• Title, Summary, Keyword: legumes

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Effect of dietary legumes on bone-specific gene expression in ovariectomized rats

  • Park, Yongsoon;Moon, Hyoun-Jung;Paik, Doo-Jin;Kim, Deog-Yoon
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.185-191
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    • 2013
  • In previous studies, we found that the consumption of legumes decreased bone turnover in ovariectomized rats. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether the protective effects on bone mineral density (BMD) and the microarchitecture of a diet containing legumes are comparable. In addition, we aim to determine their protective actions in bones by studying bone specific gene expression. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats are being divided into six groups during the 12 week study: 1) rats that underwent sham operations (Sham), 2) ovariectomized rats fed an AIN-93M diet (OVX), 3) ovariectomized rats fed an AIN-93M diet with soybeans (OVX-S), 4) ovariectomized rats fed an AIN-93M diet with mung beans (OVX-M), 5) ovariectomized rats fed an AIN-93M diet with cowpeas (OVX-C), and 6) ovariectomized rats fed an AIN-93M diet with azuki beans (OVX-A). Consumption of legumes significantly increased BMD of the spine and femur and bone volume of the femur compared to the OVX. Serum calcium and phosphate ratio, osteocalcin, expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), and the receptor activator of nuclear factor ${\kappa}B$ ligand (RANKL) ratio increased significantly, while urinary excretion of calcium and deoxypyridinoline and expression of TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-6 were significantly reduced in OVX rats fed legumes, compared to OVX rats that were not fed legumes. This study demonstrates that consumption of legumes has a beneficial effect on bone through modulation of OPG and RANKL expression in ovariectomized rats and that legume consumption can help compensate for an estrogen-deficiency by preventing bone loss induced by ovarian hormone deficiency.

Comparison of Forage Yield and Quality of Forage Legume (콩과목초의 사초 수량 및 품질 비교)

  • Kim, J.D.;Kim, S.G.;Kwon, C.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.437-442
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    • 2004
  • Forage legumes are being used as an important source of protein for dairy farm as well as nitrogen fertilizer. This experiment was conducted to evaluate forage production and quality of five legumes at Cheonan Yonam College Experimental Livestock Farm for 1 year(2001-2002). Five legumes were crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) 'Tibbee', hairy vetch(Vicia villosa Roth) 'Common', red clover(Trifolium pratense L.) 'Kenland', persian clover(Trifolium resupinatum L.) 'Leeton', alfalfa(Medicago sativa L.) 'Vernal'. All legumes were shown cold hardiness of 8 rating or higher except crimson clover(7 rating). Flowering stage was observed 23th of April for crimson clover, 13th of May for hairy vetch, 3rd of May for red clover, and 12th of May for alfalfa. But persian clover didn't at harvest. Dry rnatter(DM) of crimson clover(17.6%) was the highest among legumes. In DM and total digestible nutrients(TDN) yields, crimson clover and hairy vetch were higher than those of other legumes. The crude protein of hairy vetch(20.5%) was the highest among legumes. In neutral detergent fiber(NDF) and acid detergent fiber(ADF), persian clover was the lowest(35.0% and 25.0%). Calculations of relative feed value(RFV) based on NDF and ADF of legumes were over 125(Prime degree) except hairy vetch. RFV and TDN of persian clover were the highest among legumes. According to the results of this study, crimson clover and hairy vetch are excellent in forage yield. Persian clover is superior in forage quality among legumes.

Nitrogen Fixation of legumes and Cropping System for Organic Forage Production (두과 작물의 질소고정과 유기조사료생산을 위한 작부체계)

