• Title, Summary, Keyword: lipid accumulation

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Protective Effect of Functional Perilla frutescens Hot-water Extract Against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-Induced Liver Oxidative Damage in Rats (랫드에서의 t-BHP 유발 산화스트레스에 대한 기능성 들깻잎 열수 추출물의 간 보호 효과)

  • Yang, Sung-Yong;Kang, Jeong-Han;Lee, Kwang-Won
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.146-151
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    • 2013
  • Perilla frutescens usually dieted in East Asian country such as Korea and Japan. Antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities of perilla leaves have been founded. In previous study, we confirmed that caffeic acid, major compound of perilla, was accumulation by sucrose aqueous solution and thus antioxidant effect of perilla was enhanced. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of functional perilla leaves extract (PLE) against tert-butyl hydroperoxide(t-BHP) induced-oxidative hepatotoxicity. The pretreatment with PLE (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w.) for 5 days before a single dose of t-BHP (i.p.; 0.5 mmol/kg) significantly lowered the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase dose-dependently. And we confirmed that the indicators of oxidative stress were remarkably reduced in the liver, such as the glutathione contents and malondialdehyde, marker of lipid peroxidation. Pathological histology of the rat livers tissues showed that PLE reduced the hepatocyte degeneration and neutrophilic infiltration of liver induced by t-BHP. These results suggest that functional perilla frutescens has the protective effect of liver against t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatic stress in rats.

Pro-apoptotic and Anti-adipogenic Effects of Proso Millet (Panicum miliaceum) Grains on 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes (기장(Panicum miliaceum)의 마우스 3T3-L1 세포에 대한 에폽토시스 유발 및 지방세포형성 억제 효능)

  • Jun, Do Youn;Lee, Ji Young;Han, Cho Rong;Kim, Kwan-Pil;Seo, Myung Chul;Nam, Min Hee;Kim, Young Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.505-514
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    • 2014
  • To examine the anti-obese activity of miscellaneous cereal grains, 80% ethanol extracts from eight selected miscellaneous cereal grains were compared for their cytotoxic effects on 3T3-L1 murine preadipocytes. The ethanol extract of proso millet exhibited the highest cytotoxicity. Further fractionation of the ethanol extract with methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol showed that the cytotoxicity of the ethanol extract was mainly partitioned into the butanol fraction. As compared with differentiated mature adipocytes, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were more susceptible to the cyctotoxicity of the butanol fraction. When each organic solvent fraction (25 ${\mu}g/ml$) was added during the differentiation period for 6 days, the cell viability was not affected significantly except for the butanol fraction, but the intracellular lipid accumulation declined to a level of 81.5%~50.3% of the control. The Oil Red O staining data also demonstrated that the ethanol extract as well as the butanol fraction could inhibit the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into mature adipocytes. The presence of the butanol extract during the induced adipocytic differentiation also resulted in a significant reduction in the expression levels of critical adipogenesis mediators $(C/EBP{\alpha}$, $PPAR{\gamma}$, aP2, and LPL) to a barely detectable or undetectable level and the cells retained the fibroblast-like morphology of 3T3-L1. In 3T3-L1 cells, the cytotoxicity of the butanol fraction (50-100 ${\mu}g/ml$) was accompanied by mitochondrial membrane potential (${\Delta}{\psi}m$) loss, caspase-3 activation, and PARP degradation. Taken together, these results indicate that proso millet grains possess pro-apoptotic and anti-adipocytic activities toward adipocytes, which can be applicable to prevention of obesity.

Suppressive Effect of Acorn (Quercus acutissima Carr.) Extracts in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes (도토리 추출물의 3T3-L1 세포 분화억제 효과)

  • Kim, Ji-Yeon;Lee, Jin;Lee, Chang-Won;Kim, Ae-Jung
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.650-657
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    • 2015
  • This study aimed to investigate the suppressive effect of acorn extracts, by evaluating 70% ethanol extract (AE) and hot water extract (AW) using 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. We applied various levels (0, 100, 200, 300 and $500 {\mu}g/mL$) of AE and AW to 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The cell viability of the 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was not affected by up $300 {\mu}g/mL$ of extracts, but was suppressed by level $500{\mu}g/mL$ of both AE and AW by 20% and 9% respectively. The accumulation of lipid droplets in differentiated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was dose-dependently suppressed by AE and AW. Especially, at high concentrations ($300{\mu}g/mL$), AE (42%) was more effective than AW (41%). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also dose-dependently suppressed by treatment with AE (58%) and AW (52%). With regard to the mRNA related to differentiated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, $PPAR-{\gamma}$ and aP2 were suppressed by treatment with AE (54 and 40%) and AW (38 and 18%). From our results, acorn extract (AE) has more suppressive effects than AW in differentiated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. We therefore concluded that acorn has suppressive effects against obesity in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells due to antioxidation.

