• Title/Summary/Keyword: lignin

Search Result 917, Processing Time 0.493 seconds

A Concise Review of Recent Application Progress and Future Prospects for Lignin as Biomass Utilization

  • Hong, Seo-Hwa;Hwang, Seok-Ho
    • Elastomers and Composites
    • /
    • v.56 no.3
    • /
    • pp.136-151
    • /
    • 2021
  • Biomass lignin, a waste produced during the paper and bio-ethanol production process, is a cheap material that is available in large quantities. Thus, the interest in the valorization of biomass lignin has been increasing in industrial and academic areas. Over the years, lignin has been predominantly burnt as fuel to run pulping plants. However, less than 2% of the available lignin has been utilized for producing specialty chemicals, such as dispersants, adhesives, surfactants, and other value-added products. The development of value-added lignin-derived co-products should help make second generation biorefineries and the paper industry more profitable by valorizing lignin. Another possible approach towards value-added applications is using lignin as a component in plastics. However, blending lignin with polymers is not simple because the polarity of lignin molecules results in strong self-interactions. Therefore, achieving in-depth insights on lignin characteristics and structure will help in accelerating the development of lignin-based products. Considering the multipurpose characteristics of lignin for producing value-added products, this review will shed light on the potential applications of lignin and lignin-based derivatives on polymeric composite production. Moreover, the challenges in lignin valorization will be addressed.

Preperation of Carbon Fiber from Acetosolve Lignin (Acetosolve Lignin으로부터 Carbon Fiber의 제조)

  • Eom, Tae-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.25 no.2
    • /
    • pp.21-26
    • /
    • 1997
  • Lignin viscous material was prepared from acetosolve lignin by phenolation and heat treatment. The yield of phenolation was about 160% with p-toluene sulfonic acid(2% of acetosolve lignin) as catalyzer. Phenolated lignin has a good spinnability and thermosetting property by $300^{\circ}C$ treatment with vaccum. Acetosolve lignin carbon fiber has $20{\pm}5$ m diameter and $68.2{\pm}10\;kg/mm^2$ tensile strength. The yield of carbon fiber based on acetosolve lignin was 31%.

  • PDF

Impact of Lignin Determination Method on Oxygen Delignification Chemistry

  • Shin Soo-Jeong;Lai Yuan-Zong
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
    • /
    • v.37 no.5
    • /
    • pp.50-55
    • /
    • 2005
  • In previous report, we investigated the impact of hexeneuronic acid and some residual extractiveson lignin determination. These non-lignin components severely interfered lignin content determination which also affect on the oxygen delignification comparison between aspen and pine unbleached kraft pulps. Very different pattern was observed whether based on uncorrected conventional kappa number or based on corrected kappa number in oxygen delignification comparison. Lower kappa number aspen pulps showed poor response to oxygen delignification when kappa number was used as lignin determination method but better response with using the acid lignin method. Phenolic hydroxyl group in kraft pulps were also compared based on uncorrected or corrected kappa numberfor lignin content. Based on uncorrected kappa number, lower kappa number oxygen-delignified pulps had lower phenolic hydroxyl group. However, lower kappa number oxygen-delignified pulps showed much higher phenolic hydroxyl group based on the corrected lignin content. For accurate comparison for residual lignin properties from different pulps, lignin determination should be corrected from non-lignin components contribution to lignin.

Studies on the Poplar Deltoides Lignin Preparation and Effects on Its Structure Modifications

  • Naithani Ved P.;Madan R.N.
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.257-263
    • /
    • 2006
  • This paper examines the physico-chemical properties and structural features of thio lignin and alcohol lignin preparations extracted from fast-growing poplar wood. The lignin preparations were characterized using UV, IR and alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation methods. The yield was higher in thiolignin due to its preparation from wood under drastic alkaline conditions and almost the total amount of alkaline degraded lignin was precipitated except acid soluble lignin. In case of ethanol lignin, structural modifications were comparatively less and form a cream colored lignin more or less similar to its original natural color. The methoxyl values were higher due to syringyl unit present in hard wood lignin in addition to guaicyl unit present in soft wood. The higher values of methoxyl content of isolated lignin revealed that it was built up of high syringyl units. The elementary analysis, methoxyl group and hydroxyl groups were presented by $C_{9}$ formula indicated that it was made up of phenyl propane monomers. Nitrobenzene oxidation of thio lignin and ethanol lignin yield more or less the chromatograms of similar pattern, except difference in relative percentage. The ultra violet spectra of lignins were quite similar, irrespective of the source and method of isolation. Infrared spectroscopy studies of poplar deltoides, thio and ethanol lignin shown different absorption bands which have been utilized for structural investigations.

