• Title, Summary, Keyword: koji

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Physiological Function and Enzyme Activity of Koji Cultured by Aspergillus oryzae CNU O4-5 in the Various Grain Materials (원료(原料)의 종류(種類)와 형태(形態)에 따른 Aspergillus oryzae 국(麴)의 생리활성(生理活性) 및 효소력(酵素力))

  • Choi, Seong Hyun;Jeong, Jae-Hong;Lee, Sang Duck;Son, Hwa Young;Sung, Chang;Oh, Man Jin;Kim, Seung Yeol
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.283-289
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    • 1997
  • CNU O4-5 isolated from conventional Meju, which is used as raw material for making a soybean fermentation food, identified as an Aspergillus oryzae. To make koji, Aspergillus oryzae CNU O4-5 was cultured for 3-4 days at $30^{\circ}C$ with various grain materials such as flour, soybean powder, flour+soybean powder(1:1), soaked soybean and rice. The koji was evaluated for analyze the angiotesin converting enzyne(ACE) inhibition, antioxidative activity, superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity, amylase and protease activity. $\alpha$-amylase and glucoamylase activities of flour koji were higher than those of the koji soybean powder. However neutral and alkaline protease activities of flour koji were lower than those of flour+soybean powder and soybean koji. Amylase and protease activities of kojies of soaked soybean and rice showed very low level. The range of the ACE inhibition rate by hot water fraction of the kojies, which are cultured with various gain materials, were from 45% to 54%. The anti oxidative activity of ethanol-fraction of koji, which is made by using the soybean powder or soaked soybean, prolonged for 6 days in lard at $60^{\circ}C$. The SOD activity of grinded fraction of koji, which is made by using the flour or soybean powder, was same as 2,000 units per g of each koji.

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Chemical composition changes in fermented Doenjang depend on Doenjang koji and its mixture (된장 koji 및 그 혼합에 따른 된장 숙성 과정중의 화학성분 변화)

  • Joo, Hyun-Kyu;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Oh, Kyun-Teak
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.351-360
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    • 1992
  • In order to improve the qualities of Doenjang were investigated on the enzyme activity in the koji and changes in chemical composition, flavors and sensory envaluation of Doenjang which were prepared with Rh. delemar koji, Asp. oryzae koji and traditional Meju with mixed koji and soybean as the ratio of optimum mixture. Asp. oryzae koji was indicated highest activities ${\alpha}$ and ${\beta}-amylase$ as 312 mg/ml, 235 mg/ml while Rh. delemar the lowest activities as 16 mg/ml, 38 mg/ml in aging for 40 days amino type ntrogen was the highest in the Asp. oryzae and Rh. delmear mixture koji(D group), Asp. oryzae(A group), and Asp. oryzae koji and Rh. delemar koji(C group) as 460 mg%, 440 mg% and 426 mg% in aging for 40 days. The main flavor components of Doenjang were detected as fellows phenol-2-kmethoxy, 4H-pyran-4-one-3-hydroxy-2-methyl, benzenthanol, 1-octan-3-ol, tetra-methyl pryrazine, 1,3,6 cyclooctatrien. Asp. oryzae(A) and Asp. oryzae koji with Rh. delemar koji mixture(C), group were the most excellent in taste, flavor color for fermented Doenjang at 40 days.

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Physicochemical Properties of Kochujang Prepared by Bacillus sp. Koji (Bacillus sp. koji가 고추장의 품질 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Dong-Han;Choi, Hee-Jeong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.1174-1181
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    • 2003
  • A part of Aspergillus oryzae koji was replaced with Bacillus sp. koji to improve the quality of kochujang, and the resulting effects on enzyme activities, microbial characteristics, and physicochemical properties were investigated during fermentation. The activity of amylase was higher in the kochujang prepared with Asp. oryzae koji. The activity of protease increased as the ratio of Bacillus. sp. koji increased. Viable cell counts of yeast and bacteria of the kochujang increased with increasing ratio of Bacillus sp. koji. The Hunter a-values of the Bacillus sp. koji kochujang were higher, and the degree of increase in the total color difference $({\Delta}\;E)$ was lower in the Bacillus sp. koji group. Consistency and water activity of the kochujang prepared with Bacillus sp. koji was higher, and the pH and titratable acidity of the kochujang also changed slightly. As the ratio of Asp. oryzae koji increased, sugar content decreased. However, the ethanol content of the kochujang did not significantly change. Amino nitrogen content of the kochujang increased, while ammonia nitrogen content decreased as the ratio of Bacillus sp. koji increased. After 12 weeks of fermentation, the result of sensory evaluation showed that C kochujang (75% of Asp. oryzae koji replaced by Bacillus sp.) was more acceptable (p<0.05) than the other groups in taste, color, flavor, and overall acceptability.

