• Title, Summary, Keyword: lipogenesis

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Glucose and Insulin Stimulate Lipogenesis in Porcine Adipocytes: Dissimilar and Identical Regulation Pathway for Key Transcription Factors

  • Zhang, Guo Hua;Lu, Jian Xiong;Chen, Yan;Dai, Hong Wei;ZhaXi, YingPai;Zhao, Yong Qing;Qiao, Zi Lin;Feng, Ruo Fei;Wang, Ya Ling;Ma, Zhong Ren
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.39 no.11
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    • pp.797-806
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    • 2016
  • Lipogenesis is under the concerted action of ChREBP, SREBP-1c and other transcription factors in response to glucose and insulin. The isolated porcine preadipocytes were differentiated into mature adipocytes to investigate the roles and interrelation of these transcription factors in the context of glucose- and insulin-induced lipogenesis in pigs. In ChREBP-silenced adipocytes, glucose-induced lipogenesis decreased by ~70%, however insulin-induced lipogenesis was unaffected. Moreover, insulin had no effect on ChREBP expression of unperturbed adipocytes irrespective of glucose concentration, suggesting ChREBP mediate glucose-induced lipogenesis. Insulin stimulated SREBP-1c expression and when SREBP-1c activation was blocked, and the insulin-induced lipogenesis decreased by ~55%, suggesting SREBP-1c is a key transcription factor mediating insulin-induced lipogenesis. $LXR{\alpha}$ activation promoted lipogenesis and lipogenic genes expression. In ChREBP-silenced or SREBP-1c activation blocked adipocytes, $LXR{\alpha}$ activation facilitated lipogenesis and SREBP-1c expression, but had no effect on ChREBP expression. Therefore, $LXR{\alpha}$ might mediate lipogenesis via SREBP-1c rather than ChREBP. When ChREBP expression was silenced and SREBP-1c activation blocked simultaneously, glucose and insulin were still able to stimulated lipogenesis and lipogenic genes expression, and $LXR{\alpha}$ activation enhanced these effects, suggesting $LXR{\alpha}$ mediated directly glucose- and insulin-induced lipogenesis. In summary, glucose and insulin stimulated lipogenesis through both dissimilar and identical regulation pathway in porcine adipocytes.

Effect of Thyroid hormone on Lipogenesis in Rat White and Brown Adipocytes Culture System

  • Kim, Yangha -Moon
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.362-367
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    • 1998
  • Thyroid hormone(T3) stimulates hepatic lipogenesis by increasing expression of genes, indluding acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase. S14 protein, which is thougth to be involved in lipid metabolism , appears to respond in parallel . Effect of T3 on lipogenesis in white and brown adipose tissue are less clear, and may be complicated by indirect effects of the hormone. We developed an adipocytes system where the indirect effects of thyroid hormone are abolished and direct effects of T3 on lipogenesis could be tested. Fat accumulation was mesured by Oil-Red O staining. Insulin clearly enhanced fat accumulation by 2-fold . Isobutylemethylxanthie(IBMX) apeared to inhibit insulin -stimulated fat accumulation. Dexamethasone increased insulin-stimulatedfat accumulation about 1.3-fold. confluent adipocytes were cultured in serum-free medium or medium containing 10% fetal calf serum or 10% fetal calf serum stripped of thyroid hormone and lipogenesis, assessed by the incorporation of 3H2O , was measured. Medium without serum or supplemented with T3-depleted serum did not amplify the stimulatory effect of T3 on lipogenesis compared to medium containing 10% fetal calf seru. Dexamethasone alone led to a decrease inlopogenesis of about 50 % in white adipocytes and 25% in brown adipocytes. However, dexamethasone amplified the lipogenic respnse to T3 by about 30% in whit eadipocytes and 60% in brown adipocytes. T3(1$\mu$M) stimulated lipogenesis and acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid syntase mRNA levels up to 2 -fold in both types of adipocytes. It seems that these adipocytes systems are as useful model to study the effects of hormones on lipogenic gene expression as well as lipogenesis.

