• Title, Summary, Keyword: lactic acid bacteria

Search Result 2,170, Processing Time 0.05 seconds

Effects of High Pressure Treatment on the Microbiological and Chemical Properties of Milk (초고압 처리가 우유의 미생물학적 및 이화학적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jieun;Choi, Eun-Ji;Park, Sun Young;Jeon, Ga Young;Jang, Ja-Young;Oh, Young Jun;Lim, Seul Ki;Kim, Tae-Woon;Lee, Jong-Hee;Park, Hae Woong;Kim, Hyun Ju;Jeon, Jung Tae;Choi, Hak-Jong
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
    • /
    • v.42 no.3
    • /
    • pp.267-274
    • /
    • 2014
  • High pressure processing (HPP) is a non-thermal method used to prevent bacterial growth in the food industry. Currently, pasteurization is the most common method in use for most milk processing, but this has the disadvantage that it leads to changes in the milk's nutritional and chemical properties. Therefore, the effects of HPP treatment on the microbiological and chemical properties of milk were investigated in this study. With the treatment of HPP at 600 MPa and $15^{\circ}C$ for 3 min, the quantity of microorganisms and lactic acid bacteria were reduced to the level of 2-3 log CFU/ml, and coliforms were not detected during a storage period of 15 d at $4^{\circ}C$. An analysis of milk proteins, such as ${\alpha}$-casein, ${\beta}$-casein, ${\kappa}$-casein, ${\alpha}$-lactalbumin, ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin by on-chip electorophoresis revealed that the electrophoretic pattern of the proteins from HPP-treated milk was different from that of conventionally treated commercial milk. While the quantities of vitamins and minerals in HPP-treated milk were seen to be comparable to amounts found in raw milk, the enzyme activity of lipase, protease and alkaline phosphatase after HPP treatment was reduced. These results suggest that HPP treatment is a viable method for the control of undesirable microorganisms in milk, allowing for minimal nutritional and chemical changes in the milk during the process.

Effects of Different Cultivars and Milling Degrees on Quality Characteristics of Barley Makgeolli (보리의 품종 및 도정률이 막걸리의 품질 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Hye-Young;Choi, Induck;Oh, Sea Kwan;Woo, Koan Sik;Yoon, Soon Duck;Kim, Hyun-Joo;Sim, Eun-Yeong;Jeong, Seok Tae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.44 no.12
    • /
    • pp.1839-1846
    • /
    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cultivar and milling degree of barley on quality characteristics of Makgeolli as well as compare differences between barley Makgeolli and rice Makgeolli. Saessal-bori groups (Ss-4, Ss-12, and Ss-18) showed dry lees contents of 92.3 g, 69.4 g, and 63.8 g, respectively, whereas Huinchalssal-bori groups (Hcs-6, Hcs-14, and Hcs-20) showed contents of 62.3 g, 42.2 g, and 32.2 g. There were significant differences in quality characteristics between milling degrees and cultivars (P<0.05). The moisture, ash, crude protein, and crude fat contents of raw materials decreased with elevated milling degree. Especially, ash content of raw materials had a direct effect on Makgeolli. The pH, total acidity, and amino acidity milling with elevated decreased degree. There were no differences in total sugar or alcohol content in Makgeolli according to milling degree of barley, whereas there were significant differences between cultivars. Barley Makgeolli showed total sugar and alcohol contents of $10.7{\sim}11.8^{\circ}Brix$ and 14.07~15.07%, respectively, which were significantly lower than $12.0{\sim}12.2^{\circ}Brix$ and 17.27~17.77% in rice Makgeolli (P<0.05). Differences in colors of raw barley according to milling degree had effects on chromaticity of Makgeolli; as milling degree increased, L and b values increased. Lactic acid bacteria counts were 7.21, 6.99, and 6.67 log CFU/mL in Ss-4, Ss-12, and Ss-18, respectively, as well as 6.14, 5.39, and 5.65 log CFU/mL in Hcs-6, Hcs-14, and Hcs-20, which suggests significant reductions with increased milling degree (P<0.05). The same trend was observed in yeast as a key quality of Makgeolli. Suspension stability differed depending on milling degree, so it is expected that suspension stability can be improved by adjusting milling degree.

