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Effect of Temperature on the Killing of Opisthorchis viverrini Eggs In Vitro

  • Boueroy, Parichart;Duenngai, Kunyarat;Eamudomkarn, Chatanun;Sripan, Panupan;Boonmars, Thidarut;Pumhirunroj, Benjamabhorn;Artchayasawat, Atchara;Songsri, Jiraporn;Chomphumee, Kanpicha;Rattanasuwan, Panaratana;Laummaunwai, Porntip;Khueangchiangkhwang, Sukhonthip;Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.57 no.1
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    • pp.49-53
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    • 2019
  • Contaminated liver fluke egg in the environment has led to the high prevalence of human opisthorchiasis associated with cholangiocarcinoma in Southeast Asia. To find the effective lessening methods of Opisthorchis viverrini eggs in the contaminated environment, we investigated the temperature conditions for killing of these trematode eggs in vitro. Numerous O. viverrini eggs were obtained in the proximal part of uteri of adult worms from experimental hamsters. Mature eggs with miracidium were allocated by experimental groups (2 control: positive and negative and 4 treatment: 50, 60, 70, and $80^{\circ}C$) with 0.85% saline, and treated by the experimental plan. Eggs in each experimental groups were observed under the confocal microscope after stain with Propidium Iodide (PI) to evaluate the effect of temperatures. Eggs in 70 and $80^{\circ}C$ groups were all killed after over 10 min heated. Majority of eggs in $60^{\circ}C$ (10, 15, and 30 min heated), 70 and $80^{\circ}C$ (5 min heated) groups were inactivated. However in $50^{\circ}C$ group, below half of eggs were to be killed in all time lapse (10, 15 and 30 min). In order to prevent O. viverrini infection and cholangiocarcinoma, direct treatment of sewage by heating at 70 or $80^{\circ}C$ at least 10 min is essential. Therefore, treatment of O. viverrini eggs at a high temperature is a potential method for controlling egg contamination in sewage.

Clinical Manifestations of Eosinophilic Meningitis Due to Infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Children

  • Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak;Chindaprasirt, Jarin;Senthong, Vichai;Limpawattana, Panita;Auvichayapat, Narong;Tassniyom, Sompon;Chotmongkol, Verajit;Maleewong, Wanchai;Intapan, Pewpan M.
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.735-738
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    • 2013
  • Eosinophilic meningitis, caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is prevalent in northeastern Thailand, most commonly in adults. Data regarding clinical manifestations of this condition in children is limited and may be different those in adults. A chart review was done on 19 eosinophilic meningitis patients aged less than 15 years in Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. Clinical manifestations and outcomes were reported using descriptive statistics. All patients had presented with severe headache. Most patients were males, had fever, nausea or vomiting, stiffness of the neck, and a history of snail ingestion. Six patients had papilledema or cranial nerve palsies. It was shown that the clinical manifestations of eosinophilic meningitis due to A. cantonensis in children are different from those in adult patients. Fever, nausea, vomiting, hepatomegaly, neck stiffness, and cranial nerve palsies were all more common in children than in adults.

Reproductive Risk Factors for Thyroid Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study in Khon Kaen, Thailand

  • Sungwalee, Wararat;Vatanasapt, Patravoot;Kamsa-ard, Siriporn;Suwanrungruang, Krittika;Promthet, Supannee
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.5153-5155
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    • 2013
  • Background: Because of the gender disparity in the incidence of thyroid cancer, this study aimed to determine the association between reproductive factors and thyroid cancer. Methods: A total of 10,767 eligible women from the Khon Kaen Cohort, recruited and interviewed between 1990 and 2001, were followed up until 2011. The data were linked to the Khon Kaen Population-Based Cancer Registry to detect thyroid cancer cases. Results: There was 17 thyroid cancer cases detected, an incidence of 11.2 per 100,000 person-years, of which 70.6 % were papillary tumors. The incidence was apparently greater among those with an early age of menarche, nulligravida women, and oral contraceptive users. Conlusions: There was a trend for thyroid cancer to develop in relation to longer estrogen exposure. This evidence is inconclusive but warrants further investigation.