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Effects of Different Fatty Acids and Levels on the Lipogenesis Capacity and Lipolysis Rate of Broilers In Vitro

  • Lien, T.F.;Wu, C.P.;Chen, K.L.;Yang, K.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.1285-1289
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    • 2000
  • This study investigated the lipogenesis capacity of hepatocytes and lipolysis rate of adipocytes of broilers as affected by different fatty acids (trial one) and different linoleic acid (C18:2) levels (trial two). Twenty 6-wk old broilers were used; their hepatocytes and adipocytes were isolated for the in vitro study. In trial one, four treatments were tested. The control group in which no fatty acid was added, and the test groups to which were added $300{\mu}M$ of C16:0, C18:1 and C18:2, respectively. For trial two, different levels (0, $300{\mu}M$ and 1 mM) of C18:2 combined to fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin (BSA) were added to the medium. According to results of trial one, added fatty acids significantly reduced the incorporation by hepatocytes of [U,$^{14}C$]glucose into total lipid (p<0.05); the lipogenesis capacity in C18:2 group was the lowest. Although a similar pattern was found with [l,$^{14}C$]acetate, the groups only slightly differed in terms of lipogenesis capacity (p=0.11). In addition, the C18:2 group had a significantly (p<0.05) greater lipolysis rate than the C16:0 and control groups. Results of trial two indicated that C18:2 significantly (p<0.05) reduced lipogenesis capacity both for [U,$^{14}C$]glucose and [l,$^{14}C$]acetate, and markedly stimulated the lipolysis rate (p<0.05), displaying a dose response. Results presented herein demonstrate that C18:2 can reduce lipogenesis capacity and stimulate the lipolysis rate in broilers.

Effects of Mahuang-Chuanwu(Mahwang-Cheonoh) Pharmacopuncture Solution on Adipocyte Differentiation and Gene Expression in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes (마황천오 약침액이 3T3-L1 지방세포 분화 및 유전자발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Kyung-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.168-178
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    • 2014
  • Objectives : Mahuang-Chuanwu(Mahwang-Cheonoh) Pharmacopuncture(MCP) has been used to treat obesity in Clinical Korean Medicine. MCP solution(MCPS) is also expected to have strong anti-obesity activities. However, little is known about the mechanisms of its inhibitory effects on adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis. Methods : In the present study, we examined the effects of MCPS on differentiation and lipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. To elucidate the mechanism of the effects of MCPS on lowering lipid content in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we examined whether MCPS modulates the expressions of transcription factors to induce lipogenesis and adipogenic genes related to regulate the accumulation of lipids. Results : Our results showed that MCPS significantly inhibited differentiation and lipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. MCPS suppressed the mRNA expressions of cytidine-cytidine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine(CCAAT)/enhancer binding proteins ${\alpha}$($C/EBP{\alpha}$), C/EBP ${\beta}$, $C/EBP{\delta}$, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$($PPAR{\gamma}$) genes related to the induction of adipose differentiation. MCPS inhibited the mRNA expressions of adipose-specific aP2, adipsin, lipoprotein lipase(LPL), CD36, TGF-${\beta}$, and leptin genes related to the fat formation. MCPS downregulated the mRNA expressions of liver X receptor(LXR) ${\alpha}$ and fatty acid synthase(FAS) genes related to the induction of lipogenesis. In addition, MCPS reduced the production of adipocyte-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines. Conclusions : MCPS could regulate the accumulation of lipids and expression of adipogenic genes via inhibition of transcript factors related to induction of adipose differentiation.

Supplementation Effects of $C_{18:2}$ or $C_{18:3}$ Rich-oils on Formations of CLA and TVA, and Lipogenesis in Adipose Tissues of Sheep

  • Choi, S.H.;Lim, K.W.;Lee, H.G.;Kim, Y.J.;Song, Man K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.9
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    • pp.1417-1423
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    • 2007
  • The present study was conducted to investigate the supplementation effects of $C_{18:2}$ rich-soybean oil or $C_{18:3}$ rich-perilla oil (7% of total diet, DM basis) for 12 weeks on plasma metabolites, fatty acid profile, in vitro lipogenesis, and activities of LPL and FAS in adipose tissue of sheep. The treatments were basal diet (Control), $C_{18:2}$ rich-soybean oil supplemented diet (SO-D) and $C_{18:3}$ rich-perilla oil supplemented diet (PO-D). All the sheep were fed the diets consisting of roughage to concentrate in the ratio of 40:60 (DM basis). Oil supplemented diets (SO-D and PO-D) slightly increased contents of triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC), proportions of both cis-9 trans-11 and trans-10 cis-12 CLA and TVA, but lowered (p<0.01) those of $C_{18:0}$ compared to the control diet. No differences were observed in the contents of TG and TC and proportions of fatty acids in plasma between supplemented oils. Oil supplemented diets slightly increased the proportions of cis-9 trans-11 and trans-10 cis-12 types of CLA in subcutaneous adipose tissue of sheep compared to the control diet. The rate of lipogenesis with acetate was higher (p<0.01) for intermuscular- and subcutaneous adipose tissues than that for intramuscular adipose tissue, while that with glucose did not differ among fat locations in sheep fed SO-D. No differences were observed in the rate of lipogenesis between substrates in all fat locations. The rates of lipogenesis with glucose increased only in the intermuscular- (p<0.01) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (p<0.005) compared to those with acetate. The rates of lipogenesis with acetate were the highest in the intermuscular and intramuscular adipose tissue of the sheep fed PO-D. Oil supplemented diets slightly increased the rate of lipogenesis with glucose for all fat locations. Supplementation of oils to the diet numerically increased the fatty acid synthase activity but did not affect the lipoprotein lipase activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

