes of surgical embolectomy were assessed on the basis of 30-day mortality, long-term mortality, postoperative complications, right ventricular systolic pressure, and tricuspid regurgitation grade. Results: The 30-day and long-term mortality rates were 14.8% (4 of 27) and 4.3% (1 of 23), respectively. Three patients had major postoperative complications, including hypoxic brain damage, acute kidney injury, and endobronchial b leeding, respectively (3.7% each). Right ventricular systolic pressure (median [range], mm Hg) decreased from 62.0 (45.5-78.5) to 31.0 (25.7-37.0, p<0.001). The tricuspid valve regurgitation grade (median [range]) decreased from 1.5 (0.63-2.00) to 0.50 (0.50-1.00, p<0.05). The improvement lasted until the last echocardiographic follow-up. Conclusion: Surgical embolectomy revealed favorable mortality and morbidity rates in patients with acute massive or submassive PTE, with sustained long-term improvements in cardiac function.

Long-term oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for splenic flexure colon cancer are comparable to conventional open surgery

  • Kim, Min Ki;Lee, In Kyu;Kang, Won-Kyung;Cho, Hyeon-Min;Kye, Bong-Hyeon;Jalloun, Heba Essam;Kim, Jun-Gi
    • Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
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    • v.93 no.1
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    • pp.35-42
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Few studies about laparoscopic surgery for splenic flexure colon cancer have been published. This study aims to compare the short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for splenic flexure colon cancer with those of conventional open surgery. Methods: From January 2004 to December 2010, 51 consecutive patients who underwent curative resection for stages I-III splenic flexure colon cancer were enrolled. Thirty-three patients underwent laparoscopy-assisted colectomy, while 18 patients underwent conventional open colectomy. Short- and long-term outcomes of the 2 groups were compared. Results: There were no differences in baseline characteristics, intra- and postoperative complications. The laparoscopy group showed longer operation time (median [interquartile range, IQR]: 295.0 [255.0-362.5] minutes vs. 180.0 [168.8-206.3] minutes, P < 0.001). In the laparoscopy group, return of bowel function was faster (median [IQR]: 3 [2-4] vs. 4 [3-5], P = 0.007) and postoperative hospital stay was shorter (median [IQR]: 9 [8-11] vs. 10.5 [9-19], P = 0.026). There were no statistically significant differences in overall survival rate (84.3% vs. 76.0%, P = 0.560) or disease-free survival rate (93.8% vs. 74.5%, P = 0.078) between the 2 groups. Conclusion: Laparoscopic surgery for splenic flexure colon cancer has better short-term outcomes than open surgery, as well as acceptable long-term outcomes. Laparoscopic surgery can be a safe and feasible alternative to conventional open surgery for splenic flexure colon cancer.

National Registry Data from Korean Neonatal Network: Two-Year Outcomes of Korean Very Low Birth Weight Infants Born in 2013-2014

  • Youn, YoungAh;Lee, Soon Min;Hwang, Jong-Hee;Cho, Su Jin;Kim, Ee-Kyung;Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan
    • Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    • v.33 no.48
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    • pp.309.1-309.13
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    • 2018
  • Background: The aim of this study was to observe long-term outcomes of very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs) born between 2013 and 2014 in Korea, especially focusing on neurodevelopmental outcomes. Methods: The data were collected from Korean Neonatal Network (KNN) registry from 43 and 54 participating units in 2013 and 2014, respectively. A standardized electronic case report form containing 30 items related to long-term follow up was used after data validation. Results: Of 2,660 VLBWI, the mean gestational age and birth weight were $29^{1/7}{\pm}2^{6/7}$ weeks and $1,093{\pm}268g$ in 2013 and $29^{2/7}{\pm}2^{6/7}$ weeks and $1,125{\pm}261g$ in 2014, respectively. The post-discharge mortality rate was 1.2%-1.5%. Weight < 50th percentile was 46.5% in 2013 and 66.1% in 2014. The overall prevalence of cerebral palsy among the follow up infants was 6.2% in 2013 and 6.6% in 2014. The Bayley Scales of Infant Developmental Outcomes version II showed 14%-25% of infants had developmental delay and 3%-8% of infants in Bayley version III. For the Korean developmental screening test for infants and children, the area "Further evaluation needed" was 5%-12%. Blindness in both eyes was reported to be 0.2%-0.3%. For hearing impairment, 0.8%-1.9% showed bilateral hearing loss. Almost 50% were readmitted to hospital with respiratory illness as a leading cause. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of long-term outcomes was not largely different among the VLBWI born between 2013 and 2014. This study is the first large national data study of long-term outcomes.