Characteristics of Kochujang Prepared by Monascus anka koji (홍국 코오지를 이용한 고추장의 특성)

  • 서형주;정수현;홍재훈;이효구;조원대
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.61-66
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to improve the palatability of kochujang. The activities of liquefying amylase and saccharogenic amylase in Monacus anka koji were lower than those in Asp. oryzae koji. The acid protease activity(1.4 units/g) in M. anka koji was also lower than that(1.6 units/g) in Asp. oryzae koji. Glucosamine amount in Asp. oryzae koji was 1075 g, and that in M. anka koji was 318 g. Four kinds of Kochujang were prepared with Asp. oryzae koji(A), M. anka koji(M), mixed koji of Asp. oryzae and M. anka(A+M), and mixture of M. anka koji and malt(M+M). The pH of four kinds of kochujang was 5.1 in the beginning and was between 4.70~4.83 after 120 days of fermentation. Reducing sugar of kochujang was between 16.3~20.7% after fermentation and kochujang prepared with M+M showed the highest reducing sugar content. Amino nitrogen of kochujang was between 182 mg%~230 mg% after fermentation and the highest amino nitrogen content was observed at kochujang prepared with A+M. Kochujang prepared with M and M+M showed higher a value than kochujang prepared with A and A+M.

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Changes in the Physiochemical Quality of Sailfin Sandfish Arctoscopus japonicus Sauces Fermented with Soybean Koji or Rice Koji during Storage at Room Temperature (Soybean koji와 Rice koji를 첨가하여 발효한 도루묵(Arctoscopus japonicus) 액젓의 상온 저장 중 이화학적 품질변화)

  • Jun, Joon-Young;Lim, Yeong-Seon;Lee, Mi-Hyang;Kim, Byoung-Mok;Jeong, In-Hak
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.101-108
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    • 2016
  • We investigated changes in the physiochemical quality of sailfin sandfish sauces fermented with two kojis during long-term storage at room temperature. Four fish sauces, including a control, were prepared by salt-fermentation with soybean koji (S-koji) or rice koji (R-koji) after autolysis. During storage, for 12 months, the color and levels of amino acids, total volatile base nitrogen (T-VBN) and organic acids but not moisture, salt or total nitrogen levels or pH differed markedly according to fish sauce type. The total nitrogen level was highest in S-koji, but there was no difference in the rate of increase in amino acid levels among the four fish sauces during storage. The T-VBN, of autolysis and S-koji were significantly higher than those of the control and R-koji during the entire storage period (P<0.05). The initial organic acid level did not differ among the four fish sauces, whereas it was notably higher in R-koji than in the other sauces at the end of storage. Hunter L, a and b values decreased in all fish sauces with increasing storage time. In conclusion, soybean koji may enhance the levels of nitrogen compounds as well as T-VBN in fish sauce, while rice koji reduced the formation of excess T-VBN and increased organic acid levels during storage at room temperature.

Studies on the Processing of Accelerated Low Salt-Fermented Anchovy Paste by Adding Koji (Koji를 이용한 저식염 멸치젓의 속성제조에 관한 연구)

  • 차용준;김은정;주동식
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.348-352
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    • 1994
  • The adding effect of Koji, made by Aspergillus oryzae, in low salt-fermented anchovy paste was studied to reduced fermentation time and to enhance flavor quality as a commercial feasibility in seafood industry. The content of volatile basic nitrogen increased slowly during fermentation , whereas that of amino nitrogen was the highest in 30 days of low salt-fermented anchovy made with Koji. Protease and lipase activity in anchovy paste, which made with or without Koji, were high amount in 30 and 20 days of fermentation, respectively. A number of proteolytic bacteria was high level in 13 days and then slowly decreased afterward.

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Characteristics of Koji Molds Isolated from Koji-Starters for Brewing in Korea and Japan (한국 및 일본의 주류용 종국에서 분리한 국균 곰팡이의 특성)

  • 오명환
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 1993
  • 19 Samples of koji-starters using in brewing were collected from Korea and Japan, and then 31 strains of koji-molds were isolated from them. After Identification of the Isolate, rice koji was made with each strains, and its saccharogenic activity, dextrogenic activity, proteolytic activity, acid Producing ability, browning reaction and flavor were tested. Among 31 strains of isolates, 10 strains were Identified as Asp nwamori var. kawachii, 18 strains as Asp. oryzae, 3 strains as Asp. usamii mkt. shirousamii. The koji-starters made in Korea were composed of single species of koji-mold with same strain, but those made in Japan were composed of the mixture of different two species or the mixture of different 2 ∼4 strains in same species. Judging from amylolytic and proteolytic ability by species, Asp. awamori var. kawachii H1, I1 and 11, Asp. owsae J2, L2, M2, P3 and P4, and Asp. usamii writ. shirousamii S1 were better than the others. Mold strains isolated from Korean koji-starters were much lower in amylolytic or proteolytic activity than those from Japanese koji-starters. The typical characteristics for the 3 species of koji-molds were that Asp. awamori var. kawachii was strong in acid producing ability, but week in amylolytic and proteolytic ability, that Asp. owzae had strong amylolytic activity and good aroma, but produced little amount of acid, and that Asp. usamii mut. shirousamii had strong Proteolytic activity but some off-flavor.

