• Title, Summary, Keyword: knee extension torque

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Development of Knee Ankle Foot Orthosis for Gait Rehabilitation Training using Plantaflexion and Knee Extension Torque (족저굴곡과 무릎 신전 토크를 이용한 보행 재활 훈련용 장하지 보조기 개발)

  • Kim, Kyung;Kim, Jae-Jun;Heo, Min;Jeong, Gu-Young;Ko, Myoung-Hwan;Kwon, Tae-Kyu
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.948-956
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a prototype KAFO (Knee-Ankle-Foot Orthosis) powered by two artificial pneumatic muscles during walking. We had previously built powered AFO (Ankle-Foot Orthosis) and KO (Knee Orthosis) and used it effectively in studies on assistance of plantaflexion and knee extension motion. Extending the previous study to a KAFO presented additional challenges related to the assistance of gait motion for rehabilitation training. Five healthy males were performed gait motion on treadmill wearing KAFO equipped with artificial pneumatic muscles to power ankle plantaflexion and knee extension. Subjects walked on treadmill at 1.5 km/h under four conditions without extensive practice: 1) without wearing KAFO, 2) wearing KAFO with artificial muscles turned off, 3) wearing KAFO powered only in plantaflexion under feedforward control, and 4) wearing KAFO powered both in plantaflexion and knee extension under feedforward control. We collected surface electromyography, foot pressure and kinematics of ankle and knee joint. The experimental result showed that a muscular strength of wearing KAFO powered plnatarfexion and knee extension under feedforward control was measured to be lower due to pneumatic assistance and foot pressure of wearing KAFO powered plnatarfexion and knee extension under feedforward control was measured to be greater due to power assistance. In the result of motion analysis, the ankle angle of powered KAFO in terminal stance phase was found a peak value toward plantaflexion and there were difference of maximum knee flexion range among condition 2, 3 and 4 in mid-swing phase. The current orthosis design provided plantaflexion torque of ankle jonit in terminal stance phase and knee extension torque of knee joint in mid-swing phase.

A Study on the Effect of Quadriceps Torque at the Isokinetic Mode in Patients with Hemiplegia and Healthy Subjects (Case-Control Study) (편마비 환자 및 정상인에 있어서 등속성모드로 측정한 대퇴사두근 근력에 관한 연구)

  • Jang, Moon-Heon;Ko, Joo-Yeon
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.229-240
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    • 1999
  • I examined the isokinetic knee extension mean torque in 30 patients with hemiplegia and 30 healthy subjects matched by age, sex, height, and weight at knee extension velocities of $30^{\circ},\;60^{\circ},\;90^{\circ}$, and $120^{\circ}$/sec. The purpose of this study is as follows: first, to compare isokinetic data between the involved and uninvolved side of patients and healthy subjects. secondly, to determine whether the relative decreases in knee extension mean torque at velocities greater than $30^{\circ}$/sec were different on the two sides. Mean torque of quadriceps on both sides of patients with hemiplegia was significantly less than the mean torque of muscle of healthy subjects at various speeds. Relative decreases in knee extension mean torque differed between speeds, but not between sides. Torque at speed greater than $30^{\circ}$/sec were correlated significantly with the torque at $30^{\circ}$0/sec. These finding indicated that isokinetic testing can provide objective information about quadriceps muscle performance in hemiplegia, and suggested that hemiplegia may have difficulty in moving forcefully at higher speeds than $30^{\circ}$/sec because they are weak. Therapeutic intervention, therefore, might be most beneficial when they are directed toward helping patients with hemiplegia activate their muscle weakness.

