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Comparison of Liquid-based Cytology and Conventional Smear in the Evaluation of Sputum Cytology

  • Back, Oun-Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.26-31
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    • 2013
  • The cytology of sputum specimens, at a medical facility in Korea, is using the liquid-based cytology and conventional smear method. It confirms the diagnosis using conventional smear methods and the liquid-based cytology. In addition, the diagnosis uses two kinds of each method, compares the suitability, sensitivity and specificity for each test and tries to understand the efficient method needed. It divided sputum specimens in half and liquid-based cytology. A conventional smear method was conducted and the Papanicolaou's staining was conducted using Autostainer. Diagnosed each slide of staining produced smear slides specimens by using an optical microscope. The result of the liquid-based cytology and conventional smear method was that the liquid-based cytology was of a higher-grade than the conventional smear method. It was 36.8%, and 62.8% in the same condition. But only one case was of a lower grade. Liquid-based cytology showed 86.2% of adequacy, 31.0% of sensitivity and 97.5% of specificity. The conventional smear method showed 54.4% of adequacy, 19.6% of sensitivity and 100% of specificity. If it was conducted with two methods at the same time, the results would be similar to the liquid-based cytology. In conclusion, liquid-based cytology has a more superior adequacy and sensitivity than the conventional smear method. The combination of the two methods is similar to the result of only conducting a liquid-based cytology. Conducting a liquid-based cytology rather than the combination of the two ways of sputum cytoscopy, is to be considered as an efficient method to achieve diagnostic accuracy, reduce labor of clinical technologist and pathologist, and to reduce the expense of patients.

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Comparison of Efficacy in Abnormal Cervical Cell Detection between Liquid-based Cytology and Conventional Cytology

  • Tanabodee, Jitraporn;Thepsuwan, Kitisak;Karalak, Anant;Laoaree, Orawan;Krachang, Anong;Manmatt, Kittipong;Anontwatanawong, Nualpan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.16
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    • pp.7381-7384
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to 1206 women who had cervical cancer screening at Chonburi Cancer Hospital. The spilt-sample study aimed to compare the efficacy of abnormal cervical cells detection between liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). The collection of cervical cells was performed by broom and directly smeared on a glass slide for CC then the rest of specimen was prepared for LBC. All slides were evaluated and classified by The Bethesda System. The results of the two cytological tests were compared to the gold standard. The LBC smear significantly decreased inflammatory cell and thick smear on slides. These two techniques were not difference in detection rate of abnormal cytology and had high cytological diagnostic agreement of 95.7%. The histologic diagnosis of cervical tissue was used as the gold standard in 103 cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false positive, false negative and accuracy of LBC at ASC-US cut off were 81.4, 75.0, 70.0, 84.9, 25.0, 18.6 and 77.7%, respectively. CC had higher false positive and false negative than LBC. LBC had shown higher sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy than CC but no statistical significance. In conclusion, LBC method can improve specimen quality, more sensitive, specific and accurate at ASC-US cut off and as effective as CC in detecting cervical epithelial cell abnormalities.

Diagnostic Value of Urine Cytology in 236 cases; a Comparison of Liquid-Based Preparation and Conventional Cytospin Method (요 세포 검사의 진단적 가치; 액상세포검사와 고식적 방법의 비교)

  • Lee, Sun;Park, Jung-Hee;Do, Sung-Im;Kim, Youn-Wha;Lee, Ju-Hie;Chang, Sung-Gu;Park, Yong-Koo
    • The Korean Journal of Cytopathology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.119-125
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    • 2007
  • Urine cytology is an important screening tool for urinary tract neoplasms. Liquid-based preparation methods, such as $ThinPrep^{(R)}$, have been introduced for non-gynecological samples. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of liquid-based preparations in urine cytology by comparing the results of the conventional Cytospin preparation method for the same samples. A total of 236 cases subject to urine cytology were enrolled in this study from January 2005 to December 2005. All cases were subjected to cystoscopy and if a malignancy was suspected, a biopsy was performed. Urine cytology slides were made using the $ThinPrep^{(R)}$ preparation method and the conventional Cytospin and/or direct smear method from the individual samples. The results of urine cytology were compared with the final cystoscopic or histological diagnoses. We analyzed the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of both cytology preparation methods. A total of 236 slides made using the liquid based method were satisfactory for slide quality, whereas 5 slides (2.1%) prepared by conventional methods were unsatisfactory because of air-drying, a thick smear, or a bloody or inflammatory background. The $ThinPrep^{(R)}$ method showed 53.1% sensitivity, 92.6% specificity, a 92,6% positive predictive value, a 94.1% negative predictive value and 85,6% accuracy, while the conventional method showed 51% sensitivity, 98.4% specificity, a 92.6% positive predictive value, a 98.4% negative predictive value and 88,6% accuracy. Although the diagnostic values were equivalent between the use of the two methods, the quality of the cytology slides and the time consumed during the microscopic examination for a diagnosis were superior for the $ThinPrep^{(R)}$ method than for the conventional method. In conclusion, our limited studies have shown that the use of the liquid based preparation method is beneficial to improve the quality of slides and reduce the duration for a microscopic examination, but did not show better sensitivity, accuracy and predictive values.

