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Canonical Correlation Analysis for Estimation of Relationships between Sexual Maturity and Egg Production Traits upon Availability of Nutrients in Pullets

  • Cankaya, Soner;Ocak, Nuh;Sungu, Murat
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.11
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    • pp.1576-1584
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    • 2008
  • In this study, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was applied to estimate the relationship between three different sexual maturity traits (X set: days to first egg (DFE), weight of the first egg (WFE), body weight at first egg (BWFE)) and level of nutrient intake (Y set: energy (EI) and protein intake (PI)) or the egg production traits at two different periods (Z set: number of egg (NE1 and NET) and weight of egg (WE1 and WET) from 22 to 25 (Wfirst) and 22 to 33 wk of age (Wall), respectively), which were measured from 64 egg-type pullets (Isa Brown) manipulated for time of access to energy and protein sources to onset of egg production. Partial CCA (PCCA) was used to eliminate the contribution of differences in the levels of nutrient intake to canonical variables for X and Z sets at the first production period. Estimated canonical correlation coefficients between X set and Y set (0.429, p = 0.042), X set and Z set (0.390, p = 0.007 for Wfirst) and within Z set (between Wfirst and Wall; 0.780, p<0.001), and partial canonical correlation coefficient between X set and Z set (0.415, p = 0.009) were significant. Canonical weights and loadings from CCA indicated that the BWFE had the largest contribution compared to the DFE and WFE to variation of egg number produced at two different periods. The results from PCCA indicated that the contribution of PI and EI to the degree of the correlation between canonical variables for X and Z sets were unfavourable. In conclusion, the effect of body weight at sexual maturity upon the availability of nutrients can have a higher contribution to variation of egg production in pullets if the contribution of differences in nutrient intakes to onset of egg production were eliminated.

Study of the Correlation Between Diatom and Environmental Variables for Palao-Sealevel Reconstruction in the Korea Peninsula: Case Study of the Eastern Tidal Flat of Gomso Bay (한반도 고해수면 변동 복원을 위한 규조-환경변수 상관관계 연구: 곰소만 동부 조간대 지역을 대상으로)

  • Kim, Jeong-Yun;Yoon, Soon-Ock;Yang, Dong Yoon;Hwang, Sang ill
    • Journal of The Geomorphological Association of Korea
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.79-90
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    • 2017
  • This study investigated the correlation between the diatom community and the environmental variables on the tidal flat surface of the eastern part of Gomso Bay in the West coast of Korea in order to utilize the quantitative sea level record as a basic data. 24 sediment samples at 10cm intervals downstream of the Galgok Stream were used for diatom analysis, grain size analysis and CCA. As a result of diatom analysis, marine diatoms dominated at lower altitudes and the ratio of diatoms to fresh water diatoms and brackish diatoms increased toward upland. As a result of CCA, the contribution of environmental variables was analyzed as 25.3% at altitude, 21.6% at sand, 13.3% at skewness, etc. This means that altitude above sea level has the greatest influence on the diatom composition in the tidal flat surface. It suggests that the contribution of environmental variables at altitude above sea level can be used as a basic data for the quantitative records for reconstruction of paleo-sea level.

