• Title/Summary/Keyword: liquid-liquid extraction (LLE)

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Analysis of trace odorous compounds (geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol) in water by using GC/MS (물 중의 극미량 냄새 유발 물질인 Geosmin과 2-methylisoborneol의 GC/MS 분석법 연구)

  • Kim, Tae-Jon;Kim, Byung-Joo;So, Hun-Young;Kwang, Ho
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.534-539
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    • 2002
  • We established an analytical method for the measurement of trace amounts of earthy/musty odorous geosmin (GSM) and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) in water using GC/MS. Water samples were extracted with n-hexane (liquid-liquid extraction, LLE) and the extracts were measured by GC/MS. The extraction yields of the two compounds were tested to be ($87{\pm}8$)% and ($78{\pm}8$)%, respectively. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) of the two compounds by this method were greatly improved to ~0.3 ng/L. The analytical methods were applied to analyze water samples from several rivers in Korea and waters after water treatment processes. The highest levels of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol in raw water from a river were measured to be ($4.2{\pm}0.4$) ng/L and ($44{\pm}4$) ng/L, respectively. The levels only slightly decreased to ($1.3{\pm}0.1$) ng/L and ($18{\pm}2$) ng/L even after water treatment, indicating that the odorous compounds were not properly removed by the treatment processes.

Establishment of Analytical Method for Pymetrozine Residues in Crops Using Liquid-Liquid Extraction(LLE) (액-액 분배법을 활용한 작물 중 pymetrozine의 잔류분석법 확립)

  • Yoon, Ji-Young;Moon, Hye-Ree;Park, Jae-Hun;Han, Ye-Hoon;Lee, Kyu-Seung
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.107-116
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    • 2013
  • Polar pesticides like pymetrozine (log $P_{ow}$: -0.18) are known to be difficult to analyze. The analytical method of pymetrozine using hydromatrix included in the official method of KFDA was uncommon and provided ambiguous evidence to confirm both the identity and the quantity. Therefore, precise single residue analytical method was developed in representative crops for using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). The pymetrozine residue was extracted with methanol from 11 representative crops which comprised apple, blueberry, broccoli, cabbage, cherry, crown daisy, hulled rice, Korean cabbage, potato, rice and watermelon. The extract was purified serially by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and silica solid phase extraction (SPE). For rice and hulled rice samples, n-hexane partition was additionally adopted to remove nonpolar interferences, mainly lipids. The residue levels were analyzed by HPLC with DAD, using $C_8$ column. LOQ (limit of quantitation) of pymetroizinie was 1 ng (S/N > 10) and MQL (method quantitation limit) was 0.01 mg/kg. Mean recoveries from 11 crop samples fortified at three levels (MQL, 10 ${\times}$ MQL and 50 ${\times}$ MQL) in triplicate were in the range of 83.1~98.5% with coefficients of variation (CV) of less than 10%, regardless of sample type, which satisfies the criteria of KFDA. The method established in this study could be applied to most of crops as an official and general method for analysis of pymetrozine residue.

The analysis of the urushiol congeners from the extracts of lacquer trees (옻나무 추출물 중 우루시올 동종체의 함량비 분석)

  • Cho, Yumi;Jung, Yu-Kyung;Kim, Jinsan;Lee, Joonbae;Paeng, Ki-Jung
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.65-74
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    • 2009
  • Active components of lacquer tree referred to as urushiol congeners, which are catechol derivatives with various alkyl or alkenyl substituents. The olefin side chains typically have one, two or three double bonds. In this study, the each congener's ratio analysis of extracts from korean lacquer tree are compared to the one from other asian lacquer tree. Extraction was performed using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method with soxhlet system from tree's bark and sap. Extracts were analyzed by reverse phase liquid chromatography and on-line electro spray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

Recovery of Acetic Acid from An Ethanol Fermentation Broth by Liquid-Liquid Extraction (LLE) Using Various Solvents