  • 이효원;박형수
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.49-63
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    • 2002
  • In order to supply 85% of total organic feed in ruminants and 80% in non-ruminants for organic animal production, nitrogen fixation ability of legume should be used in domestic roughages production. 50% of Europe organic farmer use intercropping legume in as green manure. This article is dealing with amount of biologically fixed nitrogen used by legumes and methods for estimating the transfer of biologically fixed N in rotation and separating the N benefit into fixed N and non-fixed N components are reviewed. Available data indicate that transfer amount of N to non legumes was from 50∼9.6(kg/ha) in legume-cereal rotations and proportion of legume N varied with seasons, 90% in summer, 50% in autumn. The important point in cropping system for legumes have to be included for organic forage production 6 year rotation is based on pasture system of 3 year pasture + 2 year annual(com, sudangrass), again pasture. Rye, barly and Italian ryegrass+legumes(vetch, crimson and pea) can be one of option in spring, com, soybean, sudangrass and Japanese bamyard millet would be seeded after spring harvest in the field. Farmer can make good use of rice paddy field as forge production potential area after harvesting rice. Italian, burly and rye+vetch and crimsonclover may be grown in autumn or spring time at the rice field.

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Effects of Legume Supplementation on the Gastrointestinal Function and Diabetic Symptoms in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats (두류의 첨가가 당뇨병 쥐의 장기능과 당뇨증세에 미치는 영향)

  • 박수현
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.617-627
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    • 1999
  • The present study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of four kinds of legumes(black soybean: BS, yellow soybean: YS, green peas: GP, soybean curd residue: SCR) as a high-fiber supplement in the therapeutic diet for diabetic patients. Seven groups of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were fed isocaloric experimental diets containing 8% dietary fiber from one of legumes for 6 weeks. The effects of legumes on the gastrointestinal function and diabetic symptoms in diabetic rats were also examined and compared with the effects of cellulose or pectin diet. Legume supplementations had no significant effects on alleviating typical diabetic symptoms such as polydipsia, polyphasia, polyuria, and urinary glucose excretion when compared with cellulose or pectin supplementations. The supplementations of legumes all resulted in remarkable changes in gastrointestinal functions: shortening of GI transit time and increases in fecal volume, fecal water and crude fat contents. Legume supplementations appeared to supress the damages of the small intestine villi and the enteritis symptoms in diabetic rats. GP led to regular villus patterns closer to normal villus. BS, YS and GP led to the enlargement of cecum in diabetic rats. In conclusion, the present studies have demonstrated that legumes may possess a significant physiological actions in the control of various diabetic conditions.

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Detection Characteristics of Hydrocarbons from Irradiated Legumes of Korean and Chinese Origins (국산 및 중국산 두류의 감마선 조사에 따른 Hydrocarbon류의 검출 특성)

  • 이은영;김미옥;이해정;김경수;권중호
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.770-776
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    • 2001
  • To compare chemical properties of irradiated legumes (soybean, peanut, red bean, mung bean) produced in Korea and China, radiation-induced hydrocarbons from the samples were investigated. The legumes were gamma-irradiated at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kGy, from which lipid was extracted with hexane. Hydrocarbons were separated by florisil column chromatography and then analyzed with GC-MS method. The chromatograms of irradiated samples showed several radiation-induced hydrocarbons, which were affected by the fatty acid compositions of legumes. Hydrocarbons, such as 1, 7, 10-hexadecatriene (16:3),6,9-heptadecadiene (17 : 2), 1, 7-hexadecadiene (16 : 2) and 8-heptadecene (17 : 1), were predominantly detected in soybean, peanut and red bean irradiated at 0.5 kGy or above, whereas 17 : 1 was not found in mung bean. The detected amount of hydrocarbons increased with irradiation doses. There is no apparent difference in qualitative and quantitative profiles of the corresponding hydrocarbons depending on the origin of legumes.

