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An Assessment on Effect of Facility and Electrical Safety During the Flooding of the Photovoltaic Power System (태양광 발전설비의 침수 시 설비영향 및 전기적 안전성 평가)

  • Park, Chan-Eom;Jung, Jin-Soo;Han, Un-Ki;Lim, Hyun-Sung;Song, Young-Sang
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Illuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers
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    • v.28 no.12
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    • pp.38-44
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    • 2014
  • The photovoltaic power system is performing power generation by being installed in outdoors. Therefore it has the characteristics affected by environmental factors. In particular, if the solar power generation facility connected to the grid, the power can be generated continuously in a state of being secured operating voltage of the inverter and solar irradiation. In that case, if an abnormal situation such as flooding or heavy rains has occur, the possibility of electric shock or damage of facilities due to current leakage or a floating matters is present. In this paper, we performed electrical safety assessment about the connection part, junction box and cable of the solar module when the solar power system was flooded. we also assessed whether or not the leakage current is occurred in case of the cable was damaged. As a result, in case of the leakage current is large, we can be known that it is the risk of electric shock as well as cause of inverter damage.

Development of the Air Stick Feeder for Inserting the Relay (릴레이 삽입을 위한 에어 스틱 피더의 개발)

  • Kim, Young-Min;Kim, Chi-Su
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.1398-1402
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    • 2015
  • In surface mount technology, the use of technology implemented using a Chip Mounter relay that is inserted into the junction box, etc. car is increasing. On the other hand, there is a need for technology to reduce the weight of the heavy component of the relay attached to different Stick Tube generally chips. Therefore, rather than existing technology, this study improved the algorithm of the system to provide a mechanical structure using Air to supply greater stability using this the component feeder utilizing the Stick Tube proposed technology. When the equipment installed in the Air Stick Feeder was used, the effectiveness, such as increased production and reduced disposal expense, was improved.

Analysis of Risk Priority Number for Grid-connected Energy Storage System (계통연계형 에너지저장시스템의 위험우선순위 분석)

  • Kim, Doo-Hyun;Kim, Sung-Chul;Park, Jeon-Su;Kim, Eun-Jin;Kim, Eui-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.10-17
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this paper is to deduct components that are in the group of highest risk(top 10%). the group is conducted for classification into groups by values according to risk priority through risk priority number(RPN) of FMEA(Failure modes and effects analysis) sheet. Top 10% of failure mode among total potential failure modes(72 failure modes) of ESS included 5 BMS(battery included) failure modes, 1 invert failure mode, and 1 cable connectors failure mode in which BMS was highest. This is because ESS is connected to module, try, and lack in the battery part as an assembly of electronic information communication and is managed. BMS is mainly composed of the battery module and communication module. There is a junction box and numerous connectors that connect these two in which failure occurs most in the connector part and module itself. Finally, this paper proposes RPN by each step from the starting step of ESS design to installation and operation. Blackouts and electrical disasters can be prevented beforehand by managing and removing the deducted risk factors in prior.

Recent Technology Trends and Future Prospects for Image Sensor (이미지 센서의 최근 기술 동향과 향후 전망)

  • Park, Sangsik;Shin, Bhumjae;Uh, Hyungsoo
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2020
  • The technology and market size of image sensors continue to develop thanks to the release of image sensors that exceed 100 million pixels in 2019 and expansion of black box camera markets for vehicles in addition to existing mobile applications. We review the technology flow of image sensors that have been constantly evolving for 40 years since Hitachi launched a 200,000-pixel image sensor in 1979. Although CCD has made inroads into image sensor market for a while based on good picture quality, CMOS image sensor (CIS) with active pixels has made inroads into the market as semiconductor technology continues to develop, since the electrons generated by the incident light are converted to the electric signals in the pixel, and the power consumption is low. CIS image sensors with superior characteristics such as high resolution, high sensitivity, low power consumption, low noise and vivid color continue to be released as the new technologies are incorporated. At present, new types of structures such as Backside Illumination and Isolation Cell have been adopted, with better sensitivity and high S/N ratio. In the future, new photoconductive materials are expected to be adopted as a light absorption part in place of the pn junction.