  • Pham, Thi Thu Huong;Kim, Tae Hyun;Um, Byung-Hwan
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.53 no.6
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    • pp.695-702
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    • 2015
  • Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using various solvents was studied for recovery of acetic acid from a synthetic ethanol fermentation broth. The microbial fermentation of sugars presented in hydrolyzate gives rise to acetic acid as a byproduct. In order to obtain pure ethanol for use as a biofuel, fermentation broth should be subjected to acetic acid removal step and the recovered acetic acid can be put to industrial use. Herein, batch LLE experiments were carried out at $25^{\circ}C$ using a synthetic fermentation broth comprising $20.0g\;l^{-1}$ acetic acid and $5.0g\;l^{-1}$ ethanol. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc), tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO), tri-n-octylamine (TOA), and tri-n-alkylphosphine oxide (TAPO) were utilized as solvents, and the extraction potential of each solvent was evaluated by varying the organic phase-to-aqueous phase ratios as 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0. The highest acetic acid extraction yield was achieved with TAPO; however, the lowest ethanol-to-acetic acid extraction ratio was obtained using TOPO. In a single-stage batch extraction, 97.0 % and 92.4 % of acetic acid could be extracted using TAPO and TOPO when the ratio of organic-to-aqueous phases is 4:1 respectively. A higher solvent-to-feed ratio resulted in an increase in the ethanol-to-acetic acid ratio, which decreased both acetic acid purity and acetic acid extraction yield.

울산지역 폐수 중 프탈레이트 에스테르 및 비스페놀 A의 HPLC 분석

  • Han, Yeong-Ju;Park, Jin-Do;Lee, Hak-Seong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Sciences Society Conference
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    • pp.272-274
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    • 2008
  • 일반적으로 프탈레이트 에스테르의 전처리방법에는 액액추출법(Liquid Liquid Extraction, LLE), 고상추출법(Solid Phase Extraction, SPE), 고상미세추출법(Solid Phase Micro Extraction, SPME) 등의 분석방법이 있다. 그 중에서 본 연구에서는 간편하고 정확성이 높은 SPE를 이용하였으며, 적은 양의 유기용제를 사용하여 전처리함으로써 2차적인 환경 오염을 줄일 수 있다는 점에서 다른 전처리 방법보다 유용하다고 할 수 있다. 또한 프탈레이트 에스테르의 경우는 구조적으로 안정적인 편이나 페놀류의 경우 hydroxy group 때문에 GC/MS 분석시 유도체화 과정이 필수적이나 이번 연구에서는 HPLC를 이용하므로 별도의 유도체화의 번거로움 없이 바로 분석할 수 있는 이점이 있다. 더 많은 연구가 필요하겠지만 앞서서의 결과에서도 알 수 있듯이 전반적으로 검출한계가 0.1$\sim$0.5$\mu$g/L 정도로 높고, 82% 이상의 양호한 회수율을 나타낸 것으로 미루어 보아 극미량 분석이 아닌 이상, 산업체에서 HPLC의 이용이 더욱 유리할 것이라고 사료된다.

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Integration of Headspace Solid Phase Micro-Extraction with Gas Chromatography for Quantitative Analysis of Formaldehyde

  • Lo, Kong Mun;Yung, Yen Li
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.139-142
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    • 2013
  • A study was carried out to evaluate the solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) for formaldehyde emission analysis of uncoated plywood. In SPME, formaldehyde was on-fiber derivatized through headspace extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The SPME was compared with desiccators (DC-JAS 233), small-scale chamber (SSC-ASTM D6007) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE-EPA 556) methods which were performed in accordance with their respective standards. Compared to SSC (RSD 4.3%) and LLE (RSD 5.0%), the SPME method showed better repeatability (RSD 1.8%) and not much difference from DC (RSD 1.4%). The SPME has proven to be highly precise (at 95% confidence level) with better recovery (REC 102%). Validation of the SPME method for formaldehyde quantitative analysis was evidenced. In addition, the SPME by air sampling directly from plywood specimens (SPME-W) correlated best with DC ($r^2$ = 0.983), followed by LLE ($r^2$ = 0.950) and SSC ($r^2$ = 0.935).

