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Contribution Analysis of Simulated Pass-by Data using Operational Transfer Path Analysis

  • Lohrmann, Martin;Kluiber, Florian
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.123-125
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    • 2010
  • As the exterior noise emitted by a vehicle is getting more and more attention, simulated pass-by measurements become more important. This well established method provides information about the total noise emitted by the vehicle. For a vehicle manufacturer it is not only interesting to know about the total noise but also to know how this total exterior noise is composed of different contributions, such as for example the contribution of the engine, the intake or exhaust system. Transfer path analysis (TPA) provides a separation of these contributions for each of the pass-by microphones alongside the track. Presented is a method for fast and efficient determination of the contributions of multiple sources using operational transfer path analysis (OTPA). The calculation of the transfer characteristics between the reference measurement points on the vehicle and the corresponding response points of both microphone lines are carried out while operation of the vehicle. As result of the contribution analysis from operational transfer path analysis, the characteristic noise level as function of the covered distance is displayed for all individual sound sources, thus providing in depth information for sound quality engineering.

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Empirical Analysis for Korean Manufacturing Firm's IT Investment Effect to Economic Performance (한국 제조산업의 IT투자 대비 경제적 효과 실증분석)

  • Ko Joong-Gul;Han Hyun-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Operations Research and Management Science Society
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.15-25
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    • 2005
  • As implied by the terms of IT productivity Paradox, measuring the Information technology contribution to economic performance has been one of the challenging issues to both policy makers and business professionals. As such, diverse attempts with sophisticate analyses have been reported in the literature to analyze the effect of IT contributions. In this paper, we follow Growth Accounting Method to measure the IT contribution effect to manufacturing firm's economic performance in Korea. Various regression methods and statistical analyses are applied with fourteen years of industry Panel data. Using the Cobb-Douglas function, time lag analysis is made to understand IT effect to economic growth. Instead of capturing data from individual firm, industry level data from the National Statistics Bureau is used for IT capital, non-IT capital, and so on. Statistical analysis following the panel unit test and Panel co-integration test was performed to reveal the exact effect of IT contribution to economic performance. Empirical testing results for non-stationary nature of IT investment effect are reported as well as IT contribution to manufacturing industry's economic performance.

A study of current export situation and SMEs' vitalization plan suitable for Digital age (수출 현황 및 디지털 시대에 적합한 중소기업의 수출 활성화방안에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Ok-Dong
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.61-74
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    • 2013
  • In digital age export expansion is the key fact of promoting Korea's economic growth. The policy that encourages exportation is being more emphasized to develop of the nation's economy. From the 90's, regionalism has been widespread throughout the world with globalization and internationalization led by WTO and FTA. The world is now becoming one economic bloc. It is necessary to understand how enterprises contribute to the exportation to establish and manage the policy that encourage and support the exportation. This study estimates SME's level of contribution on gross exports and understands the problem, while looking for better statistical alternatives and finding SME's export energizing policies. It is estimated that domestic SMEs contribute about 40-50% of gross exports. SME bureau and national statistical office should select optimal size of population of each industry, design and extract sample to conduct the export related survey extensively. SMEs should analyze the product and skills of the industry that is dominated by major companies to contribute to the exportation more efficiently. This effort will increase the level of contribution to gross exports in general.

Virtuality as a Psychological Distance : The Strategy for Advertisement Message Appeal Depending on Virtuality (심리적 거리로서의 가상성 : 가상성에 따른 광고메시지 전략)

  • Park, Do-Hyung
    • Journal of Information Technology Applications and Management
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.39-54
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    • 2017
  • At present, various technologies are rapidly advancing, centering on the concept of virtuality. From the technology of virtual reality, which allows us to experience the senses as if they existed, to the technology of augmented reality, which provides new information or services based on reality, they are no longer strange things for ourselves because we experience them every day and night. Even though the concept of virtual is very familiar in terms of technology, it is not known how individuals accept the concept of virtuality, how they change our way of thinking, and how their behavior changes. This study aims to approach virtuality perceived by the individual from the viewpoint of individual's information processing. Virtuality is defined as the degree to which the situation facing an individual is far from actual reality. An individual can judge the degree of virtuality easily, which is considered to be a psychological distance which is an important factor in personal information processing. In this study, we have confirmed whether the argument is applied to the real world in the context of advertisement. According to the construal level theory, when an individual feels virtuality at a high level, the individual thinks that the situation they are facing is psychologically distant and accordingly has a high level construal. Therefore, it is more influenced by 'advertisement emphasizing symbolic appeal' which is matching with higher level. On the other hand, when an individual feels a low level of virtuality, the individual thinks that the situation they are facing is psychologically near and thus has a low level construal. Therefore, respondents are more sensitive to functional appeal, which is related to lower level. This study has the theoretical contribution in terms that the degree of virtuality affects the psychological distance of the individual. In addition, the results of this study have practical contribution in terms of being able to be actively used in the information delivery strategy centered on the advertisement.

