• Title, Summary, Keyword: lipolysis

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Effects of Agitation and Temperature Activation on Lipolysis in Goat Milk (산양유의 지방분해에 미치는 온도활성화 및 교반의 영향)

  • 김거유;이승범
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.107-113
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    • 2000
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of temperature activation and agitation on lipolysis of goat milk. When goat milk was temperature activated twice at intervals of 12hours, free fatty acids were significantly increased after the first activation, but increased slightly during the re-cooling period and after the second activation. Lipolysis of the goat milk warmed at $30^{\circ}C$ was significantly facilitated during the re-cooling period. Lipolysis of the goat milk warmed at $30^{\circ}C$ was much higher than those warmed at $10^{\circ}C$ and $40^{\circ}C$ respectively. The highest lipolysis was occurred when the goat milk was warmed at $30^{\circ}C$ for 5 minutes after pre-cooling for 24 hours at $40^{\circ}C$. However, any significant difference was not found in the milk warmed at $40^{\circ}C$, regardless of the pre-cooling period. Lipolysis of the goat milk warmed and agitated at $30^{\circ}C$ was significantly facilitated during the re-cooling period. The lipolysis of that at $30^{\circ}C$ was significantly facilitated during the re-cooling period. The lipolysis of that at $30^{\circ}C$ was much enhanced with agitation. The lipolysis was much higher when agitated at $30^{\circ}C$ than when agitated at $10^{\circ}C$. The length of agitation time at $30^{\circ}C$ didn't give any effect on lipolysis.

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A Comparison of Wavelength Dependence for Laser-assisted Lipolysis Effect Using Monte Carlo Simulation

  • Youn, Jong-In
    • Journal of the Optical Society of Korea
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.267-271
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    • 2009
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate wavelength dependence for laser-assisted lipolysis using a mathematical simulation. In this study, a Monte Carlo simulation was performed to simulate light transport in fat and dermal tissue with 3 different laser wavelengths (${\lambda}\;=\;1064\;nm$, 1320 nm, and 1444 nm) that are currently used in clinic settings for laser-assisted lipolysis. The relative rates of heat generation versus penetration depth showed that the greatest amount of heat generation was seen in the tissues at ${\lambda}\;=\;1444\;nm$. This Monte Carlo simulation may help lend insight into the thermal events occurring inside the fat and dermal tissue during laser-assisted lipolysis.

Channel Function of TRPML1 Prompts Lipolysis in Mature Adipocytes

  • Kim, Mi Seong;Kim, Min Seuk
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.23-27
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    • 2018
  • Increased intracellular levels of $Ca^{2+}$ are generally thought to negatively regulate lipolysis in mature adipocytes, whereas store-operated $Ca^{2+}$ entry was recently reported to facilitate lipolysis and attenuate lipotoxicity by inducing lipophagy. Transient receptor potential mucolipin1 (TRPML1), a $Ca^{2+}$-permeable non-selective cation channel, is mainly expressed on the lysosomal membrane and plays key roles in lysosomal homeostasis and membrane trafficking. However, the roles of TRPML1 in lipolysis remains unclear. In this study, we examined whether the channel function of TRPML1 induces lipolysis in mature adipocytes. We found that treatment of mature adipocytes with ML-SA1, a specific agonist of TRPML1, solely upregulated extracellular glycerol release, but not to the same extent as isoproterenol. In addition, knockdown of TRPML1 in mature adipocytes significantly reduced autophagic flux, regardless of ML-SA1 treatment. Our findings demonstrate that the channel function of TRPML1 partially contributes to lipid metabolism and autophagic membrane trafficking, suggesting that TRPML1, particularly the channel function of TRPML1, is as therapeutic target molecule for treating obesity.

Medicarpin induces lipolysis via activation of Protein Kinase A in brown adipocytes

  • Imran, Khan Mohammad;Yoon, Dahyeon;Lee, Tae-Jin;Kim, Yong-Sik
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.51 no.5
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    • pp.249-254
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    • 2018
  • Natural pterocarpan Medicarpin (Med) has been shown to have various beneficial biological roles, including inhibition of osteoclastogenesis, stimulation of bone regeneration and induction of apoptosis. However, the effect of the Med on lipolysis in adipocytes has not been reported. Here, we show the effect of Med on lipolysis in different mouse adipocytes and elucidate the underlying mechanism. We observed that Med treatment promoted release of glycerol in the media. Differentiated mouse brown adipose tissue cells were treated with Med. RNA-Seq analysis was performed to elucidate the effect of med and subsequently was confirmed by qRT-PCR and western blotting analyses. Med treatment increased both protein and gene expression levels of hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl) and adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl), which are two critical enzymes necessary for lipolysis. Mechanistic study showed that Med activates Protein Kinase A (PKA) and phosphorylates Hsl at PKA target position at $Serine^{660}$. Silencing of PKA gene by short interfering RNA attenuated the Med-induced increase in glycerol release and Hsl phosphorylation. The results unveil that Med boosts lipolysis via a PKA-dependent pathway in adipocytes and may provide a possible avenue of further research of Med mediated reduction of body fat.