Distribution and Abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini Metacercariae in Cyprinid Fish in Northeastern Thailand

  • Pinlaor, Somchai;Onsurathum, Sudarat;Boonmars, Thidarut;Pinlaor, Porntip;Hongsrichan, Nuttanan;Chaidee, Apisit;Haonon, Ornuma;Limviroj, Wutipong;Tesana, Smarn;Kaekews, Sasithorn;Sithithaworn, Paiboon
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.703-710
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    • 2013
  • To increase public health awareness for prevention of opisthorchiasis caused by eating raw freshwater fish, the distribution and abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OV MC) was investigated in freshwater fish obtained from 20 provinces in northeastern Thailand between April 2011 and February 2012. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 12,890 fish consisting of 13 species randomly caught from 26 rivers, 10 dams, and 38 ponds/lakes. Fish, were collected in each of the rainy and winter seasons from each province. Fish were identified, counted, weighed, and digested using pepsin-HCl. Samples were examined for OV MC by a sedimentation method, and metacercariae were identified under a stereomicroscope. OV MC were found in 6 species of fish; i.e., Cyclocheilichthys armatus, Puntius orphoides, Hampala dispar, Henicorhynchus siamensis, Osteochilus hasselti, and Puntioplites proctozysron from localities in 13 provinces. Among the sites where OV MC-infected fish were found, 70.0% were dams, 23.7% were ponds/lakes, and 7.7% were rivers. The mean intensity of OV MC ranged from 0.01 to 6.5 cysts per fish (or 1.3-287.5 cysts per kg of fish). A high mean intensity of OV MC per fish (>3 cysts) was found in 5 provinces: Amnat Charoen (6.5 cysts), Nakhon Phanom (4.3), Mukdahan (4.1), Khon Kaen, (3.5) and Si Sa Ket (3.4). In conclusion, OV MC are prevalent in natural cyprinid fish, with the infection rate varying according to fish species and habitats.

Ultrastructure of Spermatogenesis in the Testis of Paragonimus heterotremus

  • Uabundit, Nongnut;Kanla, Pipatphong;Puthiwat, Phongphithak;Arunyanart, Channarong;Chaiciwamongkol, Kowit;Maleewong, Wanchai;Intapan, Pewpan M.;Iamsaard, Sitthichai;Hipkaeo, Wiphawi
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.669-676
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    • 2013
  • Lung fluke, Paragonimus heterotremus, is a flatworm causing pulmonary paragonimiasis in cats, dogs, and humans in Southeast Asia. We examined the ultrastructure of the testis of adult P. heterotremus with special attention to spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The full sequence of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis, from the capsular basal lamina to the luminal surface, was demonstrated. The sequence comprises spermatogonia, spermatocytes with obvious nuclear synaptonemal complexes, spermatids, and eventual spermatozoa. Moreover, full steps of spermatid differentiation were shown which consisted of 1) early stage, 2) differentiation stage representing the flagella, intercentriolar body, basal body, striated rootlets, and electron dense nucleus of thread-like lamellar configuration, and 3) growing spermatid flagella. Detailed ultrastructure of 2 different types of spermatozoa was also shown in this study.

Data Quality of Childhood Cancer in Khon Kaen, Thailand, 1990-2007

  • Suwanrungruang, Krittika;Kamsa-ard, Supot;Wiangnon, Surapon
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7985-7987
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    • 2014
  • Introduction: Khon Kaen Cancer Registry (KKCR) was established in 1984. KKCR aims to collect all cancer cases in Khon Kaen Province. The poorly qualified data may lead to distort the cancer burden and misinterpretation of policy maker. Objective: To assess data quality in childhood cancer between 1990 and 2007 in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand. Materials and Methods: Data of childhood cancer cases aged less than 20 years diagnosed during 1990-2007 were retrieved from the population-based data set of KKCR. All childhood cancer data were verified before data entry. Internal consistency, percentage of morphological verification (MV%) and cancer cased of the basis of diagnosis by death certificate only (DCO%) were evaluated. The age-adjusted rate (ASR) was calculated by standard method. Results: The data of childhood cancer from KKCR is acceptably qualified which reflects the quality of the whole registration.

Novel Mutations in Cholangiocarcinoma with Low Frequencies Revealed by Whole Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing

  • Muisuk, Kanha;Silsirivanit, Atit;Imtawil, Kanokwan;Bunthot, Suphawadee;Pukhem, Ake;Pairojkul, Chawalit;Wongkham, Sopit;Wongkham, Chaisiri
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.1737-1742
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    • 2015
  • Background: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been shown to be associated with cancer. This study explored whether mtDNA mutations enhance cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) development in individuals. Materials and Methods: The whole mitochondrial genome sequences of 25 CCA patient tissues were determined and compared to those of white blood cells from the corresponding individuals and 12 healthy controls. The mitochondrial genome was amplified using primers from Mitoseq and compared with the Cambridge Reference Sequence. Results: A total of 161 mutations were identified in CCA tissues and the corresponding white blood cells, indicating germline origins. Sixty-five (40%) were new. Nine mutations, representing those most frequently observed in CCA were tested on the larger cohort of 60 CCA patients and 55 controls. Similar occurrence frequencies were observed in both groups. Conclusions: While the correspondence between the cancer and mitochondrial genome mutation was low, it is of interest to explore the functions of the missense mutations in a larger cohort, given the possibility of targeting mitochondria for cancer markers and therapy in the future.

