• Title, Summary, Keyword: lipid accumulation

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Enhancement of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 Biomass Production and Lipid Accumulation Using Iron in Artificial Wastewater and Domestic Secondary Effluent

  • Zhao, Wen-Yu;Yu, Jun-Yi;Wu, Yin-Hu;Hong, Yu;Hu, Hong-Ying
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.131-138
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    • 2014
  • While coupling wastewater treatment with microalgal bioenergy production is very promising, new approaches are needed to enhance microalgal growth and lipid accumulation in wastewater. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of iron on the growth, nutrient removal, and lipid accumulation of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 in both artificial wastewater and domestic secondary effluents. When increasing the iron concentration from 0 to 2 mg/l in the artificial wastewater, the biomass production of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 increased from 0.17 to 0.54 g/l; the nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency increased from 15.7% and 80.6% to 97.0% and 99.2%, respectively; and the lipid content was enhanced 84.2%. The relationship between the carrying capacity/maximal population growth rate of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 and the initial iron concentration were also in accordance with the Monod model. Furthermore, when increasing the iron concentration to 2 mg/l in four different domestic secondary effluent samples, the lipid content and lipid production of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 was improved by 17.4-33.7% and 21.5-41.8%, respectively.

Dietary Niacin Supplementation Suppressed Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Rabbits

  • Liu, Lei;Li, Chunyan;Fu, Chunyan;Li, Fuchang
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.12
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    • pp.1748-1755
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    • 2016
  • An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of niacin supplementation on hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits. Rex Rabbits (90 d, n = 32) were allocated to two equal treatment groups: Fed basal diet (control) or fed basal diet with additional 200 mg/kg niacin supplementation (niacin). The results show that niacin significantly increased the levels of plasma adiponectin, hepatic apoprotein B and hepatic leptin receptors mRNA (p<0.05), but significantly decreased the hepatic fatty acid synthase activity and adiponectin receptor 2, insulin receptor and acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA levels (p<0.05). Plasma insulin had a decreasing tendency in the niacin treatment group compared with control (p = 0.067). Plasma very low density lipoproteins, leptin levels and the hepatic adiponectin receptor 1 and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 genes expression were not significantly altered with niacin addition to the diet (p>0.05). However, niacin treatment significantly inhibited the hepatocytes lipid accumulation compared with the control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, niacin treatment can decrease hepatic fatty acids synthesis, but does not alter fatty acids oxidation and triacylglycerol export. And this whole process attenuates lipid accumulation in liver. Besides, the hormones of insulin, leptin and adiponectin are associated with the regulation of niacin in hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits.

Effects of Nitrogen Sources and C/N Ratios on the Lipid-Producing Potential of Chlorella sp. HQ

  • Zhan, Jingjing;Hong, Yu;Hu, Hongying
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.7
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    • pp.1290-1302
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    • 2016
  • Microalgae are being researched for their potential as attractive biofuel feedstock, particularly for their lipid production. For maximizing biofuel production, it is necessary to explore the effects of environmental factors on algal lipid-producing potential. In this study, the effects of nitrogen (N) sources (NO2-N, NO3-N, urea-N, NH4-N, and N-deficiency) and carbon-to-nitrogen ratios (C/N= 0, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0) on algal lipid-producing potential of Chlorella sp. HQ were investigated. The results showed that for Chlorella growth and lipid accumulation potential, NO2-N was the best amongst the nitrogen sources, and NO3-N and urea-N also contributed to algal growth and lipid accumulation potential, but NH4-N and N-deficiency instead caused inhibitory effects. Moreover, the results indicated that algal lipid-producing potential was related to C/N ratios. With NO2-N treatment and carbon addition (C/N = 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0), total lipid yield was enhanced by 12.96-20.37%, but triacylglycerol (TAG) yields decreased by 25.52-94.31%. As for NO3-N treatment, carbon addition led to a 17.82-57.43%/25.86-82.67% reduction of total lipid/TAG yields. When NH4-N was used as the nitrogen source, total lipid/TAG yields were increased by 46.67-113.33%/28.99-74.76% with carbon addition. The total lipid/TAG yields of urea-N treatment varied with C/N ratios. Overall, the highest TAG yield (TAG yield: 38.75 ± 5.21 mg/l; TAG content: 44.16 ± 4.35%) was achieved under NO2-N treatment without carbon addition (C/N = 0), the condition that had merit for biofuel production.