  • PDF

The Separation, Purification and Utilization of Wood Main Components by Steam Explosion in Low Pressure (III) - Characterization and Utilization of Lignin - (저압(低壓) 폭쇄처리(爆碎處理)에 의한 목재주성분(木材主成分)의 분리(分離)·정제(精製) 및 이용(利用) (III) - Lignin의 화학적(化學的) 성상(性狀) 및 이용(利用) -)

  • Eom, Tae-Jin;Eom, Chan-Ho;Lee, Jong-Yoon
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.24 no.3
    • /
    • pp.45-50
    • /
    • 1996
  • Wood chips of oak(Quercus mongolica) and larch(Larix leptolepis) were treated with low pressure steaming explosion. Main components of exploded wood were separated with hot water and methanol extraction. Crude lignin separated from those extractives were purified and those chemical characteristics were investigated. And also, lignin adhesive was prepared from crude lignin and studied those chemical characteristics. The results can be summarized as follows ; 1. The purified lignin by Bj$\ddot{o}$kman's method from crude lignin is about 30% in exploded oak wood and is about 11% in exploded larch wood as a low amount. 2. The phenolic hydroxyl groups in the purified lignins are little higher than those of MWL and molecular weight distributions of the purified lignins are some lower than that of MWL. 3. Alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation products are very low in the clude lignin but those are increased in the purified lignin 4. The gravity of lignin resins(1.15 and 1.13) are a little lower than that of phenol resin(1.16) and the compressive shearing strength of lignin resins are higher than those of phenol resin.

  • PDF

Interaction of Oxygen and Chlorine Dioxide in Pulp Bleaching (I) -Studies on the Degradation of Lignin Model Compounds- (펄프 표백시 산소와 이산화염소의 상호작용 (제1보) - 리그닌 모델화합물 연구 -)

  • 윤병호;황병호;김세종;최경화
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
    • /
    • v.35 no.3
    • /
    • pp.74-78
    • /
    • 2003
  • The structural property of phenolic and non-phenolic lignin has an effect on the reaction rate of lignin by oxygen and chlorine dioxide respectively. Moreover, the undesirable degradation of cellulose followed by lignin degradation is influenced by chemical charge and reaction time. In this paper, several lignin model compounds were used to illuminate the interaction of oxygen and chlorine dioxide by varying the position of O and D(OD, DO, ODO and DOD), and gas chromatography method was used to investigate the degradation of lignin by determining the content of methoxyl groups in lignin. It was shown that structural properties of lignin models were more influential on the degradation and demethylation of lignin than the above combination. Combination of oxygen and chlorine dioxide, however, was more effective in degradation of lignin than only one stage, and three stages than two stages.

Synthesis of Lignin-phenol Copolymers Using Horseradish Peroxidase (Horseradish Peroxidase를 이용한 리그닌-페놀계 공중합물 합성)

  • 이성문;여주상;박경문;유영제
    • KSBB Journal
    • /
    • v.15 no.1
    • /
    • pp.22-26
    • /
    • 2000
  • Kraft Lignin which is produced abundantly in pulp industry, was chemically degraded into small oligomers and polymerized using horseradish peroxidase. Lignin acidolysis was optimized by controlling reaction time and HCI concentration. Acidolyzed lignin was polymerized and copolymers of acidolyzed lignin and phenol or p-cresol were synthesized. 70% of kraft lignin was degraded after acidolysis. Number average molecular weight of all lignin polymers were from 8,500 to 14,000 and did not show large difference. Differential scanning calorimeter analysis showed that acidolyzed lignin did not show any melting temparature under $300^{\circ}C$, which indicates that newly synthesized lignin polymers can be used in industry under mild condition.