Tumour Markers in Peritoneal Washing Fluid - Contribution to Cytology

  • Yildirim, Mustafa;Suren, Dinc;Yildiz, Mustafa;Alikanoglu, Arsenal Sezgin;Kaya, Vildan;Doluoglu, Suleyman Gunhan;Aydin, Ozgur;Yilmaz, Necat;Sezer, Cem;Karaca, Mehmet
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.1027-1030
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    • 2013
  • Background: Peritoneal washing cytology (PWC) that shows the microscopic intra-peritoneal spread of gynaecologic cancers is not used in staging but is known as prognostic factor and effective in planning the intensity of the therapy. False negative or false positive results clearly affect the ability to make the best decision for therapy. In this study we assessed levels of tumour markers, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) and carbohydrate antigen (CA19-9), in peritoneal washing fluid to establish any possible contribution to the peritoneal washing cytology in patients operated for gynaecologic cancer. Materials and Methods: Preoperative tumour markers were studied in serum of blood samples obtained from the patients for preoperative evaluation of a gynaecologic operation. In the same group peritoneal tumour markers were studied in the washing fluid obtained for intraoperative cytological evaluation. Results: This study included a total of 94 patients, 62 with malignant and 32 with benign histopathology. The sensitivity of the cytological examination was found to be 21% with a specificity of 100%. When evaluated with CEA the sensitivity of the cytological examination has increased to 37%. Conclusions: In addition to examination of PWC, the level of CEA, a tumour marker, in peritoneal washing fluid can make a diagnostic contribution. Determining the level of CEA in peritoneal washing fluid will be useful in the management of gynaecologic cancers.

Buffering Contribution of Mitochondria to the $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ Increase by $Ca^{2+}$ Influx through Background Nonselective Cation Channels in Rabbit Aortic Endothelial Cells

  • Kim, Young-Chul;Lee, Sang-Jin;Kim, Ki-Whan
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.29-35
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    • 2005
  • To prove the buffering contribution of mitochondria to the increase of intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ level ($[Ca^{2+}]_i$) via background nonselective cation channel (background NSCC), we examined whether inhibition of mitochondria by protonophore carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) affects endothelial $Ca^{2+}$ entry and $Ca^{2+}$ buffering in freshly isolated rabbit aortic endothelial cells (RAECs). The ratio of fluorescence by fura-2 AM ($R_{340/380}$) was measured in RAECs. Biological state was checked by application of acetylcholine (ACh) and ACh ($10{\mu}M$) increased $R_{340/380}$ by $1.1{\pm}0.15$ ($mean{\pm}S.E.$, n=6). When the external $Na^+$ was totally replaced by $NMDG^+$, $R_{340/380}$ was increased by $1.19{\pm}0.17$ in a reversible manner (n=27). $NMDG^+$-induced $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ increase was followed by oscillatory decay after $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ reached the peak level. The increase of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ by $NMDG^+$ was completely suppressed by replacement with $Cs^+$. When $1{\mu}M$ CCCP was applied to bath solution, the ratio of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ was increased by $0.4{\pm}0.06$ (n=31). When $1{\mu}M$ CCCP was used for pretreatment before application of $NMDG^+$, oscillatory decay of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ by $NMDG^+$ was significantly inhibited compared to the control (p<0.05). In addition, $NMDG^+-induced$ increase of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ was highly enhanced by pretreatment with $2{\mu}M$ CCCP by $320{\pm}93.7$%, compared to the control ($mean{\pm}S.E.$, n=12). From these results, it is concluded that mitochondria might have buffering contribution to the $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ increase through regulation of the background NSCC in RAECs.

Identification of Major BIM-applicable Tasks with Contribution to Achieving Objectives and Expected Benefit in Construction Stage: Focused on the Case of Public Apartment Housing Projects (목표달성기여도와 예상적용효과에 의한 시공단계 BIM 주요 업무 도출 - 공공부문 공동주택 건설사업 사례를 중심으로 -)

  • Song, Sanghoon;Bang, Jong-Dae;Sohn, Jeong-Rak
    • Journal of KIBIM
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.41-53
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    • 2019
  • As a central part in smart construction, BIM has been rapidly spread in construction industry at large. However, the level of applying BIM in construction stage is still relatively lower than that in design stage due to unclear application method, inadequate design BIM model, technical faults of BIM itself, etc. Under these circumstances, public owners inevitably need to adjust the scope and pace in BIM application considering their internal support and capabilities of contractors. This study aims to suggest major BIM-applicable tasks during construction stage in the process of establishing gradual long-term and short-term introduction strategy for public apartment housing projects. Those major tasks were identified with the combination of the importance of tasks and the future benefits of BIM using IPA method. To do so, the degrees of contribution to achieving objectives in construction, current task execution, and communication requirement were investigated by internal site managers. On the other hand, the expected benefits and current level of using BIM were assessed by BIM experts. Among operational tasks by phases, design review, construction plan review, making as-built drawing, etc. were categorized as major tasks. In addition, progress control, regular meeting, master schedule development, work inspection, on-site quality check, etc. were also drawn as major tasks by management areas. The results of this study will provide the useful reference for owners concerned about the introduction of new technologies.