Quality Enhancement of Kimchi by Pre-Treatment with Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water and Mild Heating during Storage (미산성 차아염소산수와 미가열 병용 처리를 통한 원료 전처리 및 김치 저장 중 품질 확보)

  • Park, Joong-Hyun;Kim, Ha-Na;Oh, Deog-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.45 no.2
    • /
    • pp.269-276
    • /
    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to determine the inactivation effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) on microorganisms attached to salted Chinese cabbage and food materials of kimchi, such as slice radish and green onion. In addition, changes in microbial and physicochemical quality of manufactured kimchi during storage at $4^{\circ}C$ for 4 weeks were investigated. Compared to the untreated control with tap water, total bacterial counts (TBC) of Chinese cabbage, slice radish, and green onion were reduced by 1.75, 1.68, and 1.03 log CFU/g at dipping times of 20 min, 5 min, and 10 min, respectively, upon treatment with 30 ppm SAEW at $40^{\circ}C$. Effect of microbial inhibition was higher in salted Chinese cabbage brined in 10% salt (w/v) of 30 pm SAEW at $40^{\circ}C$ than in untreated control with tap water, as indicated by 1.00 log CFU/g reduction. TBC of kimchi manufactured with materials treated with 30 ppm SAEW at $40^{\circ}C$ was not significantly affected compared to untreated control, although coliforms were remarkably reduced compared to the untreated control. At the beginning of storage (1 weeks), TBC and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts increased by approximately 9 and 7.66~8.18 log CFU/g, respectively, and coliforms were completely eliminated. The pH and acidity of kimchi at 2 weeks were 4.34~4.49 and 0.55~0.66%, respectively, and then slowly decreased. The texture (firmness) of kimchi decreased with storage time, but the difference was not significant. This combined treatment might be considered as a potentially beneficial sanitizing method for improving the quality and safety of kimchi.

Fortification of dextran and mannitol in sweet pumpkin by fermentation with Leuconostoc mesenteroides SM (Leuconostoc mesenteroides SM 젖산균 발효를 통한 dextran과 mannitol 강화 단호박 발효물 생산)

  • Lim, Jong-Soon;Son, Young-Cheol;Park, Dong-Cheol;Lee, Sam-Pin
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
    • /
    • v.23 no.5
    • /
    • pp.718-726
    • /
    • 2016
  • Sweet pumpkin paste (SPP) was fermented by Leuconostoc mesenteroides SM at $25^{\circ}C$ for 3 days for enhancing its physicochemical properties. SPPs with 5%, 10%, and 15% solid contents (SC) were fortified with 20% sucrose and 0.5% yeast extract. The unfermented SPP with 15% SC indicated L, a, and b color values of 25.02, 4.66, and 13.35, respectively, and a consistency index of $48.6Pa{\cdot}s^n$. During the 3 days of fermentation, both the a and b color values decreased slightly, whereas the consistency index increased to $188.8Pa{\cdot}s^n$, giving the fermented product a pudding-like consistency. This fermented SPP (15% SC) showed the highest acid production and viable cell counts among samples, indicating pH 3.85, 1.30% acidity and $9.2{\times}10^8CFU/mL$ respectively. The added sucrose was completely utilized after 1 day of fermentation. After 3 days, the insoluble and soluble dextran contents were 8.9% and 4.5%, respectively. Furthermore, the contents of mannitol and fructose were 3.11% and 1.76%, respectively. Regarding the sensory evaluation, this fermented sample also indicated the highest color, taste and texture scores, and was the overall preferred sample. In conclusion, the fermented SPP with 15% SC was carotinoid-rich a wholesome pumpkin-based product that is rich in probiotics and lactic bacteria-produced mannitol and dextran, which gave the product an acceptable viscous pudding-like consistency and good organoleptic properties.

