• Title/Summary/Keyword: liver damage

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Skin Toxicity of Toluene on Liver Damage-Induced Rats (간손상 유발실험동물에서 Toluene의 피부독성)

  • 채순님;이상희;윤종국;이상일;조현국
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.22-29
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    • 2001
  • To evaluate the cutaneous injury in liver damaged rats by toluene application to the skin, toluene(35mg/㎤) was sequentially applied for 5 days to the dorsal skin of liver damaged rats with $CCl_4$ (6 times ever other day:0.1$m\ell$/100 g body weight-50% $CCl_4$in olive oil). The cutaneous ultrastructural changes were unexoectably not observed in liver from $CCl_4$-treated rats although necrotic liver damage appeared under light microscope. In these animals by the application of toluene to rat skin the cutaneous xanthine oxidase activity was significantly increased(p<0.05), but cytochrome P450 content was not different from that of the control or only $CCl_4$-treated rats. On the other hand, the cutaneous superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in liver damaged animals were significantly respectively(p<0.05, p<0.001), decreased by toluene application to the skin compared with control and especially the former enzyme activity was significantty decreased(p<0.01), compared with that of liver damaged rate rat but glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase activities were not significantly different from those of the control or liver damaged rats. Futhermore, the reduced gluathione content of skin was also significantly decreased by toluene application to the liver damaged animals. In conclusion, the great deposits of cerrous peroxide and ultramorphological changes in skin tissue of liver damaged animals by toluene application may be responsible for the oxygen free radical.

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Clinical Outcomes of Occupational Exposure to N,N-Dimethylformamide: Perspectives from Experimental Toxicology

  • Kim, Tae-Hyun;Kim, Sang-Geon
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.97-104
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    • 2011
  • N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) is globally used as an organic solvent in the production of synthetic leather and resins because of its low volatility, making it an attractive industrial material. Despite its excellent property as a chemical solvent, utilization of DMF is somewhat controversial nowadays due to its hazardous effects on exposed workers in work places. Many toxification cases are being reported globally and the number of cases of liver damage is still increasing in developing countries. On account of this, a series of epidemiologic surveys are being conducted to understand the degrees of liver damage caused by DMF exposure. Furthermore, many investigations have been performed to clarify the mechanism of DMF-induced liver toxicity using both human and experimental animal models. This review summarizes the current occupational cases reported on liver damage from workers exposed to DMF in industrial work places and the research results that account for DMF-induced liver failure and possible carcinogenesis. The findings reviewed here show the synergistic toxicity of DMF exposure with other toxicants, which might occur through complicated but distinct mechanisms, which may extend our knowledge for establishing risk assessments of DMF exposure in industrial work places.

Relationship between Herb-Medicine and Liver Damage (입원환자 한약투여와 약인성 간손상과의 관계)

  • Rhee, See-Hyung;Park, Jung-Sup;Yeo, Hyun-Soo;Choi, You-Kyung;Jun, Chan-Yong;Park, Chong-Hyeong;Kim, Dong-Woo
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.572-578
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    • 2006
  • Objectives : This study investigated whether taking herbal medicine over the long-term had any side effects of liver damage. Methods : We checked LFT levels of the 58 admitted patients. Results : When we compared admission LFT levels with discharge LFT levels, we found the levels of AST, ALT and LDH had decreased. This test showed statistically significant decrease. When we compared admission LFT levels with discharge LFT levels, we found the increases of discharge LFT levels fell within the standard deviation. When we compared admission LFT levels with discharge LFT levels, we found the levels of LFT did not increase as much as two standard deviations. Conclusions : According to the above results, taking herbal medicine over a long-term did not have any side effects of drug-induced liver damage.