Genetic Contribution of Indigenous Yakutian Cattle to Two Hybrid Populations, Revealed by Microsatellite Variation

  • Li, M.H.;Nogovitsina, E.;Ivanova, Z.;Erhardt, G.;Vilkki, J.;Popov, R.;Ammosov, I.;Kiselyova, T.;Kantanen, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.613-619
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    • 2005
  • Indigenous Yakutian cattle' adaptation to the hardest subarctic conditions makes them a valuable genetic resource for cattle breeding in the Siberian area. Since early last century, crossbreeding between native Yakutian cattle and imported Simmental and Kholmogory breeds has been widely adopted. In this study, variations at 22 polymorphic microsatellite loci in 5 populations of Yakutian, Kholmogory, Simmental, Yakutian-Kholmogory and Yakutian-Simmental cattle were analysed to estimate the genetic contribution of Yakutian cattle to the two hybrid populations. Three statistical approaches were used: the weighted least-squares (WLS) method which considers all allele frequencies; a recently developed implementation of a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method called likelihood-based estimation of admixture (LEA); and a model-based Bayesian admixture analysis method (STRUCTURE). At population-level admixture analyses, the estimate based on the LEA was consistent with that obtained by the WLS method. Both methods showed that the genetic contribution of the indigenous Yakutian cattle in Yakutian-Kholmogory was small (9.6% by the LEA and 14.2% by the WLS method). In the Yakutian-Simmental population, the genetic contribution of the indigenous Yakutian cattle was considerably higher (62.8% by the LEA and 56.9% by the WLS method). Individual-level admixture analyses using STRUCTURE proved to be more informative than the multidimensional scaling analysis (MDSA) based on individual-based genetic distances. Of the 9 Yakutian-Simmental animals studied, 8 showed admixed origin, whereas of the 14 studied Yakutian-Kholmogory animals only 2 showed Yakutian ancestry (>5%). The mean posterior distributions of individual admixture coefficient (q) varied greatly among the samples in both hybrid populations. This study revealed a minor existing contribution of the Yakutian cattle in the Yakutian-Kholmogory hybrid population, but in the Yakutian-Simmental hybrid population, a major genetic contribution of the Yakutian cattle was seen. The results reflect the different crossbreeding patterns used in the development of the two hybrid populations. Additionally, molecular evidence for differences among individual admixture proportions was seen in both hybrid populations, resulting from the stochastic process in crossing over generations.

Contribution of Road Capital in Industry and Optimal Level of Road Capital in South Korea (한국 도로 자본의 산업에 대한 영향과 도로자본 스톡의 최적수준 분석)

  • Kook, Woo Kag
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.137-149
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    • 2013
  • PURPOSES: This study is to suggest the Contribution of Road Capital in Industry and Optimal Level of Road Investment in South Korea METHODS: Based on the literature review, This research is empirically estimated using disaggregate and disaggregated data composed of 10-sectors covering the entire korea economy for the period 1970~2000. The relevant policy questions addressed in this report are : cost reduction and Scale elasticities of road, effect of road capital stock on demand for labor, capital and materials, marginal effect of road, industry TFP growth decomposition, Net Social Rates of Returns, optimal of road capital. RESULTS : The marginal benefits of the road capital at the industry level were calculated using the estimated cost elasticities. Demand for the road capital services varies across industries as do the marginal effects. The marginal benefits are positive for the principal industries. This suggests that for these industries the existing stock of road capital may be under supplied. CONCLUSIONS: This results emerges is that the ratio of the optimum to actual road capital, measured by road, was high at beginning of the period 1970s and declined 1990s. There appears to be evidence of under-investment in road capital. That is continuous and premeditated investment for road which lead to saving time and finance.

Money's Worth Analysis of National Pension : Are Returns on National Pension' Contributions Fair? (국민연금에 대한 수익분석 : 국민연금급여는 과연 보험료에 대한 공평한 수익인가?)