Evaluation of Optimum Genetic Contribution Theory to Control Inbreeding While Maximizing Genetic Response

  • Oh, S.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.299-303
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    • 2012
  • Inbreeding is the mating of relatives that produce progeny having more homozygous alleles than non-inbred animals. Inbreeding increases numbers of recessive alleles, which is often associated with decreased performance known as inbreeding depression. The magnitude of inbreeding depression depends on the level of inbreeding in the animal. Level of inbreeding is expressed by the inbreeding coefficient. One breeding goal in livestock is uniform productivity while maintaining acceptable inbreeding levels, especially keeping inbreeding less than 20%. However, in closed herds without the introduction of new genetic sources high levels of inbreeding over time are unavoidable. One method that increases selection response and minimizes inbreeding is selection of individuals by weighting estimated breeding values with average relationships among individuals. Optimum genetic contribution theory (OGC) uses relationships among individuals as weighting factors. The algorithm is as follows: i) Identify the individual having the best EBV; ii) Calculate average relationships ($\bar{r_j}$) between selected and candidates; iii) Select the individual having the best EBV adjusted for average relationships using the weighting factor k, $EBV^*=EBV_j(1-k\bar{{r}_j})$ Repeat process until the number of individuals selected equals number required. The objective of this study was to compare simulated results based on OGC selection under different conditions over 30 generations. Individuals (n = 110) were generated for the base population with pseudo random numbers of N~ (0, 3), ten were assumed male, and the remainder female. Each male was mated to ten females, and every female was assumed to have 5 progeny resulting in 500 individuals in the following generation. Results showed the OGC algorithm effectively controlled inbreeding and maintained consistent increases in selection response. Difference in breeding values between selection with OGC algorithm and by EBV only was 8%, however, rate of inbreeding was controlled by 47% after 20 generation. These results indicate that the OGC algorithm can be used effectively in long-term selection programs.

Effects of Social Contributions on Social Values and WOM in Firm and Product Level (사회공헌활동이 기업 및 제품의 사회적 가치와 구전의도에 미치는 영향: 동일시와 제품 친환경성의 조절효과를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Hyoung-Ki;Rhee, Hyong-Jae
    • Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.69-78
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    • 2017
  • Purpose - As recently social contributions of firms are positioned as key strategic actions, it is demanding to review the effects of social contributions on overall corporate management. The research aims to effects of social contributions on social values and word of mouth in firm level and product level. Further roles of consumer identification with firm and product eco-friendliness are also analyzed. Research design, data, and methodology - The paper conducted a survey in which two scenarios are used for manipulating the degree of corporate social contributions. The survey sample consist of 165 undergraduate and graduate students in a university, located in Seoul. For analyzing data, analysis of variance is applied, in conjunction with analysis of moderating effects, through version 23 of SPSS statistical package. Results - In the firm level, social contributions by firms have a positive effect on social values of firms. Consumer identification showed a moderating role in the effect. Social value of the firm with passive social contribution perceived by respondents with a high degree of identification was higher than social value of the firm with active social contribution perceived by respondents with a low degree of identification. Corporate social value has positive effect on word-of-mouth of firms. In the product level, social contributions by firms has a positive effect on social values of product. Product eco-friendliness showed a moderating role in the effect. For eco-friendly product, social values are higher in the firm with active social contributions than in the firm with passive social contributions. However, for non eco-friendly product, the difference in social values between the two firms does not exist. Product social values has positive effect on intention for WOM of products. WOM of eco-friendly products with low social value showed no difference with WOM of non eco-friendly products with high social value. Conclusions - These results imply that firms should enhance consumer identification with firm in making social contributions for optimizing corporate social value and enhancing word-of-mouth(WOM). Managerial implications of the results suggest it would be more effective to improve social value of product by active social contributions for increasing word-of-mouth(WOM) of product.