The effect of Plantaginis asiaticae Folium on lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by extraction conditions (추출조건에 따른 차전초 추출물이 3T3-L1 세포의 지방 축적에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong, Mi-Jin;Kim, So-Young;Kim, Yoo-Jin;Lee, Eun-Tag;Choo, Sung-Tae;Kim, Han-Hyuk;Kim, Mi Ryeo
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.53-58
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    • 2018
  • Objectives : Plantaginis asiaticae Folium (PA) has been widely used in Korean medicine for treatment of liver disease, stomach troubles and inflammation. We investigated the effect of PA on lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 according to extraction conditions. Methods : The MTT assay was employed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of PA extracted by different solvents (water, 50% ethanol, and 95% ethanol) on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Oil red O staining was used to identify intracellular lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with PA at concentration ranging in 0.1, 0.2 and $0.4mg/m{\ell}$. PA was extracted by different extraction conditions such as extraction solvents, extraction time, and extraction temperature. In addition, UPLC analysis was used for determination of candidates of active ingredients in PA. Results : 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with PA extracted by different solvents (water, 50% ethanol, and 95% ethanol) and there was no cytotoxicity. Oil red O staining was employed to identify the effect of PA on lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1. In the present study, PA water extraction at $70^{\circ}C$ for 6 hours decreased greatly in lipid accumulation. The range of concentrations was 0.1, 0.2 and $0.4mg/m{\ell}$. Concentration at $0.2mg/m{\ell}$ was the most effective one among them. Candidates of active ingredients in PA were shown plantamajoside and acteoside through UPLC. Conclusions : These results suggest that the effect of PA water extraction at $70^{\circ}C$ on lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 is superior to other extraction conditions. We suppose that plantamajoside and acteoside may be candidates of active ingredients in PA.

Production of Fungal Lipid (Part IV) Effect of Cultural Conditions on the Growth and Lipid Accumulation of Mucor plumbeus (곰팡이 유지 생산에 관한 연구 (제 4 보) 배양조건이 Mucor Plumbeus의 유지 생산에 미치는 영향에 대하여)

  • 유진영;이형춘;신동화;서기봉
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.87-93
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    • 1982
  • The cultural conditions of Mucor plumbeus FRI 0007 were investigated for the maximum production of felt and lipid. It was found that the lower the pH and the higher the incubation temperature, the higher accumulation of the felt and lipid. Shake culture rendered higher lipid accumulation and lower felt accumulation than static culture. Maximum production of felt and lipid content were 47.8 g/$\ell$ and 50.73%, respectively, when the organisms were static-cultured at a temperature of 37$^{\circ}C$ and pH of 3.5 for 25 days latroscan thinchrographic analysis showed that the higher amount of triglyceride was obtained when static-cultured at a low pH. Fatty acid composition of the microbial lipid was affected by the incubation temperature, types of nitrogen source and speed of agitation: lower degree of saturation was observed as the incubation temperature decreased and the speed of agitation increased. Fatty acids of monoglyceride and diglyceride were mainly palmitic and oleic acids and those of triglycerides were mainly palmitic, oleic acids.

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Investigation of Fatty Acids Intake Status and Its Correlation with Body Fat Accumulation in College Students in Gyeongbuk Area (경북지역 일부 대학생들의 식사 중 지방산 섭취양상과 체지방 축적의 상관관계 분석)

  • Bu, So Young
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.84-93
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    • 2015
  • Relationship between lipid intake and obesity has been well-addressed but recent findings indicated that the type of lipid or composition of lipid in the diet also contributes to body fat accumulation and consequential health outcome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of nutrition intake including fatty acids, lipids and lipid soluble nutrients between the obese and lean college students and to analyze the relationship between the intake of certain fatty acids and body fat accumulation. Anthropometric elements including body weight, height, body fat and composition were measured, and dietary recall was conducted on a total of 114 college students. Data showed that total calorie intake and total lipid intake were not significantly different between the obese and lean subjects, in both male and female students. However, male obese subjects ate more amount of plant lipids and palmitic acids (C16:0) from their diet (p<0.05), while female obese subjects consumed more linoleic acids (18:2) and linolenic acids (C18:3) compared to normal subjects (p<0.01). Correlation analysis revealed that the consumption of palmitoleic acid (C16:1) and lipid soluble vitamin D were negatively (p<0.05) correlated with body fat accumulation in all subjects and these findings were supported by simple linear regression analyses for those variables. These results implicate that rather than only considering the amount of lipids, suggesting a proper type of lipids or lipid metabolites can be considered in nutrition counseling or education.