Inhibitory Effects of Ethanol Extract of Rhodiola Sacra on Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Neuro-2A Cells (설치류 Neuro-2A 신경세포에서 홍경천 에탄올 추출물의 소포체 스트레스 억제효과)

  • Jo, Nam-Eun;Song, Young-soon
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.265-270
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    • 2019
  • Growing evidence suggests that mediating apoptotic cell death of ER stress plays an important role in pathological development of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. The ethanol extract of Rodiola sacra (ERS) investigates whether ER stress protects neuroinvasive neuro-2A cells from homocysteine (Hcy) cell death and ER stress. In neuronal cells, Hcy markedly decreased the viability of the cells and induced the death of Annexin V-positive cells as confirmed by MTT assay. The Hcy cell viability and apoptotic loss pretreated with ERS were attenuated, and Hcy showed stress in the expression of C / EBP homologous protein, 78-kDa glucose regulatory protein and the junction of X-box binding protein-1 (xbp1) mRNA. ESR decreased Hcy-induced mRNA binding, GRP78 and CHOP cells induced Hcy-induced ER stress and apoptosis, and Western blotting revealed expression of heme oxygenase-1 and HO-1 enzyme activity Inhibition is indicative of therapeutic value for neurodegenerative diseases such as decreased cell death by hemin.

Optimization of Soldering Process of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu and Sn-1.0Ag-0.7Cu-1.6Bi-0.2In Alloys for Solar Combiner Junction Box Module (태양광 접속함 정션박스 모듈 적용을 위한 Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu 및 Sn-1.0Ag-0.7Cu-1.6Bi-0.2In 솔더링의 공정최적화)

  • Lee, Byung-Suk;Oh, Chul-Min;Kwak, Hyun;Kim, Tae-Woo;Yun, Heui-Bog;Yoon, Jeong-Won
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.13-19
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    • 2018
  • The soldering property of Pb-containing solder(Sn-Pb) and Pb-free solders(Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu and Sn-1.0Ag-0.7Cu-1.6Bi-0.2In) for solar combiner box module was compared. The solar combiner box module was composed of voltage and current detecting modules, diode modules, and other modules. In this study, solder paste printability, printing shape inspection, solder joint property, X-ray inspection, and shear force measurements were conducted. For optimization of Pb-free soldering process, step 1 and 2 were divided. In the step 1 process, the printability of Pb-containing and Pb-free solder alloys were estimated by using printing inspector. Then, the relationship between void percentages and shear force has been estimated. Overall, the property of Pb-containing solder was better than two Pb-free solders. In the step 2 process, the property of reflow soldering for the Pb-free solders was evaluated with different reflow peak temperatures. As the peak temperature of the reflow process gradually increased, the void percentage decreased by 2 to 4%, but the shear force did not significantly depend on the reflow peak temperature by a deviation of about 0.5 kgf. Among different surface finishes on PCB, ENIG surface finish was better than OSP and Pb-free solder surface finishes in terms of shear force. In the thermal shock reliability test of the solar combiner box module with a Pb-free solder and OSP surface finish, the change rate of electrical property of the module was almost unchanged within a 0.3% range and the module had a relatively good electrical property after 500 thermal shock cycles.

The Monitoring System with PV Module-level Fault Diagnosis Algorithm (태양전지모듈 고장 진단 알고리즘을 적용한 모니터링시스템)

  • Ko, Suk-Whan;So, Jung-Hun;Hwang, Hye-Mi;Ju, Young-Chul;Song, Hyung-June;Shin, Woo-Gyun;Kang, Gi-Hwan;Choi, Jung-Rae;Kang, In-Chul
    • Journal of the Korean Solar Energy Society
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.21-28
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    • 2018
  • The objects of PV (Photovoltaic) monitoring system is to reduce the loss of system and operation and maintenance costs. In case of PV plants with configured of centralized inverter type, only 1 PV module might be caused a large loss in the PV plant. For this reason, the monitoring technology of PV module-level that find out the location of the fault module and reduce the system losses is interested. In this paper, a fault diagnosis algorithm are proposed using thermal and electrical characteristics of PV modules under failure. In addition, the monitoring system applied with proposed algorithm was constructed. The wireless sensor using LoRa chip was designed to be able to connect with IoT device in the future. The characteristics of PV module by shading is not failure but it is treated as a temporary failure. In the monitoring system, it is possible to diagnose whether or not failure of bypass diode inside the junction box. The fault diagnosis algorithm are developed on considering a situation such as communication error of wireless sensor and empirical performance evaluation are currently conducting.