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A study on Histologically Change of the Skin and Liver in Skin Burn (피부화상에 의한 피부 및 간의 조직학적 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Han-Soo;Kim, Sang-Soo;Kim, Yong-Kwon
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.923-934
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    • 2001
  • In order to investigate a pathogenesis of liver damage induced by skin burn, thermal injury was induced by scald burn on entirely dorsal surface in rats (total body surface area 30%) except for inhalated injury. At 5 and 24 h after scald bum, biochemical assay and morphological changes in skin tissue, serum and liver tissue were examined. The effects of bum injury on the levels of glutathione, lipid peroxide and on the activities of oxygen free radical generating and scavenging enzymes have been determined in association with observing of histologic and ultrastructural changes, measuring the protein concentration in plasma, and counting the number of intravascular polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The activity of xanthine oxidase, an enzyme of oxygen free radical generating system. was elevated (p<0.01) in serum, but not in skin and in liver tissue. Futhermore, thermal injury decreased not only the protein concentration in plasma but also the number of leukocytes, that indicates induction of edema formation with protein exudation and inflammation by neutrophil infiltration into the internal organs. These data suggest that acute dermal scald burn injury leads to liver damage, that is related to elevation of xanthine oxidase activity in serum. Xanthine oxidase may be a key role in the pathogenesis of liver damage induced by skin burn.

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Effect of Carbon Tetrachloride Administration on the Serum and Liver Xanthine Oxidase Activity in Ethanol-Pretreated Rats (Ethanol을 전처리한 흰쥐의 간 및 혈청 Xanthine Oxidase 활성에 미치는 사염화탄소의 영향)

  • 윤종국;김병렬;이상일
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.69-77
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    • 1993
  • In the present study, the comparison of liver damage in carbon tetrachloride (CCl$_4$)-treated rats with that those pretreated with ethanol and an effect of liver injury on the serum and liver xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity were evaluated. The increasing rate of liver weight per body wt., the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, and the decreasing rate of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity and the protein contents in the liver cell were higher in carbon tetrachloride-treated animals pretreated with ethanol than the carbon tetrachloride-treated group. Especially, the histopathological findings also showed more severe liver damage in the ethanol-pretreated rats than the rats treated with carbon tetrachloride only. In such a experimental condition the xanthine oxidase activity of serum and liver both of carbon tetrachloride-treated rats and those pretreated with ethanol were higher than that of each control group. And the increasing rate of xanthine oxidase enzyme activity to the control group was higher in carbon tetrachloride-treated group pretreated with ethanol than those treated with CCl$_4$. In addition, the heptic uricase activity and the serum levels of uric acid were more increased in carbon tetrachloride-treated group pretreated with ethanol than those in the CCl$_4$-treated rats. On the other hand, there were no statistical differences in hepatic catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities between the CCl$_4$-treated rats and those pretreated with ethanol. In conclusion, it is assumed that the more severe liver damage in ethanol pretreated rats would be due to oxygen free radical produced by the xanthine oxidase system.

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Studies on Protective Effect of Da-9601, Artemisia asiatica Extract, on Acetaminophen- and $CCI_{4}$induced Liver Damage in Rats

  • Ryu, Byoung-Kweon;Ahn, Byoung-Ok;Oh, Tae-Young;Kim, Soon-Hoe;Kim, Won-Bae;Lee, Eun-Bang
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.508-513
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    • 1998
  • The hepatoprotective effect of DA-9601, a quality-controlled extract of artemisisa asiatica, on liver damage induced by acetaminophen (APAP) and carbon tetrachloride ($CCI_{4}$) was investigated by means of serum-biochemical, hepatic-biochemical, and histopathological examinations. Doses of Da-9601 (10, 30, or 100 mg/kg) were administered intragastrically to each rat on three consecutive days i.e. 48 h, 24 h and 2 h before a single administration of APAP (640 mg/kg, i.p.) or $CCI_{4}$ (2 ml/kg, p.o.). Four h and 24 h after hepatotoxin treatment, the animals were sacrificed for evaluation of liver damage. Pretreatment of Da-9601 reduced the elevation of serum ALT, AST. LDH and histopathological changes such as centrilobular necrosis, vacuolar degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration dose-dependently. Da-9601 also prevented APAP- and $CCI_{4}$-induced hepatic glutathione (GSH) depletion and $CCI_{4}$-induced increase of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), a parameter of lipid peroxidation, in a chemically induced liver injury by complex mechanisms which involve prevention of lipid peroxidation and preservation of hepatic GSH.