Extracts of Korean Medicinal Plant Extracts Alter Lipogenesis of Pig Adipose Tissue and Differentiation of Pig Preadipocytes In vitro (한국 약용식물 추출물이 In vitro 돼지 지방조직의 지방합성과 지방전구세포의 분화에 영향을 미친다)

  • Choi, Young-Suk;Choi, Kang-Duk;Kim, Sung-Do;Phillip, Owens;Chung, Chung-Soo
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.383-388
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    • 2010
  • Identification of natural compounds that can prevent the development of obesity in vivo is time consuming and expensive. We have used in vitro systems derived from pig adipose tissue to screen simple aqueous or ethanolic extracts of Korean medicinal herbs (KMH) for their anti-adipogenic potential. A total of 183 extracts were tested for their actions in lipogenesis of pig adipose tissue and differentiation of pig preadipocytes. Ethanol extracts were prepared from 72 and aqueous extracts were prepared from 111 medicinal herbs. Both an ethanolic and an aqueous extract were prepared from 65 of these. Thirteen extracts substantially altered rates of lipogenesis in vitro. The effects of KMH on lipogenesis of pig adipose tissue are as follows. Elevens reduced lipogenesis to rates that were more than 40% lower than control and four of these reduced rates of lipogenesis by more than 70%. The most potent anti-lipogenic extracts were those obtained in ethanol from Iridaceae and from Sophora flavescens AIT as well as both the aqueous and ethanolic extracts from Lysimachia vulgaris L. Two extracts, those prepared in water from Caesalpiniae lignum and from Phellodendri cortex, were found to promote rates of lipogenesis in vitro. The effects of KMH on differentiation of pig preadoipocytes are as follows. Twentyeight extracts altered the rates of differentiation of cultured porcine preadipocytes. Sixteen increased and twelve reduced the rates of differentiation of preadipocytes. Extracts prepared in ethanol from Moutan radicis cortex and from Ostericum koreanum and those prepared in water from Angelicae gigantis radix, from Inula henenium L and from Magnolia flos doubled the rate of differentiation of cultured porcine preadipocytes. Ten extracts reduced the in vitro rate of differentiation of porcine preadipocytes by more than 35%. These were the ethanolic extracts from Glycyrrizae radix, Nepetae spica and from Polygala myrtifolia and the aqueous extracts from Amaranthaceae, Asparagus cochinchinesis, Atractylodis rhizoma alba, Citrus junos TANAKA, Cyperus rotundus, Epimedium grandiflorum and from Moutan radicis cortex. Only the ethanolic extract from Polygala myrtifolia was able to both reduce lipogenesis in adipose tissue slices and retard differentiation of cultured preadipocytes. The results of our study will provide meaningful information to identify medicinal herbs which would reduce fat deposition in livestocks and humans.

Studies on Selective Modulators and Antianorexigenic Agents in Korean Red Ginseng (고려홍삼에 함유된 선택조절제 및 항식욕감퇴 인자에 관한 연구)

  • Takaku Takeshi;Kameda Kenji;Matsuura Yukinaga;Sekiya Keizo;Okai Hideo;Okuda Hiromichi
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.28-32
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    • 1988
  • Recently, we isolated a toxic substance named 'toxohormone-L' from ascites fluid of patients with various malignant tumors. The toxohormone-L stimulated lipolysis in rat adipocytes and induced anorexia in rats. Both the lipolytic and the anorexigenic actions of toxohormone-L were found to be inhibited by ginsenoside $Rb_2$ in Korean red ginseng. Isolated rat adipocytes are well known to possess opposite pathways of lipid metabolism: lipolysis and lipogenesis. Both of the metabolism respond to various biologically active substances such as epinephrine, ACTH and insulin. Epinephrine and ACTH stimulate lipolysis and insulin accelerates lipogenesis. Recently. Korean red ginseng powder was found to contain adenosine and an acidic substance which inhibited epinephrine-induced lipolysis and stimulated insulin-mediated lipogenesis from added glucose. The chemical structure of this acidic substance is determined to be pyro-glutamic acid (Pyro-Glu), Pyro-Glu exhibits selective modulations toward the opposite metabolic pathways in rat adipocyte; It inhibits the lipolysis but stimulates the lipogenesis. We call these substances (adenosine, Pyro-Glu) 'selective modulators' or 'insulin-like substances'. Based on these results, physiological significances of these substances in Korean red ginseng were discussed.