The Effect of Crataegi Fructus Pharmacopuncture on Adipocyte Metabolism (산사약침이 지방세포 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Won, Seung-Hwan;Kwon, Ki-Rok;Rhim, Tae-Jin;Kim, Dong-Heui
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.63-73
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    • 2008
  • Objectives The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Crataegi Fructus Pharmacopuncture(CFP) on the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, lipolysis in rat epididymal adipocytes and histological changes in porcine adipose tissue. Methods Inhibiton of preadipocyte differentiation and/or stimulation of lipolysis play important roles in reducing obesity. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated with adipogenic reagents by incubating for 3days in the absence or presence of CFP ranging from 0.01 to 1mg/mL. The effect of CFP on adipogenesis was examined by measuring GPDH activity and by Oil Red O staining. Mature adipocytes from rat epididymal fat pad was incubated with CFP ranging from 0.01 to 1mg/mL for 3 hrs. The effect of CFP on lipolysis was examined by measuring free glycerol released. Fat tissue from pig skin was injected with CFP ranging from 0.1 to 10mg/mL to examine the effect of CFP on histological changes under light microscopy. Results The following results were obtained from present study on adipogenesis of preadipocytes, lipolysis of adipocytes and histological changes in fat tissue. 1. Crataegi Fructus Pharmacopuncture inhibited adipogenic differentiation at the concentration of 1.0mg/mL. 2. Crataegi Fructus Pharmacopuncture decreased the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GPDH) at the concentration of 0.1mg/mL. 3. Crataegi Fructus Pharmacopuncture ok. lipolysis at the concentration of 0.1mg/ml. 4. Crataegi Fructus Pharmacopuncture ranging 0.1 to 10mg/mL failed to exert lysis of cell membrane in porcine fat tissue. Conclusions These results suggest that Crataegi Fructus Pharmacopuncture at relatively high concentration inhibited adipogenesis and increased lipolysis of adipocytes. However, Crataegi Fructus Pharmacopuncture didn't exert any effect on lysis of cell membrane in fat tissue.

The Effect of Ephedrae Herba Pharmacopuncture on Adipocyte Metabolism (마황약침(麻黃藥鍼)이 지방세포 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong, Jong-Jin;Kim, Byoung-Woo
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.80-89
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : This study was carried out to investigate the effects of Ephedrae Herba pharmacopuncture (EHP) on the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, lipolysis in rat epididymal adipocytes and histological changes in porcine adipose tissue. Methods : Inhibition of preadipocyte differentiation and/or stimulation of lipolysis play important roles in reducing obesity. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated with adipogenic reagents by incubating for 3 days in the absence or presence of EHP ranging from 0.01 to 1.0 $mg/m{\ell}$. The effect of EHP on adipogenesis was examined by measuring glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity and by oil red O staining. Mature adipocytes from rat epididymal fat pad were incubated with EHP ranging from 0.01 to 1.0 $mg/m{\ell}$ for 3 days. The effect of EHP on lipolysis was examined by measuring free glycerol released. Fat tissue from porcine skin was injected with EHP ranging from 0.1 to 10.0 $mg/m{\ell}$ to examine the effect of EHP on histological changes under light microscopy. Results : The following results were obtained from present study on adipogenesis of preadipocytes, lipolysis of adipocytes and histological changes in fat tissue. Proliferation of preadipocytes was significantly inhibited by EHP at the concentration of 1.0 $mg/m{\ell}$. Lipolysis of adipocytes was increased by EHP at the concentration of 0.1, 1.0 $mg/m{\ell}$. Porcine fat tissues were widely injured by EHP at the concentration of 10.0 $mg/m{\ell}$. Conclusions : From the above results, EHP efficiently induces inhibition of preadipocytes proliferation, lipolysis of adipocytes and histologic injury in fat tissues. Therefore, EHP may be useful to treat localized obesity.

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Ex vivo Digestion of Milk from Red Chittagong Cattle Focusing Proteolysis and Lipolysis