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Curcuma Extract Enhances Hepatoprotective Action of Silymarin in Experimental Liver Damage Models (실리마린의 간보호 작용에 미치는 쿠쿠마 추출물의 영향)

  • 이기명;함기백;조성원;오태영;최설민;김정훈;안병옥;권종원;김원배
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.12-18
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    • 2002
  • Silymarin and curcumin have been used for supportive treatment of liver disease of difffrent etiology due to their hepatoprotective activities. The present study was carried out to investigate the hepatoprotective efffcts of silymarin and/or curcuma extract against hepatotoxins induced liver injury. To investigate hepatoprotective effects, the silymarin and/or curcuma extract were pre-treated orally to experimental animals. And thereafter a single dose of hepatotoxin, carbon tetrachloride ($CCl_4$) and acetaminophen were administered through oral or intraperitoneal route, respectively. Chronic liver damage was induced by subcutaneous injection of $CCl_4$ for 3 weeks (2 times/week). Hepatoprotective and therapeutic effects were monitored by estimating serurn ALT and AST levels and by measuring hepatic glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA)levels. Collagen type 1 was detected with irnrnunostaining to assess fibrosis. The results showed that the mix-ture of silymarin and curcuma extract significantly reduced serum biochemistry levels and MDA levels com-pared with those of control group in both acute and chronic animal models. In antifibrotic effect, the relative hepatic collagen content was significantly decreased by silymarin and/or curcuma extract treatment. It was concluded that the complex of silymarin and curcuma extract have a both hepatoprotective and therapeutic effect synergically in rat liver injury induced by heptotoxins.

Preventive effects of Saponariae Vaccariae Semen and Melandryi Firmi Herba on hyperlipidemia and liver damage induced by alcohol (왕부류행(王不留行)과 경엽여루채(硬葉女婁菜)가 알콜 투여로 유발된 흰쥐의 고지혈증과 간 손상의 예방에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Jae-Young;Seo, Bu-Il;Oh, Dal-Seok;Park, Ji-Ha;Roh, Seong-Soo
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.27-34
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : This study was performed to compare the preventive effect of water extracts from Saponariae Vaccariae Semen(SVS) and Melandryi Firmi Herba(MFH) on hyperlipidemia and liver damage induced by alcohol. Methods : Except for the normal group, I fed rat on 25% alcohol for 55 days. And each extract was administrated for the same period. I measured the serum component in rat's blood, body weight and weight of liver. Results : At first, I observed effects of SVS and MFH on hyperlipidemia induced by alcohol. SVS and MFH group didn't show the significant decrease of total cholesterol in comparison with those of the control group. SVS and MFH group showed the significant increase of HDL-cholesterol in comparison with those of the control group. SVS group showed the significant decrease of triglyceride in comparison with those of the control group, but MFH group didn't show the significant decrease of triglyceride in comparison with those of the control group. SVS group showed the significant increase of body weight in comparison with those of the control group at 4weeks and 8weeks. But, MFH group didn't show the significant changes of body weight in comparison with those of the control group at 4weeks and 8weeks. By the way, SVS group showed the significant decrease of triglyceride in comparison with those of MFH group. SVS group showed the significant increase of body weight in comparison with those of MFH group at 8weeks. At second, I observed effects of SVS and MFH on liver damage induced by alcohol. SVS and MFH group showed the significant decrease of AST(aspartate aminotransferase), ALT(alanine aminotransferase), ALP(alkaline phosphatase) and LDH(lactate dehydrogenase) in comparison with those of the control group. SVS group showed the significant increase of liver weight in comparison with those of the control group, but MFH group didn't show the significant increase of liver weight in comparison with those of the control group. By the way, SVS group showed the significant increase of liver weight in comparison with those of MFH group. Conclusions : Reviewing these experimental results, it suggests that water extracts from SVS and MFH have pharmaceutical preventive efficacy on hyperlipidemia and liver damage induced by alcohol. Therefore further additional study should be conducted to elucidate the pharmaceutical efficacy of these in depth.