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t10,c12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Upregulates Hepatic De Novo Lipogenesis and Triglyceride Synthesis via mTOR Pathway Activation

  • Go, Gwang-Woong;Oh, Sangnam;Park, Miri;Gang, Gyoungok;McLean, Danielle;Yang, Han-Sul;Song, Min-Ho;Kim, Younghoon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.23 no.11
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    • pp.1569-1576
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    • 2013
  • In mice, supplementation of t10,c12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) increases liver mass and hepatic steatosis via increasing uptake of fatty acids released from adipose tissues. However, the effects of t10,c12 CLA on hepatic lipid synthesis and the associated mechanisms are largely unknown. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that gut microbiota-producing t10,c12 CLA would induce de novo lipogenesis and triglyceride (TG) synthesis in HepG2 cells, promoting lipid accumulation. It was found that treatment with t10,c12 CLA ($100{\mu}M$) for 72 h increased neutral lipid accumulation via enhanced incorporation of acetate, palmitate, oleate, and 2-deoxyglucose into TG. Furthermore, treatment with t10,c12 CLA led to increased mRNA expression and protein levels of lipogenic genes including SREBP1, ACC1, FASN, ELOVL6, GPAT1, and DGAT1, presenting potential mechanisms by which CLA may increase lipid deposition. Most strikingly, t10,c12 CLA treatment for 3 h increased phosphorylation of mTOR, S6K, and S6. Taken together, gut microbiota-producing t10,c12 CLA activates hepatic de novo lipogenesis and TG synthesis through activation of the mTOR/SREBP1 pathway, with consequent lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells.

Vitamin C Inhibits Visceral Adipocyte Hypertrophy and Lowers Blood Glucose Levels in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6J Mice

  • Park, Younghyun;Jang, Joonseong;Lee, Dongju;Yoon, Michung
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.311-318
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    • 2018
  • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) supplementation has been suggested to negatively correlate with obesity in humans and other animals. Previous studies, including ours, have demonstrated that a high-fat diet (HFD) induces obesity and related diseases such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin C on visceral adipocyte hypertrophy and glucose intolerance in C57BL/6J mice. Mice received a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% kcal fat), HFD (45% kcal fat), or the same HFD supplemented with vitamin C (HFD-VC, 1% w/w) for 15 weeks. Visceral adiposity and glucose intolerance were examined using metabolic measurements, histology, and gene expression analyses. Mice in the HFD-VC supplementation group had reduced body weight, mesenteric fat mass, and mesenteric adipocyte size compared with HFD-fed mice. Vitamin C intake in obese mice also decreased the mRNA levels of lipogenesis-related genes (i.e., stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c) in mesenteric adipose tissues, inhibited hyperglycemia, and improved glucose tolerance. In addition, vitamin C attenuated the HFD-induced increase in the size of pancreatic islets. These results suggest that vitamin C suppresses HFD-induced visceral adipocyte hypertrophy and glucose intolerance in part by decreasing the visceral adipose expression of genes involved in lipogenesis.

Biological Activities of Non-saponin Compounds Isolated from Korean Red Ginseng

  • Okuda, Hiromichi;Lee, Sung-Dong;Matsuura, Yukinaga;Zheng, Yinan;Sekiya, Keizo;Takeshi, Takaku;Kameda, Kenji;Hirose, Kumi;Ohtani, Kazuhiro;Tanaka, Osamu;Sakata, Toshiie
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.15-19
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    • 1990
  • We have been isolating various physiologically active substances from non-saponin fraction of Korean Red Ginseng These are adenosine, gyro-glutamic acid, dencichine and acidic polysaccharide. Adenosine and gyro-glutamic acid are loom to inhibit epinephrine-induced lipolysis in fat cells and stimulate the insulin-mediated lipogenesis. In addition to these actions, adenosine was found to inhibit both norepinephrine- and histamine-induced aorta constriction, and pyre·glutamic acid inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme. Dencichine stimulated histamine-induced aorta constriction. Finally, acidic polysaccharide was found to inhibit both lipolytic and anorexigenic actions of Toxohormone-L. Based on these experimental results, I presented a brief review on these compounds isolated from non- saponin fraction of Korea Red Ginseng. Keywords Panax ginseng, Korean red ginseng, adenosine, pyroglutamic acid, dencichine, acidic polysac- charide, lipolysis, lipogenesis, angiotensin-converting enzyme, toxohormone-L.

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