THE EFFECT OF FLOWABLE RESIN LINING ON THE MARGINAL MICROLEAKAGE OF CONDENSABLE RESIN RESTORATION (응축형 복합레진 수복시 유동성 레진 이장이 변연부 미세누출에 미치는 영향)

  • 문주훈;고근호
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.16-22
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the marginal microleakage of condensable composite resin restorations according to flowable resin lining of internal cavity wall. The eighty extracted human molar teeth without caries and/or restorations are used The experimental teeth were randomly assigned into four groups of ten teeth each. Eighty caries-free extracted human molars were used in this study. The conventional class II cavities (box-shaped on mesial and distal surface, faciolingual width : 3mm, gingival wall depth : 1.5mm) were prepared 1mm below cementoenamel junction with a # 701 carbide bur. The teeth were divided into four groups, and then each group were subdivided into A & B group according to flowable resin & compomer lining ; Group 1-A : Tetric Ceram filling, Group 1-B : Tetric Flow lining and Tetric Ceram filling, Group 2-A Ariston pHc filling, Group 2-B : Tetric Flow lining and Ariston pHc filing, Group 3-A SureFil filling, Group 3-B : Dyract Flow lining and SureFil filling, Group 4-A : Pyramid filling, Group 4-B : Aeliteflo lining and Pyramid filling. To simulate as closely as possible the clinical situation during retoration placement, a "restoration template" was fabricated, and the condensable resin was filled using a three-sited light-curing incremental technique. All the materials used were applied according to the manufacturers' instructions. The specimens were stored in the 100% humidity for 7 days prior to thermocycling (100 thermal cycles of 5~55$^{\circ}C$ water with a 30-second dwell time) The specimens were immersed in 2% metyleneblue dye for 24 hours, and then embedded in transparent acrylic resin and sectioned mesiodistally with diamond wheel saw. The degree of marginal leakage was scored under stereomicroscope ($\times$20) and the data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test and Wilcoxon signed ranks test. The results were as follows : 1. In the gingival margins of all the group, microleakage of subgroup B was less than subgroup A. 2. In the group 1, 2, 4, there was significant differences between subgroup A and B (p<0.05), but in the group 3, there was not significant different between group 3-A (SureFil) and group 3-B (Dyract flow/SureFil) (p>0.05). 3. In the subgroup A and B, there was significant different between all group except group 4 of subgroup A. From the results above, it was suggested that the cavity lining of flowable resin and flowable compomer in condensable resin restoration decrease microleakage at gingival margin, and does improve their ability to seal the gingival margin of class II preparation.

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THE EFFECT OF SANDWICH TECHNIQUE USING FLOWABLE COMPOSITE RESIN BASE ON THE MICROLEAKAGEIN CLASS II CAVITIES OF MOLAR (구치부 제2급 와동에서 고흐름성 복합레진을 이용한 적층 충전술식의 미세누출에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Kang;Hong, Chan-Ui
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.502-514
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    • 2002
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of direct class II sandwich restoration with packable composites(P-60), resin modified glass ionomer cement(Fuji-II LC), flowable compomer(Dyract Flow), flowable composites(Filtek Flow) in comparison with total bond restorations. In addition, for sandwich restorations, influence of different sandwich techniques was also evaluated. Large butt-joint box typed class II cavites with cervical margins 1mm below the cemento-enamel junction were cut into 70 extracted human molars. The cavities(7 groups, n=10) were filled using a closed/open sandwich restoration or total bond restoration technique with materials according to the manufacturer's recommandation using the single-component bonding agent for each system. Teeth were thermocycled 500 times between 5$^{\circ}C$ and 55$^{\circ}C$ with 30-second dwell time. The teeth were then coated with nail polish 1mm short of the restoration, placed in a 2% methylene blue for 24 hours, and sectioned with diamond wheel. Sections were examined with a stereoscope to determine the extent of microleakage. Dentine /Cementum margins were analyzed for microleakage on scale of 0(no leakage) to 4(entire axial wall) and interface between materials, on scale of 0(no leakage) to 3(axial wall). Results were evaluated with Kruskal Wallis Test, corrected for ties, to determine whether there were statistically significant differences among the seven groups. Pairs of groups were analyzed using the Student-Newman-Keuls Method and Dunn s Method. The results were as follows : 1. All groups showed some micoleakage in cervical portion. But there were no microleakage in interface between materials. 2. Closed sandwich restorations with Fuji-II LC and Filtek Flow had significantly lower leakage rating than total restorations with only P-60. However, open sandwich restorations with Dyract Flow showed significantly higher (P<0.05) 3. Closed sandwich restorations had significantly lower leakage rating than total restorations. However open sandwich restoration s showed significantly higher (P<0.05). 4. Sandwich restorations with Fuji-II LC were iou$.$or leakage than only P-60. Filtek Flow, Dyract Flow. But there were no statistically differences among the materials. From the results above, it could be concluded, closed sandwich restorations was effective in reducing microleakage of class II restorations. The best results showing the least microleakage were for the closed sandwich technique with Fuji-II LC and Filtek Flow.

