• Title/Summary/Keyword: liver damage

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A User Optimer Traffic Assignment Model Reflecting Route Perceived Cost (경로인지비용을 반영한 사용자최적통행배정모형)

  • Lee, Mi-Yeong;Baek, Nam-Cheol;Mun, Byeong-Seop;Gang, Won-Ui
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.117-130
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    • 2005
  • In both deteministic user Optimal Traffic Assignment Model (UOTAM) and stochastic UOTAM, travel time, which is a major ccriterion for traffic loading over transportation network, is defined by the sum of link travel time and turn delay at intersections. In this assignment method, drivers actual route perception processes and choice behaviors, which can become main explanatory factors, are not sufficiently considered: therefore may result in biased traffic loading. Even though there have been some efforts in Stochastic UOTAM for reflecting drivers' route perception cost by assuming cumulative distribution function of link travel time, it has not been fundamental fruitions, but some trials based on the unreasonable assumptions of Probit model of truncated travel time distribution function and Logit model of independency of inter-link congestion. The critical reason why deterministic UOTAM have not been able to reflect route perception cost is that the route perception cost has each different value according to each origin, destination, and path connection the origin and destination. Therefore in order to find the optimum route between OD pair, route enumeration problem that all routes connecting an OD pair must be compared is encountered, and it is the critical reason causing computational failure because uncountable number of path may be enumerated as the scale of transportation network become bigger. The purpose of this study is to propose a method to enable UOTAM to reflect route perception cost without route enumeration between an O-D pair. For this purpose, this study defines a link as a least definition of path. Thus since each link can be treated as a path, in two links searching process of the link label based optimum path algorithm, the route enumeration between OD pair can be reduced the scale of finding optimum path to all links. The computational burden of this method is no more than link label based optimum path algorithm. Each different perception cost is embedded as a quantitative value generated by comparing the sub-path from the origin to the searching link and the searched link.

Protective Effects of Korean Panax Ginseng Extracts against TCDD-induced Toxicities in Rat (랫드에서 TCDD 투여에 의해 유도된 생체독성의 고려홍삼 추출물에 의한 억제 효과)

  • Choi, Soo-Jin;Sohn, Hyung-Ok;Shin, Han-Jae;Hyun, Hak-Cheol;Lee, Dong-Wook;Song, Yong-Bum;Lee, Soo-Hyun;Gang, Dong-Ho;Lim, Hak-Seob;Lee, Cheol-Won;Moon, Ja-Young
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.382-389
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    • 2008
  • To achieve a better understanding of protective effects of water extracts of Panax ginseng against TCDD-induced toxicities, we monitored physiological and clinical changes in rat for 4 weeks after administrations of each Panax Ginseng extract or TCDD, and co-administration of the two materials. For this study, 120 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats weighing 190-210 g each (8 weeks old) were divided into four groups: TCDD-administered, co-administered group with TCDD and ginseng extract, ginseng extract-administered, and control group. The TCDD-administered group received single dose of TCDD in a corn oil vehicle ($25\;{\mu}g/kg$ body weight) by intraperitoneal administration on Day 1. The Panax ginseng extracts-administered group received intraperitoneally 100 mg/kg body weight every other day for one month. For the co-administered group with TCDD and ginseng extracts, Panax ginseng extracts were intraperitoneally administered to rats at 100 mg/kg body weight every other day for one month after a single intraperitoneal dose of $25\;{\mu}g$ of TCDD/kg body weight on Day 1. Panax ginseng extracts attenuated the mortality induced by TCDD administration. The extracts also slightly attenuated the TCDD-induced body weight loss. Administration of TCDD alone increased liver weight at 2, 5, and 16 days after administration of TCDD. Administration of Panax ginseng extracts rather decreased liver weight through whole the experimental period, but which was statistically insignificant. Administration of TCDD alone at $25\;{\mu}g/kg$ body weight increased both serum enzyme activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) at 32 days, indicating that liver damage occurred maximally at that time. Ginseng extract administration caused insignificant changes in serum ALT, but gradually decreased in AST as the exposure time increased. Coadministration of TCDD and ginseng extracts caused serum AST activity to significant recovery to normal value at 16 days and 32 days after exposure to TCDD. The extracts also significantly decreased the TCDD-induced ALT activity after 16 days of TCDD administration. These results suggest that Panax ginseng extracts may possess a protective effect against TCDD-induced toxicities including hepatotoxicity in rats.