A Synthesis of Optically Active cis and trans 2-(5-Hydroxypoperidin-2-yl)acetates

  • P.N. Reddy;한상수;정교현
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.617-618
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    • 1998
  • A simple and reproducible pretreatment method was developed for the determination of dioxins in milk sample. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) was used for the initial extraction of the analyte from milk. For the elimination of interferences coextracted from milk, acid treatment followed by multilayer silica gel, and then alumina column clean-up were performed. The clean extract could be obtained without carbon column or high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) clean-up procedure. Polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs) and dioxins were separated on neutral alumina activated at 180 ℃ for 12 hours. The final extract was analyzed by HPLC and high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The recovery of dioxins spiked in milk at 75-300 ppt level was 83.3-98.9% and their relative standard deviation was 4.1-14%.

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Analytical Method for Dioxin and Organo-Chlorinated Compounds : (I) Pretreatment of Milk Samples for Dioxin Analysis

  • 양정수;김진영;최용욱;이대운
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.619-624
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    • 1998
  • A simple and reproducible pretreatment method was developed for the determination of dioxins in milk sample. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) was used for the initial extraction of the analyte from milk. For the elimination of interferences coextracted from milk, acid treatment followed by multilayer silica gel, and then alumina column clean-up were performed. The clean extract could be obtained without carbon column or high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) clean-up procedure. Polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBS) and dioxins were separated on neutral alumina activated at 180 ℃ for 12 hours. The final extract was analyzed by HPLC and high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The recovery of dioxins spiked in milk at 75-300 ppt level was 83.3-98.9% and their relative standard deviation was 4.1-14%.

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Monitoring and Development of Pretreatment Method for Perfluorinated Compounds in Fish Samples (어류에서의 과불화합물 분석을 위한 전처리법 확립 및 모니터링)

  • Heo, Jin-Ju;Lee, Ji-Woo;Kim, Seung-Kyu;Oh, Jeong-Eun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.35 no.7
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    • pp.485-494
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    • 2013
  • An efficient extraction method was developed for the analysis of 16 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in fish samples. We compared the recoveries from the Ion-Pairing Extraction (IPE), Liquid-Liquid Extraction (LLE), Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE), IPE + SPE method with varying the injection time of the internal standard. As a result, IPE method with the internal standard before extraction was evaluated as the most effective pretreatment method. The RPM (Revolution Per Munite) and pH in IPE-before method were additionally adjusted and the more efficient pretreatment method was established. The total 33 fish samples including liver and gut samples were collected from Korean markets and analyzed PFCs with developed pretreatment method of this study. Total 16 PFC levels in fish samples ranged from ND to 1.67 ng/g with 100% detection frequency. The average PFCs concentrations of muscle, liver and gut samples from fish were compared and showed the following trend: liver (17.8 ng/g) > gut (13.3 ng/g) > muscle (1.67 ng/g). The PFC levels in fish samples were similar or lower than other available previous results of foreign studies.

Analysis Method of Parabens in Human Breast Milk by LC-MS/MS System (LC-MS/MS 시스템을 이용한 모유 중 파라벤류 분석법 확립)

  • Park, Na-Youn;Lee, Eun-Hee;Kho, Younglim
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.60 no.2
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    • pp.118-124
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    • 2016
  • Parabens were commonly used for preventing the growth of microorganisms as preservatives in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industry. Also, parabens are known endocrine disruptors because of their estrogenic effects on human. Parabens affect the endocrine system and show adverse effect such as, genital malformations, precocious puberty and testicular cancer in young children, infants and fetuses. In this study, we developed analytical method for four parabens (methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, propyl paraben, butyl paraben) in human breast milk which frequently consumed by newborn baby. The analytes were extracted using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) after enzyme hydrolysis with protease and lipase, then quantitative analysis was performed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method validation results were as follows; the linearity of calibration curves were excellent with coefficient of determinations (r2) higher than 0.999, the limit of detections (LODs) were 0.019~0.044 ng/mL, the accuracies were 85.3~105.9% and the precisions were lower than 10%. The average concentration ± standard deviation of parabens in ten human breast milk sample were MP 0.660 ± 0.519 ng/mL, EP 1.631 ± 2.081 ng/mL and PP 0.326 ± 0.320 ng/mL, and BP was not detected.