Inhibitory Effects of Gallic Acid Isolated from Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk on Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Lines and Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria

  • Rattanata, Narintorn;Klaynongsruang, Sompong;Daduang, Sakda;Tavichakorntrakool, Ratree;Limpaiboon, Temduang;Lekphrom, Ratsami;Boonsiri, Patcharee;Daduang, Jureerut
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.1341-1345
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    • 2016
  • Gallic acid was isolated from Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk and the structure s identified based on spectroscopic analysis and comparison with authentic compound. In this study we compared the ability of natural gallic acid (nGA) and commercial gallic acid (cGA) to inhibit the proliferation of cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (M213, M214) and foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella spp. and Plesiomonas shigelloides). Both nGA and cGA had the same inhibitory effects on cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis of cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. In addition, nGA inhibited growth of foodborne pathogenic bacteria in the same manner as cGA. Our results suggest that nGA from Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk is a potential anticancer and antibacterial compound. However, in vivo studies are needed to elucidate the specific mechanisms involved.

Incidence and Survival Rates among Pediatric Osteogenic Sarcoma Cases in Khon Kaen, Thailand, 1985-2010

  • Wiromrat, Pattara;Jetsrisuparb, Arunee;Komvilaisak, Patcharee;Sirichativapee, Winai;Kamsa-Ard, Supot;Wiangnon, Surapon
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4281-4284
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    • 2012
  • Background: Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer in children, responsible for a high rate of amputation and death. This is the first long-term, population-based, epidemiologic and survival study in Thailand. Objective: To study the incidence and survival rates of pediatric osteosarcoma in Khon Kaen. Method: Childhood osteosarcoma cases (0-19 years) diagnosed between 1985-2010 were reviewed. The data were retrieved from the population-based data set of the Khon Kaen Cancer Registry and medical records from Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University. All cases were censored until the end of April 2012. The age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) was calculated using the standard method. Survival experience was analyzed using the standard survival function (STATA 9.0) and presented with a Kaplan-Meier curve. Results: 58 cases were enrolled. The overall ASR was 14.1 per million. Males and females were equally affected. The peak incidence was for 15-19 year-olds in both sexes (ASR=10.4 per million in males and 8.5 in females). The 5-year overall survival rate was 27.6% (95% CI: 15.8-40.8%). The median survival time was 1.6 years (95% CI: 1.2-2.1). In a subgroup analysis, the patients who received only chemotherapy survived longer (5-year survival 45.7%, median survival time 4.1 years, p=0.12). Conclusion: The incidence rate for childhood osteosarcoma was slightly less than those reported for Western countries. The survival rate was also lower than reports from developed countries. Further evaluation of the treatment protocol and risk factor stratification is needed.

High Expression of HIF-1α, BNIP3 and PI3KC3: Hypoxia-Induced Autophagy Predicts Cholangiocarcinoma Survival and Metastasis

  • Thongchot, Suyanee;Yongvanit, Puangrat;Loilome, Watcharin;Seubwai, Wanchana;Phunicom, Kutcharin;Tassaneeyakul, Wichittra;Pairojkul, Chawalit;Promkotra, Wisuttiphong;Techasen, Anchalee;Namwat, Nisana
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.14
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    • pp.5873-5878
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    • 2014
  • Hypoxia and autophagy are known to facilitate tumor progression. We here aimed to investigate the role of hypoxia-associated autophagy in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) survival and metastasis. Immunostaining of hypoxic-responsive proteins (HIF-$1{\alpha}$ and BNIP3) and a key regulator of autophagy (PI3KC3) were examined in CCA tissues and their expression levels were compared with clinicopathological parameters. A hypoxia mimicking condition ($CoCl_2$ treatment) was also tested regarding CCA cell functions. Our results showed that HIF-$1{\alpha}$ (66%), BNIP3 (44%) and PI3KC3 (46%) showed strong staining in human CCA tissues. Positive expression of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ (p=0.033), BNIP3 (p=0.040) and PI3KC3 (p=0.037) was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis. HIF-$1{\alpha}$ was well associated with BNIP3 (r=0.3, p<0.01) and PI3KC3 (r=0.2, p<0.01). The survival rates of patients who were positive with HIF-$1{\alpha}$ (p=0.047) or co-expressed HIF-$1{\alpha}$ and BNIP3 (p=0.032) or HIF-$1{\alpha}$ and PI3KC3 (p=0.043) were significantly greater than in the negative groups. CCA cells treated with $CoCl_2$ showed an increase in HIF-$1{\alpha}$, BNIP3, PI3KC3 and LC3-II, with increased cell migration and pFAK levels. These data suggest that hypoxia associated autophagy enhances CCA metastasis, resulting in a poor prognosis of CCA.