Benefits of Cervical Cancer Screening by Liquid-Based Cytology as Part of Routine Antenatal Assessment

  • Parkpinyo, Nichamon;Inthasorn, Perapong;Laiwejpithaya, Somsak;Punnarat, Tippawan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.4457-4461
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: To determine the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology, as diagnosed using a liquid-based cytology technique, in pregnant women attending the Antenatal Care (ANC) clinic at Siriraj Hospital. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 655 first-visit pregnant women who attended ANC clinic at Siriraj Hospital during June to November 2015 study period. After receiving routine antenatal care, cervical cytology screening was performed with the Siriraj liquid-based cytology technique. All specimens were reviewed by a certified cytopathologist using Bethesda System 2001 criteria. Patients with abnormal PAP results characterized as epithelial cell abnormalities were referred to a gynecologic oncologist for further management according to ASCCP Guidelines 2012. Results: Mean age of participants was $28.9{\pm}6.2$ years. Prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology was 3.4% (95% CI: 2.0-4.7). Among this group, there were ASC-US, ASC-H, LSIL, HSIL for 12(1.8%), 2(0.3%), 7(1.1%) and 1(0.2%), respectively. In 633 specimens of the normal group, infection was identified in 158 specimens (24.1%) which were caused by Candida spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis. Regarding patient perception about the importance of cervical cancer screening, although most women perceived screening to be important, 54% of participants had never been screened for cervical cancer. Rate of loss to follow-up in the postpartum period was as high as 41.8%. Conclusions: Prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology in pregnant women attending the ANC clinic at Siriraj Hospital was 3.4%. Inclusion of cervical cancer screening as part of antenatal assessment can help to identify precancerous lesions or cervical cancers in patients who might otherwise not be screened, thereby facilitating early treatment and improved patient outcomes.

High Feasibility of Liquid-Based Cytological Samples for Detection of EGFR Mutations in Chinese Patients with NSCLC

  • Wu, Chun-Yan;Hou, Li-Kun;Ren, Sheng-Xiang;Su, Bo;Chen, Gang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7885-7889
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    • 2014
  • Background: Activating mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) could predict response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the detection of EGFR mutation is frequently challenging in clinical practice for the lack of tumor tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of performing EGFR mutation testing on various types of liquid-based cytology (LBC) samples. Materials and Methods: A total of 434 liquid-based cytology samples were collected from March 2010 and November 2013. Among them, 101 with diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma had paired surgically resected specimens. The ADx Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ADx-ARMS) was used to determine EGFR mutation status both in LBC and resected samples. Results: All liquid-based cytology samples were adequate for EGFR mutation analysis. The mutation rate was 50.5% in the 434 NSCLC patients with LBC samples and the incidence rates of EGFR mutation were consistent among different specimens. We also detected EGFR positives in 52.5% (53/101) patients with paired histologic specimens. The concordance rate of EGFR mutation between LBC samples and paired histologic specimens was 92.1%. Conclusions: Our results suggest that liquid-based cytology samples are highly reliable for EGFR mutation testing in patients with NSCLC.