Tu-Chung Leaf Meal Supplementation Reduced an Increase in Lipid Accumulation of Chickens Stimulated by Dietary Cholesterol

  • Santoso, U.;Ohtani, S.;Tanaka, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.1758-1763
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    • 2000
  • The effect of tu-chung (Eucommia ulmoides, Oliver) leaf meal on reducing lipid accumulation in chickens fed 1% cholesterol containing diet was studied. Forty male White Leghorn chickens aged 56 days were weighed and divided into four groups of ten chickens, and fed diets with or without 1% dietary cholesterol which were supplemented with 0 and 5% tu-chung. Tu-chung supplementation to the diet without cholesterol increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase (p<0.01) but decreased 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activities (p<0.01) with no effect on fatty acid synthetase activities. However, its supplementation to the diet with cholesterol had no effect on these three enzyme activities as compared with the cholesterol containing diet without tu-chung. Tu-chung supplementation to the diet without cholesterol increased hepatic triglyceride (p<0.01), whereas its supplementation to the diet with cholesterol decreased it (p<0.01). Tu-chung supplementation to the diet with cholesterol decreased plasma cholesterol ester, free cholesterol, phospholipids (p<0.05) and triglyceride (p<0.01) as compared with the cholesterol containing diet without tu-chung. Supplementation of tu-chung to the diet without cholesterol decreased plasma free cholesterol (p<0.05). It is concluded that tu-chung leaf meal reduced an increase in lipid accumulation in chickens stimulated by 1% cholesterol feeding.

Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid on Cellular Lipid Accumulation and Transcription Factors Involving Glucose Utilization (에이코사펜타에노익산에 의한 세포 내에서의 지방 축적 억제 효과 및 포도당 대사에 관여하는 전사인자의 변화)

  • Bu, So-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.501-508
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    • 2011
  • Previous studies suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids with long carbon chains such as eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) have several health benefits. However metabolic consequences of these fatty acids themselves and their regulation of transcriptional activity involving glucose utilization are not well established. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate how EPA influx affects cellular lipid accumulation and gene expressions involving $de$ $novo$ lipogenesis in hepatocyte cultures. Compared to oleic acid treatment, EPA treatment showed remarkably decreased cellular TG conversion and accumulation, along with phospholipids at a lower extent. As expected, EPA increased mRNA expression involving fatty acid influx and lipid droplet formation, but did not affect mRNA expression involving glucose utilization. EPA increased transcriptional activity of PPAR-${\alpha}$ and glucose responsive transcription factor when transcription factor binding protein was activated. Taken together, these data suggest that EPA decreases lipid accumulation through increases of the ${\beta}$-oxidation pathway without interruption of glucose utilization.

Caffeine attenuates lipid accumulation via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in HepG2 cells

  • Quan, Hai Yan;Kim, Do Yeon;Chung, Sung Hyun
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.207-212
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    • 2013
  • The main purpose of this study is to examine the effect of caffeine on lipid accumulation in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Significant decreases in the accumulation of hepatic lipids, such as triglyceride (TG), and cholesterol were observed when HepG2 cells were treated with caffeine as indicated. Caffeine decreased the mRNA level of lipogenesis-associated genes (SREBP1c, SREBP2, FAS, SCD1, HMGR and LDLR). In contrast, mRNA level of CD36, which is responsible for lipid uptake and catabolism, was increased. Next, the effect of caffeine on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway was examined. Phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase were evidently increased when the cells were treated with caffeine as indicated for 24 h. These effects were all reversed in the presence of compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. In summary, these data indicate that caffeine effectively depleted TG and cholesterol levels by inhibition of lipogenesis and stimulation of lipolysis through modulating AMPK-SREBP signaling pathways.

Effect of Sex Steroid Hormones on Bovine Myogenic Satellite Cell Proliferation, Differentiation and Lipid Accumulation in Myotube

  • Lee, E.J.;Bajracharya, P.;Jang, E.J.;Chang, J.S.;Lee, H.J.;Hong, S.K.;Choi, I.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.649-658
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    • 2010
  • Myogenic satellite cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells that activate and differentiate into myotubes. These stem cells are multipotent as they transdifferentiate into adipocyte-like cells, nerve cells and osteocytes. The effects of steroid hormones ($E_2$ and testosterone) were studied as a further step toward understanding the mechanism of MSCs proliferation and differentiation. In this study, MSCs were grown continuously for 87 days, implying that there may be a group of MSCs that continue to proliferate rather than undergoing differentiation. Isolated MSCs were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium supplemented with adult male, female or castrated bovine serum to observe the effect of steroid hormones on MSC proliferation. Cell proliferation was the highest in cultures supplemented with male serum followed by female and castrated serum. The positive effect of male hormone on MSC proliferation was confirmed by the observation of testosterone-mediated increased proliferation of cells cultured in medium supplemented with castrated serum. Furthermore, steroid hormone treatment of MSCs increased lipid accumulation in myotubes. Oil-Red-O staining showed that 17${\beta}$-estradiol ($E_2$) treatment avidly increased lipid accumulation, followed by $E_2$+testosterone and testosterone alone. To our knowledge, this is the first report of lipid accumulation in myotubes due to steroids in the absence of an adipogenic environment, and the effect of steroid hormones on cell proliferation using different types of adult bovine serum, a natural hormonal system. In conclusion, we found that sex steroids affect MSCs proliferation and differentiation, and lipid accumulation in myotubes.