Protective effect of silk protein hydrolysates against tert-BHP induced liver damage (실크 단백질 가수분해물의 간 손상에 대한 보호효과)

  • Kim, Joo Hyoun;Suh, Hyung Joo;Choi, Hyeon-Son
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.107-115
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    • 2017
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotecive effect of silk protein hydrolysates (SDH), which was prepared by acid hydrolysis, in rats. SDH itself did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect on hepatic tissues. SDH showed a protective effect on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced hepatotoxicity and liver damage. SDH effectively reduced AST (aspartate aminotransferase) and ALT (alanine aminotransferase), which are biomarkers for liver damage, in a dose-dependent manner. Malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation product, was significantly reduced by SDH. A high dose of SDH (2 g/kg) reduced t-BHP-induced MDA production by 40%. Glutathione (GSH), which is an endogenous antioxidant molecule, was effectively increased by SDH treatment. GSH content was enhanced by around 2.5-fold, compared with t-BHP control, upon SDH (2 g/kg) treatment. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which is an enzyme released by cell cytotoxicity, was greatly increased by t-BHP, but significantly decreased by SDH treatment. Furthermore, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining showed that SDH suppressed t-BHP-induced lesions in liver tissue. Taken together, SDH might be used as a protective agent against liver damage.

The Effect of the Curcumae Longae Rhizoma (CLR) Extract on the Hepatocellular Carcinogenesis and Acute Liver Damage Induced by Diethylnitrosamine (DENA) and CCl4 in Rats (강황추출물이 Diethylnitrosamine과 CCl4로 유발된 흰쥐의 간암과 간 손상에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Tae-San;Choi, Chang-Won
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.177-192
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    • 2014
  • Objective : In order to investigate the effect of Curcumae Longae Rhizoma(CLR) extract on the hepatocellular carcinogenesis and acute liver damage induced by diethylnitrosamine(DENA) and $CCl_4$ in rats. Methods : Experimental groups were subdivided into four; normal group (Nor), acute liver damage and hepatocellular cancer inducing control group (Con), and CLR extract 200mg/kg/day (CAA) or 400mg/kg/day (CAB) administered groups to Con. Thereafter the changes of the body weight, the liver weight and the weight of liver/100g body weight, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, the activities of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, AFP, SOD, catalase were measured. And we observed by optical and electron microscopy. Result : 1. The body weight was decreased in Con compared with Nor for 5 weeks, but increased in Con compared with Nor from 6 week to 9 week. During experimental period of total 9 weeks, CAA and CAB were increased compared with Con. 2. The liver weight was increased significantly (p<0.05) in Con compared with Nor. The weight of liver/100g body weight was increased significantly (p<0.05) in Con compared with Nor and decreased significantly (p<0.05) in CAB compared with Con. 3. The level of total cholesterol was increased in Con and CAA compared with Nor, but there was not statistically significant. The level of triglyceride was decreased in Con compared with Nor. But increased in CAA and CAB compared with Con. The level of HDL-cholesterol was significantly increased (p<0.05) in CAA and CAB compared with Con. 4. The activities of AST, ALT were increased in Con compared with Nor, but decreased in CAA compared with Con, significantly decreased (p<0.05) in CAB compared with Con. 5. The activities of ALP, LDH were increased in Con compared with Nor, but decreased in CAA and CAB compared with Con. 6. The activities of AFP was increased significantly (p<0.05) in Con compared with Nor, but decreased significantly (p<0.05) in CAA and CAB compared with Con. 7. The activities of SOD were increased in Con, CAA and CAB compared with Nor, but decreased in CAA and CAB compared with Con. The activities of Catalase was more increased in CAA and CAB compared than Con. 8. The results of light microscopical observation, a number of hepatocytes were damaged in Con compared with Nor and CAB. 9. According to the electron microscopical observation, irregular nuclear membrane, condensed nucleoplasm was observed in Con, the experimental group was observed in the nucleus of the well-preserved and evenly developed nucleoplasm. Conclusions : These results suggest that administration of CLR extract suppress or retard on the hepatocellular carcinogenesis and acute liver damage induced by DENA and $CCl_4$ in rats.