Enhancement of Anti-inflammatory Activity by Fermentation of Sargassum siliquanstrum (꽈배기모자반의 발효를 통한 항염증 활성의 증진)

  • Lee, Sol-Ji;Lee, Dong-Geun;Kim, Mihyang;Kong, Chang-Suk;Yu, Ki-Hwan;Kim, Yuck-Young;Lee, Sang-Hyeon
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.26 no.3
    • /
    • pp.318-324
    • /
    • 2016
  • This study was aimed to verify anti-inflammatory activity of fermented Sargassum siliquanstrum with lactic acid bacteria. Anti-inflammatory activities were compared by measuring the amount of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and suppressive effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in stably transfected RAW 264.7 cells. Inhibitory activities of NO production and iNOS expression were measured after confirmation of NO radical scavenging activities. Fermentation increased NO radical scavenging activities from 7.6% to 15.2% compared to non-fermented condition, and fermentation with Lactobacillus sp. SH-1 was the most efficient. Fermentation without algal debris showed better NO radical scavenging activities than that with debris. Fermentation with Lactobacillus sp. SH-1 also showed the highest NO production inhibitory activity (64.1%) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. LPS-induced iNOS expression was diminished to 28.6, 35.6, 49.4 and 58.5 at 50, 100, 500 and 1,000 μg/ml, respectively, by fermentation with Lactobacillus sp. SH-1. According to MTT assay, fermented S. siliquanstrum did not influence the cell viability at all concentrations tested, meaning no or less cytotoxicity. These results suggest that S. siliquanstrum has NO radical scavenging activity and anti-inflammatory activity. Thus biological activities of S. siliquanstrum were upgraded by fermentation, which could be used for the development of functional foods.

Characterizations of Kefir Grains in Fermented Whey and Their Effects on Inflammatory Cytokine Modulation in Human Mast Cell-1 (HMC-1) (Kefir grain에 의한 유청발효액의 특성과 human mast cell-1 (HMC-1)에서 염증 cytokine 조절에 미치는 영향)

  • Son, Ji Yoon;Park, Young W.;Renchinkhand, Gereltuya;Han, Jung Pil;Bum, Jin Woo;Paik, Seung-Hee;Lee, Jo Yoon;Nam, Myoung Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.26 no.6
    • /
    • pp.689-697
    • /
    • 2016
  • Kefir is an acidic-alcoholic fermented milk product originating from the Caucasian mountains. Kefir has long been known for its probiotic health benefits, including its immunomodulatory effects. The objectives of this study were to investigate the properties of a fermented whey product and to examine the effects of kefir grains on the in vitro immune-modulation of human mast cell-1 (HMC-1). The results showed that the whey fermented by kefir grains contained the maximum lactic acid bacteria and yeast for 16 hr by 1.83×108 and 6.5×105 CFU/ml, respectively, and lactose and whey proteins were partially hydrolyzed. The experimental whey fermented by kefir grains exhibited an in vitro anti-inflammatory effect on the HMC-1 line for 8, 16, and 24 hr, and this effect induced the expression of interleukin (IL)-4 as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, but not for 48 hr by RT-PCR in HMC-1 cells. In addition, the same phenomenon was observed for the expression of IL-8 as a pro-inflammatory cytokine by the kefir-fermented whey during the same periods of 8-48 hr under the same conditions. These cytokines resulted in the production of IL-4 at 20-25 ng in HMC-1 cells for 8, 16, and 24 hr, whereas 5 ng was produced for 48 hr by the fermented whey. In contrast, IL-8 was produced at 15-20 ng in HMC-1 cells during 4, 8, 16, and 24 hr, while 7 ng was produced at 48 hr. It was concluded that the whey fermented by kefir grains possesses a potential anti-inflammatory function, which could be used for an industrial application as an ingredient of functional foods and pharmaceutical products.