Chronic HBV Infection in Children: The histopathologic classification and its correlation with clinical findings (소아의 만성 B형 간염: 새로운 병리조직학적 분류와 임상 소견의 상관 분석)

  • Lee, Seon-Young;Ko, Jae-Sung;Kim, Chong-Jai;Jang, Ja-June;Seo, Jeong-Kee
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.56-78
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    • 1998
  • Objective: Chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB) occurs in 6% to 10% of population in Korea. In ethinic communities where prevalence of chronic infection is high such as Korea, transmission of hepatitis B infection is either vertical (ie, by perinatal infection) or by close family contact (usually from mothers or siblings) during the first 5 years of life. The development of chronic hepatitis B infection is increasingly more common the earlier a person is exposed to the virus, particularly in fetal and neonatal life. And it progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, especially in severe liver damage and perinatal infection. Histopathology of CHB is important when evaluating the final outcomes. A numerical scoring system which is a semiquantitatively assessed objective reproducible classification of chronic viral hepatitis, is a valuable tool for statistical analysis when predicting the outcome and evaluating antiviral and other therapies. In this study, a numerical scoring system (Ludwig system) was applied and compared with the conventional histological classification of De Groute. And the comparative analysis of cinical findings, family history, serology, and liver function test by histopathological findings in chronic hepatitis B of children was done. Methods: Ninety nine patients [mean age=9 years (range=17 months to 16 years)] with clinical, biochemical, serological and histological patterns of chronic HBV infection included in this study. Five of these children had hepatocelluar carcinoma. They were 83 male and 16 female children. They all underwent liver biopsies and histologic evaluation was performed by one pathologist. The biopsy specimens were classified, according to the standard criteria of De Groute as follows: normal, chronic lobular hepatitis (CLH), chronic persistent hepatitis (CPH), mild to severe chronic active hepatitis (CAH), or active cirrhosis, inactive cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). And the biopsy specimens were also assessed and scored semiquantitatively by the numerical scoring Ludwig system. Serum HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, anti-HBe, anti-HBc (IgG, IgM), and HDV were measured by radioimunoassays. Results: Male predominated in a proportion of 5.2:1 for all patients. Of 99 patients, 2 cases had normal, 2 cases had CLH, 22 cases had CPH, 40 cases had mild CAH, 19 cases had moderate CAH, 1 case had severe CAH, 7 cases had active cirrhosis, 1 case had inactive cirrhosis, and 5 cases had HCC. The mean age, sex distribution, symptoms, signs, and family history did not differ statistically among the different histologic groups. The numerical scoring system was correlated well with the conventional histological classification. The histological activity evaluated by both the conventional classification and the scoring system was more severe as the levels of serum aminotransferases were higher. In contrast, the levels of serum aminotransferases were not useful for predicting the degree of histologic activity because of its wide range overlapping. When the histological activity was more severe and especially the cirrhosis more progressing, the prothrombin time was more prolonged. The histological severity was inversely related with the duration of seroconversion of HBeAg. Conclusions: The histological activity could not be accurately predicted by clinical and biochemical findings, but by the proper histological classification of the numerical scoring system for the biopsy specimen. The numerical scoring system was correlated well with the conventional histological classification, and it seems to be a valuable tool for the statistical analysis when predicting the outcome and evaluating effects of antiviral and other therapies in chronic hepatitis B in children.

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