Manual Liquid-Based Cytology (Liqui-$PREP^{TM}$) in Breast Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology: Comparison with the Conventional Smears (유방의 세침흡인 세포검사: 수기 액상세포검사법(Liqui-$PREP^{TM}$)과 고식적 도말법과의 비교)

  • Jeong, Ji-Yun;Kim, Jeong-Shik;Kim, Young-Su;Kim, Hye-Jung;Park, Ji-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Cytopathology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.34-40
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    • 2008
  • Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of the breast is a useful method for diagnosing breast lesions. Yet making the definite diagnosis with performing FNA is limited by some problems, such as the low cellularity, the poor preservation and the obscuring background. Recent studies have found that liquid-based cytology solves such problems, but it is an expensive method and it is limited by the loss of the background information. The purpose of this study is to compare the Liqui-$PREP^{TM}$, a new manual liquid-based method of cytology, and the conventional smears for analyzing breast FNA cytology materials. A total of 31 randomized FNA specimens of breast were studied. In each case, both the conventional smears and the Liqui-$PREP^{TM}$ method were performed, and the smears were evaluated for cellularity, cellular preservation, the background, the cytologic features and the architectural arrangement. The cellularity and architectural arrangement were equal for both preparations. The Liqui-$PREP^{TM}$ specimens showed better cellular preservation, loss of the obscuring background, no overlapping of cells and a smaller area to screen compared with the conventional smears. Moreover, it has the potential advantages of being able to use the remaining specimens for immunohistochemical study and ploidy analysis, and it can reduce the costs for preparation compared with the other liquid-based methods of cytology. But some background information is lost in the Liqui-$PREP^{TM}$ specimens, the same as the other liquid-based methods of cytology. In conclusion, the Liqui-$PREP^{TM}$ and conventional smears showed good correlation, but they have their respective advantages and disadvantages. These results suggest that Liqui-$PREP^{TM}$ can contribute to making the accurate diagnosis with performing breast FNA cytology when it is used along with other methods.

Evaluation of the Manual Method of Liquid-Based Uterine Cervicovaginal Cytology - By The Manual Method Based on $SurePath^{TM}$ Methodology (자궁경부 액상세포검사의 수기 검사법에 대한 고찰 - $SurePath^{TM}$ 검사법을 준용한 수기 검사법으로 -)

  • Park, Jong-Myoung;Jang, Jin-Wook;Lim, So-Yeo;Suh, In-Soo;Lee, Jong-Gi
    • The Korean Journal of Cytopathology
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.86-91
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    • 2004
  • Liquid-Based Uterine Cervicovaginal Cytology is known to be a sensitive and effective screening method for cervical neoplasm $MonoPrep^{TM},\;ThinPrep^{TM},\;and\;SurePath^{TM}$ methods have been recently used as Liquid-Based Uterine Cervicovaginal Cytology techniques, and the $SurePath^{TM}$ method has been used in Sung-Yoon Reference Laboratory since 2003. The goal of Liquid-Based Uterine Cervicovaginal Cytology is to separate cervical epithelial cells from non-target cells, red blood cells and neutrophils. This report describes a study which evaluated cellularity, stainablilty, and cellular changes of epithelial cels in samples processed using a manual technique as compared to samples processed using $SurePath^{TM}$ automated method. The samples processed by means of a manual technique contained a cellularity of epithelial cells similar to that of the samples processed using the $SurePath^{TM}$ automated method. In addition, we compared variable density gradient reagents, including dextran, dextrose, and sucrose, to $SurePath^{TM}$ gradient media in order to evaluate cell fractionation and cellularity of epithelial cells. 10% dextran of gradient media shows good fractionation. The samples processed with 10% dextran demonstrated sufficient cellularity of epithelial cells and shows the fewest cellular changes. In conclusion, using a manual technique on these samples is easier to read than those results obtained using the $SurePath^{TM}$ automated method.