A Study on the Effect of Performance and Business Management According to ERP Investment (경영정보시스템 도입비용에 따른 활용 및 경영기여에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구 - 전자부품 제조업에서의 ERP도입 활용과 경영기여도를 중심으로 -)

  • Cho, Nae-Eul
    • The Journal of Information Systems
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.71-84
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    • 2013
  • The main purpose of this study is to identify the factors influencing the implementation performance of ERP system from the investment such as hardware, software and consulting fee. The main goal of this study to analyze of ERP system implementation in various sections depending on the amount of investment and research about the contribution of ERP utilization on overall PCB business activities. Survey questionnaires were distributed via post and fax to PCB (Printed Circuit Board)Company in Korea. The results of this study can be summarized as follow. First, only 43.1% of respondents implemented ERP system at the enterprise level, which shows that ERP system does not completely play its role as a truly integrated system. Second, companies shows higher satisfaction rate with selectively invested on particular sub-modules. Third, the efficiency of ERP system can be maximized by improving efficiency on core areas through selective investments. Also, this can be maximized by performing overall investments on the general environment in addition to the direct investment on ERP. Lastly, 59.26% of respondents reported that the utilization of ERP has highly significant effects on the contribution of business whereas 29.63% respondents reported as significant effects on the business. These shows positive effects of ERP on the contribution of business.

Prediction and Characterization Analysis of River Water Quality using Multivariate Time Series Models (다변량 시계열 모델을 이용한 하천 수질의 예측 및 특성 분석)

  • Song, Jaehyung;Han, Ihnsup
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Urban Environment
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.243-253
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    • 2017
  • This study set up seasonal univariate ARIMA and multivariate time series model (VECM) for predicting the occurrence of algae at the Haman point of Nakdong river basin system, and compared mutual prediction power. The predictive power of the multivariate time series model was evaluated at a relatively reasonable level of MAPE standard. In addition, Impulse response analysis showed that the Impulse of Chl-a itself, and TP in the long run, have the greatest effect on the generation of algae. The contribution rate of algae generation influential factors to the prediction error of algal generation fluctuation was examined. It was found out that the contribution rate to the past value of Chl-a was the biggest, and the contribution rates of algae itself (Chl-a), DO and TP were the mainstream.

The Application of CMB Model for Particulate Source Apportionment (분진오염원 할당을 위한 CMB모형의 적용)

  • 정장표;정창용
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.393-402
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    • 1994
  • It is necessary to examine the source contributions and the relationship between a receptor and sources for the resonable controlling of air pollution level of suspended particulate matters. Therefore, in this study, profiles of sources contributing to the concentration of suspended particulate matters, were developed and CMB model was applied to obtain information of source contributions and feasibility of CMB model application. According to the propose of this study, twenty-seven chemical species such as the elements, anions, and total carbon of thirty-six PMl0 and TSP data sets sampled at the Pomch'on receptor site in Pusan for a 24-hr period from May to Aug. 1992, were analyzed and three (transportation, soil, marine) different source profiles were developed through the field measurement. Applying CMB model to transportation, soil, marine, the results of source contribution by CMB model showed that the case with TSP was more suitable for CMB model than that with PMl0. And the average contribution of transportation source to TSP and PMlo concentration at Pomch'on receptor was calculated as 90.66 ㎍/m3(64%) and 23.27 ㎍/m3(39%), resfiectively, which showed that the contribution by transportation was dominant. The validation of CMB model was performed by means of the results of contributions from marine source for the wind direction sectors.

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