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A Study on the Effects of Quadriceps Femoris Flexibility Exercise on the Functional Ability of the Patients with Degenerated Arthritis (대퇴사두근 유연성 운동이 퇴행성 슬관절염 환자의 기능활동정도에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang, Don-Young;Lee, Wan-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.67-75
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of quadriceps femoris flexibility exercise which would improve the degree of knee flexion range of motion, extension torque, and the activities of daily living (ADL) in elderly subjects with degenerative knee arthritis. Fourteen elderly patients (two men and twelve women) with degenerative knee arthritis participated and had a quadriceps femoris flexibility exercise intervention program in this study. The mean age of the patients was 70.00 years for men and 71.16 years for women. This study carried out the experimental study of one group pretest-posttest design, which evaluated the degree of knee flexion range of motion, extension torque, the ADL ability of the patients before and after applying the exercise intervention for five weeks. The results of this study are as follow: 1. The knee flexion ranges of motion of the patients were measured before and after the intervention and the ranges increased significantly both in the left and right knee flexion range of motion (p < 0.05). 2. The peak torque of the knee muscle, the peak torque/body weight, and average power of the patients showed significant increases in both in the left and right knee after applying the intervention (p < 0.05). 3. The intervention produced a significant reduction in pain of the patients (p < 0.05). Their functional activities of ADL improved significantly compared with before the intervention (p < 0.05). It has been shown that the quadriceps femoris flexibility exercise intervention program increased significantly the knee flexion range of motion, and extension torque, as well as an increase in performance of functional activities of ADL of the patients. Thus, the quadriceps femoris flexibility exercise should be considered as one of the therapeutic exercises for the elderly patients with degenerative knee arthritis applied.

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Isokinetic Evaluation of Plantarflexors with Knee Position (슬관절의 자세에 따른 족관절 저측굴곡근의 등속성 근력 평가)

  • Bae Sung-Soo;Lee Hyun-Ok;Lee Keun-Heui
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.145-152
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    • 2000
  • Pcak torque. angle of peak torque occurrence. total work, average power. endurance of the ankle plantar flexors were studied with the knee positioned $0^{\circ}\;and\;90^{\circ}$ flexion. Plantar flexors of 20 students were tested on Cybex 6000 dynamometer. The results were as fallows ; 1. The peak torque values were significantly higher with knee extension than knee $90^{\circ}$ flexion. 2. The angle of peak torque occurrence were earlier with knee extension than knee $90^{\circ}$ flexion, but no significant. 3. The total work were significantly higher with knee extension than knee $90^{\circ}$ flexion. at$30^{\circ}/sec$, but no significant at $90^{\circ}/sec$ 4. The endurance ratio were higher significantly with knee $90^{\circ}$ flex ion than knee extension 5. The mean average power were significantly higher with knee extension than knee $90^{\circ}$ flextion

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Comparison of Isometric Knee Extension Torque-Angle Relationship between Taekwondo Athletes and Normal Adults (태권도 선수와 일반인의 등척성 무릎신전 토크-각도 관계 특성 비교 분석)