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Evaluation in physicochemical properties of soy sauce fortified with soymilk residue (okara koji) (비지 koji 첨가에 따른 양조간장의 발효 중 이화학적 특성 평가)

  • Song, Young-Cheol;Lee, Sam-Pin
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.818-826
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    • 2013
  • To evaluate the practical use of okara koji in soy sauce fermented with soybean koji, the okara koji was fortified with different contents (0, 50, and 100%) in soybean koji and then fermented for 90 days. The saltiness of the soy sauce was about 17.15~17.22%. The higher okara koji content showed lower net soluble solid contents of 8.73, 6.12, and 2.50%, as well as lower acidity levels of 1.09, 0.98, and 0.47%. The buffering capacity of the soy sauce decreased to 1.26-3.41 by adding higher okara koji. The protease activity was higher in the soy sauce with 50% orara koji and decreased with longer fermentation. Also, the tyrosine content peaked to 275.2 mg% after 90 days. ${\alpha}$-amylase showed higher activity in the soy sauces fortified with okara koji, which resulted in the highest total sugar and reducing sugar contents after 60 days. The total sugar and the reducing sugar in the soy source decreased after longer fermentation. The total free amino acid contents of the soy sources fortified with okara koji (0, 50, and 100%) were 41.68 mg/mL, 33.10 mg/mL, and 9.27 mg/mL, respectively. In particular, the glutamic acid contents of the three types of soy sauces were highest, and most amino acids, except for glutamine, increased during the fermentation for 90 days. The sensory evaluation, except of the saltiness and color, showed similar values in the soy sauces, except in the okara koji 100%. Thus, okara koji could be a valuable ingredient of traditional soy sauces. However, the 50% okara koji did not differ significantly from the others.

Economic Evaluation of Duck Livestock Management in Utilizing of Various Forms of Houttuynia cordata With Fermented Red Koji as Feed Additives in a Field Study (여러 제형의 발효홍국 어성초를 오리사료첨가제로 적용한 현장연구에서 오리축산경영의 경제성 평가)

  • Jang, Woo-Whan;Chung, Yung-Ho;Choi, In Hag
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.345-348
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    • 2018
  • The influence of various forms of Houttuynia cordata with fermented red koji as feed additives on the performance of duck livestock was evaluated through a field study. Two hundred and forty ducks (Pekins) aged 0-38 d were used. They were randomly assigned to four treatment groups (0%, 1% H. cordata powder with fermented red koji, 1% H. cordata pelleted with fermented red koji, and 1% H. cordata coated with fermented red koji) with four replicates (15 ducks per replication). Foreconomic evaluation, the data (a total of 240 duck) obtained from each treatment were applied to 10,000 ducks per treatment 38-d after the feeding trial. Overall, the results of economic evaluation were the highest in the treatment with 1% H. cordata coated with fermented red koji, followed by 1% H. cordatapelleted with fermented red koji, 1% H. cordatapowder with fermented red koji, and control. In conclusion, using 1% H. cordatawith fermented red koji as coating and pellet type duck diets might be of economic advantage for sustainable environmental management.

Improvement in the Quality of Takju by a Modified Nuruk (개량누룩의 사용에 의한 탁주의 품질개선)

  • 이영숙
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.427-432
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    • 1999
  • Physicochemical and sensory properties of Takju which was brewed with a modified Nuruk made by inoculation and cultivation of Rhizopus japonicus T2. Aspergillus oryzae L2. and Hansenula sp. BC26 isolated from Nuruk were investigated as compared with those with current fermenting agents such as com-mercial Nuruk and rice koji of Aspergillus kawachii. The contents of total acid were 0.88% 0.47% and 0.39% in mash of commercial Nuruk rice koji and modified Nuruk respectively. The contents of alcohol were 15.5% 15.1% and 9.0% in mash of modified Nuruk rice koji and commercial Nuruk respectively. The contents of reducing sugar were 2.80% 1.24% and 0.80% in mash of commercial Nuruk modified Nuruk and rice koji respectively. The contents of amino acid were 0.55% 0.47% and 0.23% in mash of modified Nuruk commercial Nuruk and rice koji respectively. Suspended solids were sedimented much more slowly in Takju of modified Nuruk or commercial Nuruk than in that of rice koji Color was pre-ferred in the order of Takju of modified Nuruk commercial Nuruk and rice koji. Odor and taste were preferred in the order of Takju of modified Nuruk rice koji and commercial Nuruk. Therefore it seem-ed that the Takju of modified Nuruk was better than that of commercial Nuruk or rice koji in quality.

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