  • PDF

Impact of Residual Extractives and Hexenuronic Acid on Lignin Determination of Kraft pulps

  • Shin Soo Jeong;Schroeder Leland R;Lai Yuan Zong
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
    • /
    • v.36 no.5
    • /
    • pp.62-68
    • /
    • 2004
  • The amount of non-lignin components in unbleached and oxygen-delignified kraft pulps and their impact on lignin determinations was investigated. The lignin analyses investigated were kappa number and Klason lignin in conjunction with acid-soluble lignin. The species investigated were loblolly pine, and aspen. The non-lignin components that impacted on lignin determination were residual extractives and hexenuronic acid in unbleached and oxygen-delignified kraft pulps. In the hardwoods, significant amounts of extractives remained after kraft pulping and oxygen delignification. These residual extractives in the hardwood pulps had an impact on the lignin determination, more so on the acid lignin method than kappa number. Hexenuronic acid only impacts on kappa number determination both softwood and hardwood pulps, not on acid lignin. Hexeneuronic acid contributed as lignin content more in aspen than pine pulps, and more in oxygen-delignified than unbleached kraft pulps. Impact of hexenuronic acid on should be corrected both softwood and hardwood pulps for accurate kappa number.

Water Absorption Properties and Biodegradability of Lignin/PVA Nanofibrous Webs (리그닌/PVA 나노섬유 웹의 수분 특성 및 생분해성 평가)

  • Song, Youjung;Lee, Eunsil;Lee, Seungsin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
    • /
    • v.41 no.3
    • /
    • pp.517-526
    • /
    • 2017
  • The biodegradation and water absorption properties of lignin/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibrous webs are investigated. Lignin/PVA nanofibrous webs containing 0, 50, and 85wt% of lignin were prepared via an electrospinning process to observe the effect of the lignin concentration on the biodegradability and water absorption properties of lignin/PVA nanofibrous webs. The morphology of the materials was examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). To understand the wetting behavior and hydrophilic nature of the electrospun lignin/PVA nanofibrous webs, the water absorbency, contact angle, and water uptake were examined. The enzymatic degradation of lignin/PVA nanofibrous webs was investigated using laccase by measuring total organic carbon (TOC) concentration over a course of 50 days. Water drops were absorbed immediately into all of the specimens. The water uptake of lignin/PVA nanofibrous webs increased as the amount of PVA in the lignin/PVA hybrid webs increased. The enzymatic degradation experiment indicated that the inherent biodegradability of lignin was retained after its transformation into nanofibers. Our findings imply that blending these two types of polymers is promising because it can lead to the development of a new range of multifunctional materials such as antimicrobial absorbent nanotextiles based on sustainable biopolymers.

Comparative study of some analytical methods to quantify lignin concentration in tropical grasses

  • Velasquez, Alejandro V.;Martins, Cristian M.M.R.;Pacheco, Pedro;Fukushima, Romualdo S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.32 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1686-1694
    • /
    • 2019
  • Objective: Lignin plays a relevant role in the inhibition of cell wall (CW) structural carbohydrate degradation. Thus, obtaining accurate estimates of the lignin content in tropical plants is important in order to properly characterize the mechanism of lignin action on CW degradation. Comparing conflicting results between the different methods available for commercial use will bring insight on the subject. This way, providing data to better understand the relationship between lignin concentration and implications with tropical forage degradation. Methods: Five grass species, Brachiaria brizantha cv $Marand{\acute{u}}$, Brachiaria brizantha cv $Xara{\acute{e}}s$(MG-5), Panicum maximum cv Mombaça, Pennisetum purpureum cv Cameroon, and Pennisetum purpureum cv Napier, were harvested at five maturity stages. Acid detergent lignin (ADL), Klason lignin (KL), acetyl bromide lignin (ABL), and permanganate lignin (PerL) were measured on all species. Lignin concentration was correlated with in vitro degradability. Results: Highly significant effects for maturity, lignin method and their interaction on lignin content were observed. The ADL, KL and ABL methods had similar negative correlations with degradability. The PerL method failed to reliably estimate the degradability of tropical grasses, possibly due to interference of other substances potentially soluble in the $KMnO_4$ solution. Conclusion: ADL and KL methods use strong acid ($H_2SO_4$) and require determination of ash and N content in the lignin residues, therefore, increasing time and cost of analysis. The ABL method has no need for such corrections and is a fast and a convenient method for determination of total lignin content in plants, thus, it may be a good option for routine laboratory analysis.