  • Jo, Gye-Hun;Oh, Jeong-Hoon;Lee, Hae-Dong
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.275-281
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    • 2015
  • Objective : In order for Taekwondo athletes to perform destructive kicking performance, they are expected to have Taekwondo-specific muscle properties such as high muscle strength and power. The purpose of this study was to investigate the joint angle-dependent force-producing property of Taekwondo athletes' knee extensor muscles, which is one of the primary muscle groups involved in kicking performance. Method : Ten Taekwondo male athletes (age: $19.9{\pm}0.7yrs$, height: $180.6{\pm}6.2cm$, body mass: $75.9{\pm}8.9kg$, career: $9.2{\pm}2.9yrs$.) and 10 healthy male non-athletes (age: $26.3{\pm}2.6yrs$, height: $174.2{\pm}4.8cm$, body mass: $72.8{\pm}7.7kg$) participated in this study. Subjects performed maximum isometric knee extension at knee joint angles of $40^{\circ}$, $60^{\circ}$, $80^{\circ}$, and $100^{\circ}$ (the full knee extension was set to $0^{\circ}$) with the hip joint angles of $0^{\circ}$ and $80^{\circ}$ (the full extension was set to $0^{\circ}$). During the contractions, knee extension torque using an isokinetic dynamometer simultaneously with muscle activities of the rectus femoris (RF), and the vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) using surface electromyography were recorded. Based on the torque values at systematically different knee-hip joint angles, the joint torque-angle relationships were established and then the optimal joint angle for the knee extensor was estimated. Results : The results of this study showed that the isometric knee extension torque values were greater for the Taekwondo athletes compared with the non-athlete group at all hip-knee joint angle combinations (p<.05). When the hip joint was set at $80^{\circ}$, the peak isometric torque was greater for the Taekwondo athletes compared with the non-athlete group ($313.61{\pm}36.79Nm$ and $221.43{\pm}35.92Nm$, respectively; p<.05) but the estimated optimum knee joint angles were similar ($62.33{\pm}5.71^{\circ}$ and $62.30{\pm}4.67^{\circ}$ for the Taekwondo athletes and non-athlete group, respectively). When the hip joint was set at $0^{\circ}$, the peak isometric torque was greater for the Taekwondo athletes compared with the non-athlete group ($296.29{\pm}45.13Nm$ and $199.58{\pm}25.23Nm$, respectively; p<.05) and the estimated optimum knee joint angle was larger for the Taekwondo athletes compared with the non-athlete group ($78.47{\pm}5.14^{\circ}$ and $67.54{\pm}5.77^{\circ}$, respectively; p<.05). Conclusion : The results of this study suggests that, compared with non-athletes, Taekwondo athletes have stronger knee extensor strength at all hip-knee joint angle combinations as well as longer optimum muscle length, which might be optimized for the event-specific required performance through prolonged training period.

Effect of High-frequency Diathermy on Hamstring Tightness

  • Kim, Ye Jin;Park, Joo-Hee;Kim, Ji-hyun;Moon, Gyeong Ah;Jeon, Hye-Seon
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.65-71
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    • 2021
  • Background: The hamstring is a muscle that crosses two joints, that is the hip and knee, and its flexibility is an important indicator of physical health in its role in many activities of daily living such as sitting, walking, and running. Limited range of motion (ROM) due to hamstring tightness is strongly related to back pain and malfunction of the hip joint. High-frequency diathermy (HFD) therapy is known to be effective in relaxing the muscle and increasing ROM. Objects: To investigate the effects of HFD on active knee extension ROM and hamstring tone and stiffness in participants with hamstring tightness. Methods: Twenty-four participants with hamstring tightness were recruited, and the operational definition of hamstring tightness in this study was active knee extension ROM of below 160° at 90° hip flexion in the supine position. HFD was applied to the hamstring for 15 minutes using the WINBACK device. All participants were examined before and after the intervention, and the results were analyzed using a paired t-test. The outcome measures included knee extension ROM, the viscoelastic property of the hamstring, and peak torque for passive knee extension. Results: The active knee extension ROM significantly increased from 138.8° ± 9.9° (mean ± standard deviation) to 143.9° ± 10.4° after the intervention (p < 0.05), while viscoelastic property of the hamstring significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Also, the peak torque for knee extension significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Application of HFD for 15 minutes to tight hamstrings immediately improves the active ROM and reduces the tone, stiffness, and elasticity of the muscle. However, further experiments are required to examine the long-term effects of HFD on hamstring tightness including pain reduction, postural improvement around the pelvis and lower extremities, and enhanced functional movement.