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YIELD AND DIGESTIBILITY OF FORAGES IN EAST INDONESIA I. LEGUMES

  • Bulo, D.;Blair, G.J.;Stur, W.;Till, A.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.325-333
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    • 1994
  • This study was undertaken at Gowa, South Sulawesi, Indonesia as part of a larger forage genetic resource evaluation project. The experimental program consisted of a field experiment where grasses and legume species were grown in monocultures and the yield, N content and rumen bag digestibility using goats were measured. The field experiment was conducted from December 1985 to October 1986. Eight species of legumes (Desmodium heterophyllum cv. John-stone, Desmodium triflorum from Gowa, South Sulawesi, Arachis sp. from Maiwa, South Sulawesi, Clitoria ternalea CPI 50973, Macroptilium atropurpureum ev. Siratro, Neonotonia wightii cv. Tinaroo, Centrosema pubescens CPI 58575, Centrosema plumeri CPI 58568) were grown as monocultures. After establishment all plants were cut to a uniform height of 5 cm, and subsequent cuts were made on regrowth after 14, 28, 42, and 56 days (cycle 1). Cycle 2 commenced towards the end of the wet season and continued for 157 days into the dry season. The highest yielding legumes were C. ternatea in the wet season and Arachis sp. in the dry season. The mean rumen bag dry matter digestibility (RBDMD) of legumes of 67.6% for leaf material (averaged over all cycles and ages) was 7.6% higher than for stem material. The RBDMD of Arachis was significantly higher than all other species. The RBDMD of all legumes declined with age. Calculation of yield of digestible DM (yield $\times$ RBDMD) showed that Arachis sp. was the best legume. The combination of plant "quality" with yield measures is a valuable adjunct to routine agronomic survey procedures in plant evaluation programs. Arachis sp. appears to offer considerable promise and should be more widely evaluated.

Physicochemical Characteristic and Antioxidant Activites of Cereals and Legumes in Korea (한국산 잡곡류의 이화학적 특성과 항산화활성)

  • Lee, Ha-Kyu;Hwang, In-Guk;Kim, Hyun-Young;Woo, Koan-Sik;Lee, Seong-Hee;Woo, Seon-Hee;Lee, Jun-Soo;Jeong, Heon-Sang
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.9
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    • pp.1399-1404
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    • 2010
  • Physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of twelve varieties of legumes and cereals in Korea were analyzed and compared. Crude protein content was higher in legumes (20.60~34.47%) than in cereals (8.96~15.45%). Crude fat contents of soybean (17.73%) and black soybean (18.79%) were higher than other legumes (0.68~1.38%) and cereals (1.01~5.39%). The major minerals were potassium, calcium and sodium, and especially calcium and potassium were high in legumes. Unsaturated fatty acids composition ranged from 66.79% in cowpea to 85.14% in soybean, and $\Omega$-3 fatty acids (linolenic acid) content was higher of 7.47~48.25% in legumes than 0.36~3.71% in cereals. Total polyphenol content was higher 1.32~4.15 mg/g in 80% EtOH extracts from legumes than 0.53~2.83 mg/g in cereals. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were high values of 62.60% and 264.20 mg AA eq/g, respectively, in EtOH extract from sorghum.

Effects of Tropical High Tannin Non Legume and Low Tannin Legume Browse Mixtures on Fermentation Parameters and Methanogenesis Using Gas Production Technique

