• Title, Summary, Keyword: linguistic variable

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Coordinative movement of articulators in bilabial stop /p/

  • Son, Minjung
    • Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.77-89
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    • 2018
  • Speech articulators are coordinated for the purpose of segmental constriction in terms of a task. In particular, vertical jaw movements repeatedly contribute to consonantal as well as vocalic constriction. The current study explores vertical jaw movements in conjunction with bilabial constriction in bilabial stop /p/ in the context /a/-to-/a/. Revisiting kinematic data of /p/ collected using the electromagenetic midsagittal articulometer (EMMA) method from seven (four female and three male) speakers of Seoul Korean, we examined maximum vertical jaw position, its relative timing with respect to the upper and lower lips, and lip aperture minima. The results of those dependent variables are recapitulated in terms of linguistic (different word boundaries) and paralinguistic (different speech rates) factors as follows. Firstly, maximum jaw height was lower in the across-word boundary condition (across-word < within-word), but it did not differ as a function of different speech rates (comfortable = fast). Secondly, more reduction in the lip aperture (LA) gesture occurred in fast rate, while word-boundary effects were absent. Thirdly, jaw raising was still in progress after the lips' positional extrema were achieved in the within-word condition, while the former was completed before the latter in the across-word condition. Lastly, relative temporal lags between the jaw and the lips (UL and LL) were more synchronous in fast rate, compared to comfortable rate. When these results are considered together, it is possible to posit that speakers are not tolerant of lenition to the extent that it is potentially realized as a labial approximant in either word-boundary condition while jaw height still manifested lower jaw position in the across-word boundary condition. Early termination of vertical jaw maxima before vertical lower lip maxima across-word condition may be partly responsible for the spatial reduction of jaw raising movements. This may come about as a consequence of an excessive number of factors (e.g., upper lip height (UH), lower lip height (LH), jaw angle (JA)) for the representation of a vector with two degrees of freedom (x, y) engaged in a gesture-based task (e.g., lip aperture (LA)). In the task-dynamic application toolkit, the jaw angle parameter can be assigned numerical values for greater weight in the across-word boundary condition, which in turn gives rise to lower jaw position. Speech rate-dependent spatial reduction in lip aperture may be able to be resolved by means of manipulating activation time of an active tract variable in the gestural score level.

A Study on the Effect of Alternative Leadership on the Recognition of Organizational Effectiveness of University Librarian: - Focusing on the Moderating Effect of Emotional Intelligence - (대안적 리더십이 대학도서관 사서의 조직유효성인식에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구 - 감성지능의 조절효과를 중심으로 -)

  • Cha, Hyunju
    • Journal of Korean Library and Information Science Society
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.361-382
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of shared leadership, authenticity leadership, and self - leadership on the recognition of organizational effectiveness of university librarians, which is an alternative concept of existing leadership. The purpose of this study is to examine whether leadership styles have more influence on recognition of organizational effectiveness, and whether there is a moderating effect of emotional intelligence on the relationship between leadership and organizational effectiveness. A total of 140 questionnaires were collected from 275 librarians of 55 university librarians working in the university libraries nationwide. The effect of alternative leadership, which is an independent variable, on organizational effectiveness was partially derived, and self - leadership had the greatest effect on job satisfaction, and control effect of emotional intelligence The results of this study are as follows. Although this study does not claim new concepts and facts in the field of leadership and organizational validity, it can be said that it contributes to introducing the theoretical relation to new concepts of alternative leadership which has not been relatively studied in the field of linguistic informatics.