Clinicopathologic Importance of Women with Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cytology on Siriraj Liquid-Based Cervical Cytology

  • Ruengkhachorn, Irene;Laiwejpithaya, Somsak;Leelaphatanadit, Chairat;Chaopotong, Pattama
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4567-4570
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence and predictive value to detect significant neoplasia and invasive lesions, and to evaluate the correlation between clinical and histopathology of women with squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) on Siriraj liquid-based cervical cytology (Siriraj-LBC). Methods: The computerized database of women who underwent Siriraj-LBC at Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University from January 2007 to December 2010 were retrieved. The hospital records of women with SCCA cytology were reviewed. Results: The prevalence of SCCA cytology was 0.07%. A total of 86 women, mean age was 58.1 years. Sixty-one women (70.9%) were post-menopausal. Overall significant pathology and invasive gynecologic cancer were detected in 84 women (97.7%) and 71 women (82.5%), respectively. The positive predictive values for detection of significant neoplasia and invasive lesion were 97.7% and 82.6%, respectively. The cervical cancer was diagnosed in 69 women and among these 58 women were SCCA. Thirteen women (15.1%) had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3 and two women (2.3%) had cervicitis. The sensitivity and specificity of colposcopy for cervical cancer detection in SCCA cytology were 83.3% and 75%, respectively. Median follow up period was 17.6 months and 64 patients were alive without cytologic abnormality. Conclusions: The final histopathology of SCCA cytology in our populations demonstrated a wide variety, from cervicitis to invasive cancer and the most common diagnosis was invasive cervical cancer. Colposcopy with biopsy and/or endocervical curettage and loop electrosurgical excision procedure should be undertaken to achieve histologic diagnosis.

Comparison of Unsatisfactory Rates and Detection of Abnormal Cervical Cytology Between Conventional Papanicolaou Smear and Liquid-Based Cytology (Sure Path®)

  • Kituncharoen, Saroot;Tantbirojn, Patou;Niruthisard, Somchai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8491-8494
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: To compare unsatisfactory rates and detection of abnormal cervical cytology between conventional cytology or Papanicolaou smear (CC) and liquid-based cytology (LBC). Materials and Methods: A total of 23,030 cases of cervical cytology performed at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital during 2012-2013 were reviewed. The percentage unsatisfactory and detection rates of abnormal cytology were compared between CC and LBC methods. Results: There was no difference in unsatisfactory rates between CC and LBC methods (0.1% vs. 0.1%, p = 0.84). The detection rate for squamous cell abnormalities was significantly higher with the LBC method (7.7% vs. 11.5%, p < 0.001), but those for overall abnormal glandular epithelium were similar (0.4% vs. 0.6%, p = 0.13). Low grade squamous lesion (ASC-US and LSIL) were more frequently detected by the LBC method (6.1% vs. 9.5%, p < 0.001). However, there was no difference in high gradd squamous lesions (1.1% vs. 1.1%, p = 0.95). When comparing between types of glandular abnormality, there was no significant difference the groups. Conclusions: There was no difference in unsatisfactory rates between the conventional smear and LBC. However, LBC could detect low grade squamous cell abnormalities more than CC, while there were similar rates of detection of high grade squamous cell lesions and glandular cell abnormalities.

Manual Liquid Based Cytology for Pap Smear Preparation and HPV Detection by PCR in Pakistan

  • Akbar, Shehla;Pervez, Shgufta Nasir;Shah, Walayat
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.579-583
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted on female patients with different gynecological problems attending the gynecology out-patient departments of two tertiary care hospitals in Peshawar city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan between August 2012 and October 2013. The 200 patients had an age range of 21-65 years. Smears were taken with cervical brushes and preserved in preservative medium and processed for manual liquid based cytology (MLBC) for Pap staining. Out of 200 collected samples, 30 samples were found inadequate on cytology. Of the remaining 170 samples, 164 (96.47%) were normal, 5 (2.94%) were of atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS) and 1 (0.6%) was of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). On PCR all the samples were positive for beta globin gene fragment including those reported inadequate on cytology. Out of the 5 ASCUS samples, 2 samples were positive for HPV, one each for HPV 16 and HPV 18, and the rest of the 3 samples were negative for HPV DNA. The 1 sample of HSIL was positive for HPV 16 on PCR. Out of 164 normal samples on cytology, only 1 sample was HPV 16 positive. So overall, 4 (2%) out of 200 samples were positive for HPV DNA, where 3 were HPV 16 (1.5%), and 1 was HPV 18 (0.5%) positive, and thus the ratio of infection with of HPV 16 to HPV 18 was 3:1 in the general population. In conclusion, PCR based HPV detection is a more sensitive method for screening of HPV infection than cytology as sample inadequacy does not affect the results. However, it can be combined with cytology methods in a HPV positive female to achieve the maximum results.