  • Islam, Mohammad Ashiqul;Ekeberg, Dag;Rukke, Elling-Olav;Vegarud, Gerd Elisabeth
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.559-567
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    • 2015
  • Ex vivo digestion of proteins and fat in Red Chittagong Cattle milk from Bangladesh was carried out using human gastrointestinal enzymes. This was done to investigate the protein digestion in this bovine breed's milk with an especial focus on the degradation of the allergenic milk proteins; ${\alpha}_{s1}$-casein and ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin and also to record the generation of peptides. Lipolysis of the milk fat and release of fatty acids were also under consideration. After 40 min of gastric digestion, all the ${\alpha}_s$-caseins were digested completely while ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin remained intact. During 120 min of duodenal digestion ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin was reduced, however, still some intact ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin was observed. The highest number of peptides was identified from ${\beta}$-casein and almost all the peptides from ${\kappa}$-casein and ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin were identified from the gastric and duodenal samples, respectively. No lipolysis was observed in the gastric phase of digestion. After 120 min of duodenal digestion, milk fat showed 48% lipolysis. Medium (C10:0 to C16:0) and long (${\geq}C17:0$) chain fatty acids showed 6% to 19% less lipolysis than the short (C6:0 to C8:0) chain fatty acids. Among the unsaturated fatty acids $C18:1{\sum}others$ showed highest lipolysis (81%) which was more than three times of $C18:2{\sum}all$ and all other unsaturated fatty acids showed lipolysis ranging from 32% to 38%. The overall digestion of Bangladeshi Red Cattle milk was more or less similar to the digestion of Nordic bovine milk (Norwegian Red Cattle).

Effect of Acid Hydrolyzates of Ginseng Saponins on Lipid Metabolism in Rat Epi didymal Adipose Tissue (인삼Saponin의 산가수분해물이 Epididymal Adipose Tissue의 지방대식에 미치는 영향)

  • Do, Jae-Ho;Kim, Sang-Dal
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.123-130
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    • 1982
  • Studies were carried out to clarify the effect of ginsenoside-Rbl -Rbr and acid hydrolyzatps of ginsenoside-Rbl, -Rb2 (HRbl, HRbf) on lipolysis and lipogenesis induced by epinephrine, glucagon, ACTH (adrenocorticotrophic hormone), TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) and insulin in rat adipose tissilr. HRbl , HRb2 slightly inhibited lipolysis induced by epinephine. glucagon and TSH. ACTH-induced lipolysis in fat tissue slices was significantly inhibited by ginsenoside -Rbl, -Rb2, HRbl and HRb2, particulary HRb2. None of ginsenoside-Rbl, -Rb2, HRbl and HRb2 accelerated insulin-stimulated lipogenesis in fat calls. Among ginseng products, extract powder (freeze dried), extract powder (spray dried), red ginseng powder inhibited ACTH-induced lipolysis in adipose tissue slices, but red ginseng extract not affect them.

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Literature Review Study of Lipolysis Effect of Moxibustion Treatment (뜸의 지방 분해 효과에 관한 문헌적 고찰 연구)

  • Jo, Seok-In;Song, In;Hong, Kwon-Eui
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.119-126
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : This literature review was researched to observe the evidence of effect of moxibustion in adipose tissue decomposition. Methods : We reviewed studies which contained lipolysis effect of moxibustion treatment in Pubmed. Results : Moxibuston improves blood flow in adipose tissue and stimulates metabolism in the course of lipolysis. Many studies reported that moxibustion stimulated reptin, insulin, testosterone, 5-HT and thromboxane. Especially, moxibustion triggers the HPA axis system, which has an effect on lipometabolism. Based on such effects, moxibustion is considered to have an effect on adipose tissue decomposition. Conclusions : Although moxibution is considered to be effective in adipose tissue decomposition, futher study is needed.

Effects of Different Fatty Acids and Levels on the Lipogenesis Capacity and Lipolysis Rate of Broilers In Vitro

  • Lien, T.F.;Wu, C.P.;Chen, K.L.;Yang, K.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.1285-1289
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    • 2000
  • This study investigated the lipogenesis capacity of hepatocytes and lipolysis rate of adipocytes of broilers as affected by different fatty acids (trial one) and different linoleic acid (C18:2) levels (trial two). Twenty 6-wk old broilers were used; their hepatocytes and adipocytes were isolated for the in vitro study. In trial one, four treatments were tested. The control group in which no fatty acid was added, and the test groups to which were added $300{\mu}M$ of C16:0, C18:1 and C18:2, respectively. For trial two, different levels (0, $300{\mu}M$ and 1 mM) of C18:2 combined to fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin (BSA) were added to the medium. According to results of trial one, added fatty acids significantly reduced the incorporation by hepatocytes of [U,$^{14}C$]glucose into total lipid (p<0.05); the lipogenesis capacity in C18:2 group was the lowest. Although a similar pattern was found with [l,$^{14}C$]acetate, the groups only slightly differed in terms of lipogenesis capacity (p=0.11). In addition, the C18:2 group had a significantly (p<0.05) greater lipolysis rate than the C16:0 and control groups. Results of trial two indicated that C18:2 significantly (p<0.05) reduced lipogenesis capacity both for [U,$^{14}C$]glucose and [l,$^{14}C$]acetate, and markedly stimulated the lipolysis rate (p<0.05), displaying a dose response. Results presented herein demonstrate that C18:2 can reduce lipogenesis capacity and stimulate the lipolysis rate in broilers.