Studies on the Nutritional Effects of Locally Produced Dried Formula Milk and Fermented Milk -2. Effect of Feeding Dried Formula Milk and Fermented Milk on the Growing Performance, Protein Utilizability and Intestinal Microbial Changes of Albino Rats (국산(國産) 조제분유(調製粉乳)와 발효유(醱酵乳)의 영양효과(營養效果)에 관한 연구(硏究) - 2. 유제품(乳製品)이 성장기(成長期) 흰쥐에 미치는 영양효과(營養效果) 및 장내미생물(腸內微生物)의 변화(變化)에 관한 연구(硏究) -)

  • Paik, Jeong-J.;Han, In-K.
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.9 no.1
    • /
    • pp.92-98
    • /
    • 1976
  • The present studies were carried out to observe the nutritional effects of three kinds of locally produced dried infantile formula milk (DFM) and one fermented milk (FM). A feeding trial with 60 male growing albino rats weighing $60{\sim}70$ grams was conducted during 6 weeks to compare the nutritive values and protein qualities of three DFM and a FM. The diet treatments consisted of 100% control diet, 70% control diet plus 30% DFM-A, 70% control diet plus 30% DFM-B, 70% control diet plus 30% DFM-C, 100% control diet with FM and 70% control diet plus 30% DFM-B with FM. The items investigated were body weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency ratio (FER), various organ weights, protein efficiency ratio (PER), digestibility of nutrients, biological value, utilizability of protein and intestinal microbial changes of albino rats. The results obtained are summarized as follows; 1. Although there was no statistical significance, rats fed diets containing DFMs and FM gained faster than the rats fed control diet. The best growth rate was obtained with the DFM-A and DFM-C groups. In spite of the lower protein contents of the three DFM diets than the control diet, the growth rate of albino rats fed the DFM diets was somewhat improved than rats fed control diet. 2. No statistical significance was found in feed consumption but the trend was that the feed intake of control group was higher than those of the DFM diet group. 3. Feed efficiency was inproved significantly (p<0.01) by feeding DFMs as compared with control diet. DFM-A group showed the best FER, although no statistical significance was found. 4. Rats fed the DFM diets showed significantly (p<0.01) higher PER as compared with those of the control group. But no difference was found anions DFM groups. The significant improvement (p<0.01) of PER due also to the feeding of FM was seemed to be brought about by the beneficial effect of FM. 5. The present data revealed that feeding DFM and FM didn't affect the weights of various organs of rats. 6. The protein digestibility of experimental diets was similar to each other. Although no statistical significance was found among treatments, the DFMs and FM surely tended to improve the biological value and utilizability of protein. 7. Microbial study indicated that among intestinal flora FM fed group, there were more Lactic acid bacteria than E. coli. From the experimental results described above, it may be concluded that the nutritive effects of three kinds of locally produced DFMs are much alike and the growth rate of growing albino rats can be improved by feeding either DFM or FM due to their beneficial effects on the feed efficiency and protein utilization.

  • PDF

Standardization of Manufacturing Method and Lactic Acid Bacteria Growth and CO2 Levels of Nabak Kimchi at Different Fermentation Temperatures (나박김치의 제조 표준화 및 발효온도별 젖산균의 생육과 CO2 생성)

  • Kong, Chang-Suk;Seo, Jung-Ok;Bak, Soon-Sun;Rhee, Sook-Hee;Park, Kun-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.34 no.5
    • /
    • pp.707-714
    • /
    • 2005
  • Ingredient ratio for making nabak kimchi and the manufacturing method were standardized from the available literatures. Fermentation properties and $CO_2$ production of the nabak kimchi were investigated during the fermentation at $5^{\circ}C,\;10^{\circ}C,\;and\;20^{\circ}C$. Standardized ingredients ratio of nabak kimchi that added 100 mL of water was as follows: 45.0 g baechu cabbage, 26.9 g radish, 1.9 g green onion, 1.0 g red pepper, 1.2 g crushed garlic, 0.9 g crushed ginger, 0.7 g red pepper powder. The standardized manufacturing method of nabak kimchi was as follows: washing ingredients, cutting radish and baechu cabbage $(2.5\times2.5\times0.5\;cm)$, salting for 20 min, washing and draining, pretreatment of ingredients, dissolving red pepper powder in water, blending, mixing, and adding the water to the mixed ingredients. Fermentations at $5^{\circ}C$ for 8 days, at $10^{\circ}C$ for 3 days, and at $20^{\circ}C$ for 1 day led to the acidity levels of $0.21\%,\;0.20\%,\;and\;0.31\%$, respectively. From the relationships between optimally ripened pH and acidity, nabak kimchi showed lower acidity of $0.20\~0.25\%$ with pH $4.2\~4.5.$ Like other kinds of kimchi, the Levels of Leuconostoc sp. were high specially at later stage of fermentation at low temperature $(5^{\circ}C)$. However, the levels of Lactobacillus sp. were low at $5^{\circ}C$. Nabak kimchi produced high levels of $CO_2$ in the initial fermentation period and followed by rapid decrease of $CO_2$ production with the fermentation. From the relationships between pH and $CO_2$ content, the highest $CO_2$ contents were found pH $4.0\~4.4$, 3.8 and 3.4 at $5^{\circ}C,\;10^{\circ}C$, and $20^{\circ}C$, respectively. This fact indicated that fermentation at $5^{\circ}C$ has the highest $CO_2$ content at optimally ripened pH of 4.3 and the fermentation at lower temperature such as $5^{\circ}C$ could extend the eatable time of nabak kimchi.