  • Kwon, Mun-Il
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.41
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    • pp.43-67
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    • 2000
  • The main source in financing the National Pension benefits is the contribution raised from the insured's earnings. So, Most of the insured take a great interest in the questions of what return on the payment of contribution National Pension benefits provide and whether there be the difference in return according to earnings level. The Purpose of this study is to assess money's worth of National Pension and to answer the above questions. There are two basic types of money worth analysis, empirical and hopothetical. This study basically belongs to the former in terms that it is based on actual earnings and insured term. For performing money's worth analysis, four different measures which are referred as the "break-even period", the "benefit/tax ratio", the "net lifetime transfer", the "internal rate of return" are used and they all involve the way in which the relationship between the present value of contributions and the present values of benefit is present. The results which evaluate average money's worth of accrued rights before 1999 are le as follows. Break-even period is about 43 months, benefit/tax ratio being 4.9, net lifetime transfers being about 37 mil1ion won, internal rate of return being 33.2%. This verifies that money' worth of National Pension is much higher than actuarially fair. In the mean while, money' worth is proved to be very different according to earnings level. The progressivity relationship between earnings level and rate of return is found in all measures but net lifetime transfer.

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Right Guarantee Level of Job Creation Project for the Elderly by Participation Type : Focused on Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing (노인일자리사업의 참여유형별 권리보장 수준에 관한 연구 -고령화에 관한 마드리드 국제행동계획을 중심으로-)

  • Yoon, Young-Ji;Lee, Sun-Woo
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.219-227
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    • 2015
  • This study analyzes the right guarantee level of Job Creation Project for the Elderly by participation type based on Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing. The analysis is conducted using '2012 Job Creation Project for the Elderly Participants Survey' of Korea Labor Force Development Institute for the Aged. The major findings are as follows: First, "social contribution" type's implementation level of "active participation in society and development" is not high enough. Second, considering the average age of the participants, the level of "work and the ageing labor force" is high enough while the practical level is not high in market. Third, the level of "access to knowledge, education and training" is not enough within "market entrance" participants. Fourth, the level of "poverty reduction" and "income security" is not high. Based on the results, this study proposes that the quality of "social contribution" type's occupations and "market entrance" type's education should be improved. Also, the wages of the entire occupations provided by this project need to be raised.

An Analysis of Contribution Rates of Irrigation Water and Investment for Farmland Base Development Project to Rice Production (농업용수(農業用水)와 농업생산기반조성사업투자(農業生産基盤造成事業投資)의 미곡생산기여도(米穀生産寄與度) 분석(分析))

  • Lim, Jae-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.135-148
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    • 2004
  • Rice is not only main food but also key farm income source of Korean farmers. In spite of the above facts, rice productivity was decreased on account of drought in every 2 or 3 years interval owing to the vulnerability of irrigation facilities throughout Korea in the past decades. As an context of the first five year economic development plan, all weather farming programme including 4 big river basin comprehensive development projects and large and medium sized irrigation water development projects were carried out successfully. Therefore the area of irrigated paddy were increased from 58% in 1970 to 76.2% in 1999. In the past decades, the Government had invested heavy financial funds to develop irrigation water but as an factor share analysis, the contribution rates of irrigation water and investment for farmland base development project have not been identified yet in national agricultural economic level. It is very scarce to find out the papers concerned to macro-economic factor share analysis or contribution rates of water and investment cost to rice production value in Korea considering the production function of the quantity of irrigation water and investment cost as independent variables. Accordingly this paper covered and aimed at identifying (1) derivation of rice production function with the time serial data from 1965 to 1999 and the contribution rates of irrigation water and total investment cost for farmland base development project. The analytical model of the contribution rates was adapted the famous Cobb-Douglass production function. According to the model analysis, the contribution rate of irrigation water to rice production in Korea was shown 37.8% which was equivalent to 0.28 of the production elasticity of water. The contribution rate of farmland base development project cost was revealed 22% and direct production cost of rice was contributed 60% in the growth of rice production and farm mechanization costs contributed to 18% of it respectively. The two contribution rates comparing with the direct production cost were small but without irrigation water and farmland base development, application of high-pay off inputs and farm mechanization might be impossible. Considering the food security and to cope with the frequent drought, rice farming and investment for the irrigation water development should be continued even in WTO system.

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