  • Seresinhe, Thakshala;Madushika, S.A.C.;Seresinhe, Y.;La, P.K.;Orskov, E.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.10
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    • pp.1404-1410
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    • 2012
  • In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability of several mixtures of high tanniniferous non legumes with low tanniniferous legumes on in vitro gas production (IVGP), dry matter degradation, Ammonia-N, methane production and microbial population. Eight treatments were examined in a randomized complete block design using four non-legumes and two legumes (Carallia integerrima${\times}$Leucaena leucocephala (LL) (Trt 1), C. integerrima${\times}$Gliricidia sepium (GS) (Trt 2), Aporosa lindeliyana${\times}$LL (Trt 3), A. lindeliyana${\times}$GS (Trt 4), Ceiba perntandra${\times}$LL (Trt 5), C. perntandra${\times}$GS (Trt 6), Artocarpus heterophyllus${\times}$LL (Trt 7), A. heterophyllus${\times}$GS (Trt 8). The condensed tannin (CT) content of non legumes ranged from 6.2% (Carallia integerrima) to 4.9% (Ceiba perntandra) while the CT of legumes were 1.58% (Leucaena leucocephala) and 0.78% (Gliricidia sepium). Forage mixtures contained more than 14% of crude protein (CP) while the CT content ranged from 2.8% to 4.0% respectively. Differences (p<0.05) were observed in in vitro gas production (IGVP) within treatments over a 48 h period dominated by C. perntandra${\times}$G. sepium (Trt 6). The net gas production (p<0.05) was also high with Trt6 followed by A. heterophyllus${\times}$L. leucocephala (Trt 7) and A. heterophyllus${\times}$G. sepium (Trt 8). Highest (p>0.05) NH3-N (ml/200 mg DM) production was observed with the A. heterophyllus${\times}$G. sepium (Trt 8) mixture which may be attributed with it's highest CP content. The correlation between IVGP and CT was 0.675 while IVGP and CP was 0.610. In vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD) was highest in Trt 8 as well. Methane production ranged from 2.57 to 4.79 (ml/200 mg DM) to be synonimous with IVGP. A higher bacteria population (p<0.05) was found in C. perntandra${\times}$G. sepium (Trt 6) followed by Artocarpus heterophyllus+G. sepium (Trt 8) and the same trend was observed with the protozoa population as well. The results show that supplementing high tannin non leguminous forages by incremental substitution of legume forage increased gas production parameters, NH3-N, IVDMD and microbial population in the fermentation liquid. Methane production was not significantly affected by the presence of CT or different levels of CP in forage mixtures. Among non legumes, Ceiba perntandra and Artocarpus heterophyllus performed better in mixture with L. leucocephala and G. sepium.

Screening and Characterization of $\alpha$-Amylase Inhibitors from Cereals and Legumes in Korea (한국산 곡류와 두류 중 $\alpha$-Amylase 저해물질의 검색 및 특성)

  • Sim, Gi-Hwan;Bae, Yeong-Il;Mun, Ju-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.117-124
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    • 1994
  • To investigate characterization of the ${\alpha}$-amylase inhibitors from cereals and legumes produced in Korea, inhibitory activities against ${\alpha}$-amylase with the inhibitor from barley(Hordeum vulgare), wheat(Triticum aestivun), black bean(Glycine max), bean(Cajanus cajon) and pea(Pisum sativum) were measured. Among the samples tested, inhibitors from naked barley and black bean(sabong) which showed the highest inhibitor activities of cereals and legumes, respectively, were characterized according to treatment condition. The results obtained were summarized as follows. During the germination of naked barley and black bean, ${\alpha}$-amylase activities were gradually increased but inhibitory activities against ${\alpha}$-amylases were decreased. Both activities were gradually decreased when naked barley and black bean were stored. More than 50% of activities of the inhibitors from naked barley and black bean were remained at 100$^{\circ}C$ for 15 min and 20 min, respectively, indicating that the inhibitor from black bean was more stable to heat than that of barley.

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Amino Acid Profiles of Tropical Legumes, Cooper (Glycine wightii), Tinaroo (Neonotonia wightii) and Siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum), at Pre-blooming and Blooming Stages

  • Tokita, Norio;Shimojo, Masataka;Masuda, Yasuhisa
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.651-654
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    • 2006
  • An experiment was conducted to investigate amino acid composition of three tropical legumes (Cooper (Glycine wightii), Tinaroo (Neonotonia wightii) and Siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum)) at two different stages (pre-blooming and blooming stages). Chemical composition and totally 16 amino acids of these plants were analysed for comparison of their composition among species at different growing stages and characterizing the amino acid pattern of these legumes. Crude protein content of the plants ranged from 16% to 27% on a dry matter basis. The total amount of 16 amino acids analyzed in this experiment was highest at 89.7 mg/16 g N in Cooper at pre-blooming and lowest at 80.9 mg/16 g N in Glycine at blooming stage. Total amount of amino acids in each legume species tended to slightly decrease with their maturity but no statistical difference was found. The percentage of aspartic acid, glutamic acid and proline in the total amount of amino acids was dominant at 9% to 13%, and that of methionine was less than 1.6%. In this experiment it was concluded that three tropical legumes were rich in crude protein content and characterized by 16 different amino acids with lower sulfur-containing amino acid as methionine.