The Qualitiy Characteristics of Kimchi added Vinegar, Mustard and Leaf Vegetables (식초, 겨자, 잎채소를 첨가한 김치의 품질특성)

  • Pak, Hee-Ok;Sohn, Chun-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
    • /
    • v.26 no.4
    • /
    • pp.841-849
    • /
    • 2013
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics of Kimchi, prepared with seasoning fluid, vinegar, and mustard extract to inhibit the proliferation of microorganisms and extend the edible period during fermentation at $25^{\circ}C$. We also added perilla leaf, endive, and mustard leaf to Kimchi to improve the flavor. The pH of control Kimchi fluid over 1 day after Kimchi processing, was $5.40{\pm}0.01$ and that of the experimental groups in which vinegar and mustard extract were added was $4.51{\pm}0.01{\sim}4.52{\pm}0.01$, which was lower than that of the control. As the fermentation progresses, the pH of the control decreased rapidly and that of the experimental groups decreased slowly. The initial titratible acidity of the control was low and 3 days later reached $0.95{\pm}0.04$. However, that of the experimental groups was $0.42{\pm}0.01{\sim}0.43{\pm}0.02$ and 5 days later reached a level similar to that of the control. The salinities of the Kimchi juice of both the control and the experimental groups were $2.67{\pm}0.06{\sim}2.80{\pm}0.10$% after 1 day and decreased during fermentation. The amount of lactic acid bacteria of the control was $8.17{\pm}4.01{\times}10^8cfu/g$, 1 day after the Kimchi processing and that of the experimental groups was $2.70{\pm}2.08{\times}10^7{\sim}3.63{\pm}2.80{\times}10^7cfu/g$. After 3 days, these were $3.13{\pm}1.94{\times}10^{11}cfu/g$ and $2.47{\pm}2.23{\times}10^9{\sim}8.03{\pm}3.71{\times}10^9cfu/g$, respectively. According to the result of sensory evaluation, throughout the entire period of the experiment, all sensory items such as color, odor, taste, texture, and total acceptability of the experimental groups were better than those of the control group (p<0.05). Especially, Kimchi in which perilla leaf was added was the best. With the addition of vinegar and mustard extract to the Kimchi, microorganism proliferation was inhibited and the edible period was extended. The minerals, vitamins and antioxidants of leaf vegetables could therefore be obtained.

Halitosis and Related Factors among Rural Residents (농촌지역 주민들의 구취실태와 유발요인)