Biological Activities and Physiochemical Properties of Gangwon-do Endemic Makjang Products (강원도 시판 막장제품의 이화학적 품질특성 및 생리활성 조사)

  • Kim, Byoung-Mok;Jung, Jee-Hee;Lim, Ji-Hoon;Jung, Min-Jeong;Jeong, Jae-Whung;Choi, Yong-Suck;Sim, Jea-Man;Jeong, In-Hak;Kim, Young-Myoung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.862-873
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    • 2015
  • In this study, we investigated the physiochemical properties and biological activities of Gangwon-do endemic Makjang (MJ) products (12 types). The pH levels of all samples were in the range of 4.43 to 5.69, and MJ5 showed the highest pH (5.69). The salinities of all samples ranged from 11.1% to 16.9%. Hunter color values for L (lightness), a (redness), and b (yellowness) ranged from 26.2 to 36.9, 3.9 to 11.5, and 6.5 to 16.6, respectively. The amino nitrogen content of MJ2 was highest, whereas the total content of free amino acids of MJ11 (4,657.7 mg%) was highest. Total fatty acid contents of all samples ranged from 1,598.6 mg% to 2,874.4 mg%, with MJ10 showing the highest fatty acid content. The content of total polyphenolic compounds ranged from 401.48 to $746.67{\mu}g$ tannic acid equivalent/mL, with MJ11 showing the highest content. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging effects of MJ11, MJ8, and MJ4 were 51.30% and 82.5%, 41.29% and 67.0%, and 49.88% and 87.7%, respectively. MJ12 showed the strongest growth inhibitory effect on lung cancer A549 cells, whereas MJ5 showed the strongest growth inhibitory effect on AGS gastric cancer cell and MCF-7 breast cancer cell. MJ7 showed greater lipid accumulation inhibitory activity in HepG2 cells than the others. ACE inhibitory activity of MJ11 was the highest among the samples.

Physiological Activities of Ginkgo biloba Sarcotesta Extract with Heat Treatment (열처리에 따른 은행 외종피 추출물의 생리활성)

  • Kim, Sung Tae;Lee, Ji Hyun;Lee, Sang Hoon;Jang, Gwi Yeong;Li, Meishan;Kim, Min Young;Yoon, Nara;Lee, Junsoo;Jeong, Heon Sang
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.369-375
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    • 2015
  • This study was performed to investigate the physiological activities of Ginkgo biloba sarcotesta extracts before and after heat treatment. G. biloba sarcotesta was heated at $130^{\circ}C$ for 2 h and extracted with water, 70% ethanol and 80% methanol. ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities increased after heating in the water (14.95 mg AAE/g and 7.36 mg TE/g) and ethanol extracts (12.20 mg AAE/g and 6.23 mg TE/g). ${\alpha}$-Glucosidase inhibitory activity decreased after heating in all but the water extract. Angiotensin converting enzyme I inhibitory activities decreased after heating in all extracts. Nitric oxide production inhibitory activity increased from 12.40~44.55% of the raw sample to 40.76~72.39% of the heated sample at a concentration of $200{\mu}g/mL$. Lipid accumulation inhibitory activities were similar before and after heat treatment. The highest antiproliferative effects on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines were observed in 80% methanol extract in the heated sample. Cell viability at concentrations of 25, 50, 100, and $200{\mu}g/mL$ measured 34.88, 17.58, 8.44 and 10.48%, respectively. From the results, the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of G. biloba sarcotesta extracts increased with heat treatment, and research on the identification of the structure for the active compounds are needed in further studies.

In vivo Study of the Renal Protective Effects of Capsosiphon fulvescens against Streptozotocin-induced Oxidative Stress (스트렙토조토신 유발 당뇨 쥐의 산화스트레스에 대한 매생이 추출물의 신장 보호 효과)

  • Nam, Mi-Hyun;Koo, Yun-Chang;Hong, Chung-Oui;Yang, Sung-Yong;Kim, Se-Wook;Jung, Hye-Lim;Lee, Hwa;Kim, Ji-Yeon;Han, Ah-Ram;Son, Won-Rak;Pyo, Min-Cheol;Lee, Kwang-Won
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.641-647
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    • 2014
  • In this study, we evaluated the effect of Capsosiphon fulvescens extract (CFE) and its active compound, pheophorbide A (PhA), on diabetic kidney failure. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg body weight (BW)). After a week, the rats were orally administered CFE (4 and 20 mg/kg BW) or PhA (0.2 mg/kg BW) once a day for 9 weeks. After scarification, renal tissue samples were collected for biochemical and histochemical analyses. Our study showed that the treatment with CFE and PhA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation level and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase (p<0.05), but it increased glutathione level and the activities of glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in the renal tissues (p<0.05). The CFE- and PhA-treated rats with DM showed improved histochemical appearance and decreased abnormal glycogen accumulation. Therefore, we suggest that PhA-containing CFE could exert renal protective effects against STZ-induced oxidative stress.