Effect of hydrogen in Ni-silicide with Iodine Catalyst Deposited Ni Film by using Atomic Layer Deposition

  • Gang, Hui-Seong;Ha, Jong-Bong;Kim, Gi-Won;Kim, Dong-Seok;Im, Gi-Sik;Kim, Seong-Nam;Lee, Gwang-Man;Lee, Jeong-Hui
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.234-234
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    • 2010
  • 최근 CMOS 소자 크기가 축소됨에 따라 소스와 드레인 영역에서의 접촉저항을 줄이기 위하여, 실리사이드 공정이 많이 연구되고 있다. 실리사이드 물질로서 NiSi는 낮은 저항률과 낮은 실리콘 소모, 낮은 공정온도, 등의 장점을 가지고 있다. 그러나, 실리사이드 형성으로 인한 나노소자의 소오스/드레인에서정션(junction) 누설전류의 증가는 큰 문제가 되므로 실리콘과 실리사이드 계면의 특성이 중요하다. 본 연구에서는 니켈을 이용한 실리사이드 형성시 계면 활성제인 에틸 요오드를 이용하여 실험을 진행하였다. 금속 유기 전구체인 MABONi을 사용하여 ALD 방식으로 증착 한 니켈 박막과 니켈 핵 형성시 계면활성제인 에틸요오드의 처리 방법에 따른 Ni-silicide 박막의 특성을 비교, 분석하였다. 먼저 자연산화막을 건식식각으로 제거한 뒤, 첫 번째 샘플에서는 10회의 주기로 초기 니켈을 증착한 뒤, 에틸요오드로 니켈의 표면 위를 처리하고, 다시 200회의 주기로 니켈을 증착하였으며, 두 번째는 첫 번째 방식에서 에틸요오드 주입 시 동시에 수소도 함께 주입하였다. 세 번째는 비교를 위해 에틸요오드 처리를 하지 않고 니켈 박막만을 증착 하였다. 이어서, 각 샘플을 급속 열처리 장비에서 $400^{\circ}C$부터 $900^{\circ}C$까지 각각 30sec간 열처리를 진행후, 반응하지 않은 잔여 니켈을 제거한 후, XRD(x-ray diffraction), AES(auger), 그리고 4-point probe 등을 이용하여 형성된 실리사이드의 특성을 분석하였다. 에틸요오드와 함께 수소를 주입한 경우 계면에서의 산소 불순물과 카본 성분이 효과적으로 제거되어 $400^{\circ}C$에서 $2.9{\Omega}/{\Box}$ 의 낮은 면저항을 가지는 NiSi가 형성되었고 모든 온도구간에서 다른 샘플에 비하여 가장 낮은 면저항 분포를 보였다. 이는 분해 흡착된 요오드에 의한 계면 특성 향상과 카본 성분이 포함된 잔여물들이 수소처리에 의해 효율적으로 제거되어 실리사이드의 특성이 향상되었기 때문이다. 계면활성제를 사용하지 않은 경우에는 $500^{\circ}C$에서 NiSi가 형성되었다. 반면에 에틸요오드로만 표면을 처리한 경우에는 니켈과 실리콘 계면에서의 카본 성분에 의하여 silicidation 이 충분히 일어나지 않았다. 이러한 결과는 향후 45nm 이하의 CMOS 공정상에서 소스와 드레인의 낮은 누설전류를 가지고, 접촉저항을 줄이기 위한 니켈 실리사이드 형성에 큰 도움을 줄 것으로 기대된다.

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