  • Lee, Young-Ok;Hong, Jung-Pyo;Lee, Tae-Yong
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
    • /
    • v.32 no.2
    • /
    • pp.157-175
    • /
    • 2007
  • This study was conducted through an interview process in which questionnaires were administered to 293 people. The questionnaires related to the behaviors of oral hygiene care, and disease history related to halitosis, and status of halitosis, halitosis measurement, oral examination, and caries activity tests such as the snyder test, Salivary flow rate test, and Salivary buffering capacity test. Our sample was taken from 293 rural residents within the period from 4th to 21st of January 2006. This was done in order to provide basic data to prepare both policies of halitosis prevention and a device to efficiently measure halitosis status and investigate the factors related therein. The major findings of this study results are as follows: 1. As for frequency of tooth brushing, twice a day occupied the greatest portion at 46.1 % Women exceeded men in frequency of tooth brushing. Tongue brushing everyday produced a 25.6 % result among subjects and The use of auxiliary oral hygiene devices occupied 9.2 %. 2. As for degree of usual self-awareness of halitosis: 62.5 %. This result also demonstrate that the severest time of self-awareness in regards to halitosis is wake up time in the morning. The time period produced the highest portion of 72.7 % in times of self-awareness. In terms of the area in which halitosis was observed, gum resulted in 23.0 %. As for types of halitosis, fetid smell was the most frequent at 37.2 %. 3. As for the result of halitosis measurement, values of OG less than 50 ppm occupied 54.3 % and $50{\sim}100ppm$ occupied 41.6 %. As for $NH_3$ values, $20{\sim}60ppm$ showed the highest value range of 52.6 %. 4. As for OG per disease history related to halitosis, values of OG were significantly high in the ranges of $50{\sim}100ppm$ within family history groups of food impaction by dental caries, diabetes mellitus and halitosis. As for values of $NH_3$, there showed a significant difference in respiratory system disease groups. 5 Value range of OG per ordinary halitosis self-awareness degree: values ranging less than 50 ppm were recorded at 55.9 % from the group realizing not aware of smell. 57.5 % from groups only realizing sometimes, while values range of $50{\sim}100ppm$ were recorded at 52.0 % from groups always aware of smell. 63.6 % from groups always strongly aware of smell. Meanwhile as for the values ranges of $NH_3$, $20{\sim}60ppm$. they occupied high portions for all groups of exams. 6. Values of OG per oral examination: the more pulp-exposed teeth and food impaction and the higher the tongue plaque index, values of OG increased within the range of $50{\sim}100ppm$. As for values of $NH_3$, the more prosthetic teeth and the higher the tongue plaque index, this value increased significantly, and the values increased up to no less than 60 ppm for groups of mandibular partial denture. 7. Within the realm of caries activity test: as for the Snyder test, high activity was highest by 43.0 % wherewith the higher the activity of acidogenic bacteria the higher the OG values. As for the salivary flow rate test, the number of cases below 8.0 ml showed the highest tendency by 62.5 %. The larger the salivary flow rate the more decreased OG values distribution. As for the salivary buffering capacity test, $6{\sim}10$ drops of 0.1N lactic acid showed the overwhelming trend by 58.7 % whereby the higher the salivary buffering capacity the greater distribution occupancy ratio of OG values below 50 ppm which is scentless to on ordinary person. 8. As for the correlation between oral environment and halitosis, OG showed the positive correlation with pulp exposed teeth, filled teeth, present teeth, tongue plaque index, and food impaction, while the negative correlation with salivary flow rate and prosthetic teeth. $NH_3$ showed a positive correlation with prosthetic teeth and frequency of tooth brushing, while decayed teeth was negative correlation. 9. As for the multiple regression analysis result, there have been selected female, pulp exposed teeth, prosthetic teeth, food impaction, salivary flow rate, tongue plaque index and severe activities in the Snyder test as factors affecting OG wherein explanatory power on it was 45.1 %. There have been selected females, pulp exposed teeth, tongue plaque index, and prosthetic teeth as factors affecting on $NH_3$ wherein explanatory power on it was 6.6 %. With the aforementioned results in mind, the status of halitosis among rural residents is considered to bare a close relation with oral environments and other factors related to halitosis such as the Snyder test from caries activity test, and salivary flow rate test. For the prevention of halitosis of residents in rural areas, we have to focus on correct tooth brushing methods and tongue brushing, with using auxiliary oral hygiene devices to remove fur of tongue plaque and food impaction. Also, when the cause and ingredients of halitosis are diverse and complex, in order to analyze exactly the factors of individual halitosis development, we need continuous and systematic study in order to provide rural residents with programs of oral hygiene education and encourage the use of dental hygienists in public health centers.