The Effects of Strength Training on Knee Joint Torque During Walking in an Adolescent With Down Syndrome: A Single Case Study (근력훈련이 다운증후군 청년의 무릎 관절 토크에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Bee-Oh
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.73-81
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of strength training on knee joint torque during walking in an adolescent with trisomy-21 Down syndrome. One adolescent with Down syndrome and one normal child participated in this study. Strength training consisted of eight exercises: squat, hamstring curl, hip adduction, hip abduction, knee extension, toe raise, sit-ups, and hyperextension of the waist. The participant with Down syndrome was participated in strength training for 12 weeks, three times a week, three sets, 10-15 RM; resistance was adjusted according to the principle of progressive overload. To measure the effect of strength training, isokinetic strength variables and knee joint torques were measured before training and after 12 weeks of training. The participant with Down syndrome had some abnormalities in controlling knee motion during walking due to muscle hypotonia, ligament laxity, and weakness of muscles. Post-training isokinetic strength increased compared to pre-training measurements. Knee range of motion were increased after strength training. Strength training did not affect ad/adduction and in/exteranl moments but did have an effect on flexor/extensor moment and timing.

The Effect of Short-term Muscle Vibration on Knee Joint Torque and Muscle Firing Patterns during a Maximal Voluntary Isometric Contraction

  • Lee, Jiseop;Song, Junkyung;Ahn, Jooeun;Park, Jaebum
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.83-90
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    • 2017
  • Objective: To investigate the effect of short-term vibration frequencies on muscle force generation capabilities. Method: Six healthy participants were recruited for this study and only their dominant leg was tested. The subjects were tested under five conditions of vibration frequencies with constant amplitude: 0 Hz (no vibration), 30 Hz, 60 Hz, and 90 Hz, and the vibration amplitude was 10 mm for all frequency conditions. The vibration was applied to the rectus femoris (RF). The subjects were then instructed to maintain a steady-state isometric knee joint torque (100 Nm) for the first 6 s. After the steady-state torque production, the subjects were required to produce isometric knee joint torque by leg extension as hard as possible with a start signal within the next 3 s. The vibration was applied for ~4 s starting from 1 s before initiation of the change in the steady-state knee joint torque. Results: The results showed that the maximum voluntary torque (MVT) of the knee joint increased with the vibration frequencies. On average, the MVTs were 756.47 Nm for 0 Hz (no vibration) and 809.61 Nm for 90 Hz. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.71) between the MVTs and integrated electromyograms (iEMGs). Further, the co-contraction indices (CCIs) were computed, which represent the ratio of the iEMGs of the antagonist muscle to the iEMGs of all involved muscles. There was a significant negative correlation (r = 0.62) between the CCIs and MVTs, which was accompanied by a significant positive correlation (r = 0.69) between the iEMGs of the vibrated muscle (RF). There was no significant correlation between the MVTs and iEMGs of the antagonist muscle. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the short-term vibration on the muscle increases the level of muscle activation possibly owing to the increased Ia afferent activities, which enhances the muscle force generation capability.

The Effect of Static Stretching and Evjenth-Hamberg Stretching for Isokinetic Muscle Strength of Knee Joint (정적인 스트레칭과 Evjenth-Hamberg 스트레칭이 슬관절 등속성 근력에 미치는 효과)

  • Ko, Tae-Sung;Joung, Ho-Bal
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.43-51
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of static stretching and Evjenth-Hamberg stretching on isokinetic muscle strength of knee flexors and extensors. Methods: The subjects were composed of eighty healthy males without weight-training experience. ROM of knee joint measured active maximal extension and isokinetic Peak Torque measured $60^{\circ}/sec,\;120^{\circ}/sec$ using an the En-Knee. Three tests(Baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, respectively) was operated to examine change of each variable. Data were analyzed with a $2{\times}3$ analysis of variance ($group{\times}test$) for repeated measures on last factor by SPSS package 10.0. The data analysis revealed muscle strength were dependent on stretching method. Results: The results were as follows. First, Evjenth-Hamberg stretching(E-HS) was more effective than static stretching(SS) on ROM. Second, Peak Torque of knee flexors and extensors was improved in both methods by each time. but E-HS was more improved than SS. Conclusion: In conclusion, This study indicates that E-HS is more efficient than SS on muscle strength improvement.

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