Anti-obese effects of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark through the inhibition of digestive enzymes and 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation (소화효소 저해 및 지방세포 분화 억제활성에 의한 상백피의 항비만 효능)

  • Wu, Yong-Xiang;Kim, You-Jeong;Li, Sha;Yun, Myung-Chul;Yoon, Jin-Mi;Kim, Jin-Young;Cho, Sung-Il;Son, Kun-Ho;Kim, Taewan
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.27-35
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    • 2015
  • Anti-obese effects of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark was investigated in vitro by measuring its inhibitory effect against 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and digestive enzymes such as ${\alpha}$-amylase, ${\alpha}$-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase. Ethanol extract of mulberry root bark (MRE) showed the potent inhibitory activities on ${\alpha}$-amylase, ${\alpha}$-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase with $IC_{50}$ values of $7.86{\pm}0.36$, $0.12{\pm}0.03$ and $7.93{\pm}0.11mg/mL$, respectively. Furthermore, MRE significantly suppressed cellular lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. To elucidate the mechanism of MRE, we performed qRT-PCR and Western blotting for the expression of genes related with adipogenesis and lipogenesis. Treatment of MRE markedly suppressed the protein expression of $PPAR{\gamma}$, $C/EBP{\alpha}$ and SREBP-1c, as well as FAS and ACC, which are the key transcription factors and metabolic enzymes in adipogenesis and lipogenesis. In addition, qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the anti-adipogenesis effect of MRE might be due to its inhibition at transcription levels. These results demonstrate that MRE can effectively suppress adipocyte differentiation and inhibit key enzymes related to obesity. Our findings suggest that mulberry root bark may have a potential benefit in preventing obesity.

Effects of Ethanol Extract from Leaves of Eleutherococcus senticosu on Hyperlipidemia in Rats (가시오갈피 잎 추출물이 흰쥐의 지질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Yu-Hwa;Kim, Hee-Yeon;Lim, Sang-Hyun;Kim, Kyung-Hee;Lee, Jeong-Hoon;Kim, Young-Guk;Ahn, Young-Sup
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.333-338
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    • 2012
  • The effects of ethanol extract from leaves of Eleutherococcus senticosu were evaluated on hyperlipidemic rats. Male SD rats were divided into a normal group, control (AIN-76 diet) group, Garcinia cambogia extract group, and AIN-76 diet group supplemented with ethanol extract from Eleutherococcus senticosu (EEES). The body weight of the AIN-76 group increased, whereas those of the Garcinia and EEES groups decreased. The serum total cholesterol of the AIN-76 group increased by 28.36% compared to the normal group, but decreased by only 27.15% in the Garcinia group and 25.47% in the EEES group. The serum triglyceride level of the AIN-76 group increased by 35.04% compared to the normal group, but decreased by only 26.76% in the Garcinia group and 37.54% in the EEES group. The serum HDL-cholesterol levels of the Garcinia and EEES groups increased compared to that of the AIN-76 group. The liver and epididymal adipose tissue weights of the EEES group decreased compared to those of the AIN-76 group. In measuring the concentration of triglycerides and total cholesterol level in the liver extracts, the AIN-76 group showed significant increases compared to the normal group, whereas the Garcinia and EEES groups showed a significant decrease compared to the AIN-76 group. These results indicate that the EEES group may improve lipid metabolism and reduce fat accumulation and body weight.

Anti-adipogenic Effect of Fermented Coffee with Monascus ruber Mycelium by Solid-State Culture of Green Coffee Beans (3T3-L1 지방전구세포에서 홍국균 균사체-고체발효 원두커피 추출물의 지방축적 억제효과)

  • Lim, Yongrae;Shin, Ji-Young;Kim, Hoon;Baek, Gil-Hun;Yu, Kwang-Won;Jeong, Heon-Sang;Lee, Junsoo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.624-629
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    • 2014
  • Obesity is the leading metabolic disease in industrialized countries and is closely associated with coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-adipogenic effects of two roasted coffee beans, Vietnam robusta (VR) and Ethiopia Mocha Sidamo G2 (ES), as well as fermented coffee beans with Monascus ruber (MR) mycelium on differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Treatments with 1,000 ${\mu}g/mL$ of hot water extract from coffee beans significantly reduced intracellular lipid accumulation. In addition, VR more effectively inhibited transcription factors such as $PPAR{\gamma}$, $C/EBP{\alpha}$, FAS, and aP2 compared to ES. Further, ES fermented with MR showed more effective anti-adipogenic activity than non-fermented ES. These results suggest that VR and ES inhibit adipocyte differentiation which may contribute to their anti-adipogenic properties.