Long Term Outcomes of Laser Conization for High Grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia in Thai Women

  • Wongtiraporn, Weerasak;Laiwejpithaya, Somsak;Sangkarat, Suthi;Benjapibal, Mongkol;Rattanachaiyanont, Manee;Ruengkhachorn, Irene;Chaopotong, Pattama;Laiwejpithaya, Sujera
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7757-7761
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    • 2014
  • Aim: To report long term outcomes of laser conization for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in Thai women. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in patients undergoing laser conization due to abnormal cervical cytology suggesting neoplasia during 1989 to 1994 and having follow-up data until December 2010. Conization was performed under colposcopy using a 0.5-mm $CO_2$ laser beam with power density of $18,000-20,000watts/cm^2$, and the surgical base was vaporized using a low power defocused beam. The follow-up protocol included cervical cytology and colposcopy. Long term outcome measures were failure rate (persistence and recurrence), post-conization status of transformation zone, and obstetric outcomes. Results: Of 104 patients undergoing conization, 71 had therapeutic conization for high grade CIN and were followed up for a median time of 115 (range 12-260) months. There was one case of persistent and one of recurrent disease comprising a failure rate of 2.8%. The post treatment transformation zone was well visualized in 68.3% of 63 patients with an intact uterus. Sixteen patients achieved 25 pregnancies; none had second trimester miscarriage. The obstetric outcomes were unremarkable. Conclusions: Laser conization under colposcopic visualization for the treatment of high grade CIN in Thai women has a low failure rate of 2.8%. The post-conization transformation zone could not be evaluated completely in approximately 30% of cases; therefore the follow-up protocol should include both cytology and colposcopy. Obstetric outcomes are not adversely affected by this therapeutic procedure.

Nursing outcomes of inpatient on level of nursing staffing in long term care hospitals (요양병원 간호인력 확보수준에 따른 입원환자의 간호결과)

  • Kim, Eun Hee;Lee, Eunjoo
    • Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.715-727
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to explore the impact of nursing staffing on inpatient nursing outcomes in long term care hospitals. A secondary analysis was done of national data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Services including evaluation of long term care hospitals. Patients per RN was a significant indicator of foley catheter ratio in high risk group and low risk group. Patients per RN&NA was a significant indicator of decline in ADL for patients with dementia, non dementia, urinary incontinence and new pressure ulcer development in the high risk group. The average nursing outcome of inpatient in high grade was higher than that low grade in long care hospital. This higher level of nursing staffing and the higher the grade shown a positive effect on the nursing outcomes of the inpatient. We therefore recommend modifying the above nurse staffing policy so as to make it more effective in improving nursing outcomes.

Long Term Outcomes of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Typical Trigeminal Neuralgia-Minimum 5-Year Follow-Up

  • Lee, Jong-Kwon;Choi, Hyuk-Jai;Ko, Hak-Cheol;Choi, Seok-Keun;Lim, Young-Jin
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.51 no.5
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    • pp.276-280
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    • 2012
  • Objective : Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is the least invasive surgical option for patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN). However, the indications and long term outcomes of GKRS are still controversial. Additionally, a series with uniform long-term follow-up data for all patients has been lacking. In the present study, the authors analyzed long-term outcomes in a series of patients with TN who underwent a single GKRS treatment followed by a minimum follow-up of 60 months. Methods : From 1994 to 2009, 40 consecutive patients with typical, intractable TN received GKRS. Among these, 22 patients were followed for >60 months. The mean maximum radiation dose was 77.1 Gy (65.2-83.6 Gy), and the 4 mm collimator was used to target the radiation to the root entry zone. Results : The mean age was 61.5 years (25-84 years). The mean follow-up period was 92.2 months (60-144 months). According to the pain intensity scale in the last follow-up, 6 cases were grades I-II (pain-free with or without medication; 27.3%) and 7 cases were grade IV-V (<50% pain relief with medication or no pain relief; 31.8%). There was 1 case (facial dysesthesia) with post-operative complications (4.54%). Conclusion : The long-term results of GKRS for TN are not as satisfactory as those of microvascular decompression and other conventional modalities, but GKRS is a safe, effective and minimally invasive technique which might be considered a first-line therapy for a limited group of patients for whom a more invasive kind of treatment is unsuitable.