Fuzzy Rule Generation and Building Inference Network using Neural Networks (신경망을 이용한 퍼지 규칙 생성과 추론망 구축)

  • 이상령;이현숙;오경환
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.43-54
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    • 1997
  • Knowledge acquisition is one of the most difficult problems in designing fuzzy systems. As application domains of fuzzy systems become larger and more complex, it is more difficult to find the relations among the system's input- outpiit variables. Moreover, it takes a lot of efforts to formulate expert's knowledge about complex systems' control actions by linguistic variables. Another difficulty is to define and adjust membership functions properly. Soin conventional fuzzy systems, the membership functions should be adjusted to improve the system performance. This is time-consuming process. In this paper, we suggest a new approach to design a fuzzy system. We design a fuzzy system using two neural networks, Kohonen neural network and backpropagation neural network, which generate fuzzy rules automatically and construct inference network. Since fuzzy inference is performed based on fuzzy relation in this approach, we don't need the membership functions of each variable. Therefore it is unnecessary to define and adjust membership functions and we can get fuzzy rules automatically. The design process of fuzzy system becomes simple. The proposed approach is applied to a simulated automatic car speed control system. We can be sure that this approach not only makes the design process of fuzzy systems simple but also produces appropriate inference results.

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Analysis of the Algebraic Thinking Factors and Search for the Direction of Its Learning and Teaching (대수의 사고 요소 분석 및 학습-지도 방안의 탐색)

  • Woo, Jeong-Ho;Kim, Sung-Joon
    • Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.453-475
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    • 2007
  • School algebra starts with introducing algebraic expressions which have been one of the cognitive obstacles to the students in the transfer from arithmetic to algebra. In the recent studies on the teaching school algebra, algebraic thinking is getting much more attention together with algebraic expressions. In this paper, we examined the processes of the transfer from arithmetic to algebra and ways for teaching early algebra through algebraic thinking factors. Issues about algebraic thinking have continued since 1980's. But the theoretic foundations for algebraic thinking have not been founded in the previous studies. In this paper, we analyzed the algebraic thinking in school algebra from historico-genetic, epistemological, and symbolic-linguistic points of view, and identified algebraic thinking factors, i.e. the principle of permanence of formal laws, the concept of variable, quantitative reasoning, algebraic interpretation - constructing algebraic expressions, trans formational reasoning - changing algebraic expressions, operational senses - operating algebraic expressions, substitution, etc. We also identified these algebraic thinking factors through analyzing mathematics textbooks of elementary and middle school, and showed the middle school students' low achievement relating to these factors through the algebraic thinking ability test. Based upon these analyses, we argued that the readiness for algebra learning should be made through the processes including algebraic thinking factors in the elementary school and that the transfer from arithmetic to algebra should be accomplished naturally through the pre-algebra course. And we searched for alternative ways to improve algebra curriculums, emphasizing algebraic thinking factors. In summary, we identified the problems of school algebra relating to the transfer from arithmetic to algebra with the problem of teaching algebraic thinking and analyzed the algebraic thinking factors of school algebra, and searched for alternative ways for improving the transfer from arithmetic to algebra and the teaching of early algebra.

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Impact of the Parental Beliefs, Parental Attitude and Parental Behavior of Parents on the Multiple Intelligences of Preschoolers (부모의 양육신념, 양육태도 및 양육행동이 유아의 다중지능에 미치는 영향)

  • Ha, Soon Ryun;Seo, Hyun Ah
    • Korean Journal of Childcare and Education
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.131-156
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the importance of parental beliefs, parental attitudes and parental behaviors of parents with preschool children and the relationship of the variables in an attempt to help preschoolers to gain multiple-intelligence experiences in an integrated manner in consideration of their interests, needs, strengths and weaknesses. A survey was conducted on the selected parents who had preschool children, and a multiple regression analysis was carried out to look for connections among the variables. The findings of the study were as follows: First, the preschool girls were ahead of the preschool boys in linguistic intelligence, musical intelligence and spatial intelligence, and the latter surpassed the former in logical-mathematical intelligence. Second, whether there would be any differences among the preschoolers in multiple intelligences according to age was analyzed, and those who were at the Western age of five were ahead of the four-year-olds in logical-mathematical intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence and naturalist intelligence. Third, the parental attitude of the parents was identified as the most influential variable for the multiple intelligences of the preschoolers, followed by parental behavior. Parental beliefs just had a very small impact on their multiple intelligences. The findings of the study imply that parents should be helped to improve their parental attitude and parental behavior to boost the multiple intelligences of their preschool children.