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A Study of Industrial Patients from Selected General in the Kyung Pook and Taegu City areas (일부지역 산업재해환자 실태 조사 연구 -대구${\cdot}$경북지역 일부 종합병원 중심으로-)

  • Huh, Choon-Bok
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.151-174
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    • 1991
  • The purpose of this study is to research the actual conditions of industrial accident patients and to produce worker satisfaction and a rational and effective counter measure plan. Direct interviews with 179 cases (in and out patients) were carried out during a three month period from April to July 1990, at six hospitals : two general hospitals Sun Lin and Sung Mo in Po Hang, and four general hospitals in Taegu : Kyung pooh University Hospital, Dong San Medical Center, Young Nam Medical Center and Catholic Hospital. The results of this study are summarized as fellows : 1. Among the 179 cases, $51.6\%$ were male and $48.4\%$ were female. The two largest age groups were 30-39, $31.8\%$ and 20-29, $27.4\%$. Among the 179 cases, $51.6\%$ were married, the largest family number was 2 to 3, $41.1\%$ and 4 to 5, $25.6\%$. Educationally, graduation from high school was the largest group, $46.4\%$ among ,the patients, followed by middle school and primary school. The largest group income level was from 40-69 만원, $45.2\%$. The largest group of patients who worked over 50 hrs. a week was $52.0\%$. The largest group of patients who worked less than 1 year was $44.7\%$, of the patients in work places of less than 100 people, $60.3\%$ were injured and in work places of 100-299 people, $20.1\%$ were injured. In manufacturing, the largest group injured was $55.3\%$, the next group was transport, storage, communication. The largest group of production workers injured was $40.2\%$. 2. The cause of injury in the largest group was facility problems, $33.5\%$. The next group was unsafe habits, $30.2\%$ ; a lack of safety knowledge, $17.9\%$ ; and insufficient supervision, $12.3\%$. The 30-39 year age group head the highest number of injuries, $40.4\%$ ; work places with more than 10 years of work, $44.4\%$ ; work places with more than 1000 people, $56.3\%$ and mining accidents, $80.0\%$. Among. these groups the highest cause of injury was due to facility problems. 3. The accident pattern showed machinery injuries $28.5\%$ as the largest group, followed by falls & falling objects $17.3\%$, fire & electric $15.1\%$, strucke by an object $14.5\%$, followed by overaction and vehicular accidents. The accident pattern showed $46.4\%$ among workers over the 50 year age group, workers in the 5-10 year group, $50.0\%$ ; places employing more than 1000 workers, $35.3\%$ ; construction $73.7\%$, and construction workers $57.1\%$, among these fall & falling objects caused the greatest number of injuries. 4. The largest group of injuries was fractures $54.8\%$, trauma $14.5\%$, amputation $11.7\%$, open wound, and burns. The largest number of fractures occurred in people in the 30-39 year age group, $63.2\%$ : over 10 years of work, $55.0\%$ ; in work places of 300-490 people, $63.6\%$ ; construction $63.2\%$ and general workers $57.2\%$. 5. The largest group of injuries was upper extremity $45.3\%$, lower extremity $24.0\%$, trunk $18.5\%$ and head or neck $12.2\%$. Of these groups, upper extremity injuries were the highest in those less than 20 years old $75.0\%$, less than 1 year or work $59.5\%$, in work places of 500-999 people $60.0\%$, manufacturing $56.6\%$ and production workers $55.6\%$. 6. Periods of injury showed 34 people injured in September, to be the largest followed by October, 32 ; August, 22 people : July, 19 people and the lowest December, 2 people. During the week, Friday had the largest group injured, 35 people ; followed by Saturday, 26 people and the lowest was Wednesday, 17 people, During the day 1400 hours had the largest group injured, 38 people ; followed by 800 hours, 31 people. 7. On a basis of 5 as the highest mark, the average, according to worker satisfaction showed facility safety 3.55, work environment 3.47, income 3.44, job 3.21 and treatment 2.98. 8. The correlation between general characteristics and injury showed that age was directly correlated to the duration of work (r=2591) p<0.01, age was directly correlated to industry (r=2311) p<0.01, and the duration was directly correlated to occupation (r=4372) p<0.001.

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A Study of Industrial Patients from Selected General Hospitals in the Kyung Pook and Taegu City Areas (일부지역 산업재해환자 실태 연구 -대구, 경북지역 일부 종합병원 중심으로-)

  • 허춘복;남철현
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.78-94
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    • 1991
  • The purpose of this study is to research the actual conditions of industrial accident patients and to produce worker satisfaction and a rational and effective counter measure pain. Direct interviews with 179 cases (in and out patients) were carried out during a three month period from April to July 1990, at six hospitals two general hospitals Sun Lin and Sung Mo in Po Hang, and four general hospitals in Taegu Kyung Pook University Hospital, Dong San Medical Center, Young Nam Medical Center and Catholic Hospital. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1. Among the 179 cases, 51.6 % were male and 48.4 % were female. The two largest age groups were 30~39, 31.8 % and 20~29, 27.4 %. Among the 179 cases, 51.6% were married, the largest family number was 2 to 3, 41.1% and 4 to 5, 25.6%. Educationally, graduation from high school was the largest group, 46.4% among the patients, followed by middle school and primary school. The largest group income level was from 40~69만원, 45.2%. The largest group of patients who worked over 50 hrs. a week was 52.0%. The largest group of patients who worked less than 1 year was 44.7%, of the patients in work places of less than 100 people, 60.3% were injured and in work places of 100~299 people, 20.1% were injured. In manufacturing, the lagest group injured was 55.3%, the next group was transport, stroage, communication. The largest group of production workers injured was 40.2%. 2. The cause of injury in the largest group was facility problems, 33.5%. The next group was unsafe habits, 30.2% a lack of safety knowledge, 17.9% and insufficient supervision, 12.3%. The 30~39 year age group was head the highest number of injuries, 40.4% work places with more than 10 yeras of work, 44.4% work palces with more than 1000 people, 56.3% and mining accidents, 80.0%. Among these groups the highest cause of injury was due to facility problems. 3. The accident pattern showed machinery injuries 28.5% as the largest group, followed by falls & falling objects 17.3%, fire & electric 15.1%, struke by an object 14.5%, followed by overaction and vehicular accidents. The accident pattern showed 46.4 % among workers over the 50 year age group, workers in the 5~10 year group, 50.0 % places employing more than 1000 workers, 35.3 % : construction 73.7%, and construction workers 57.1%, among these fall & falling objects caused the greatest number of injuries. 4. The largest group of injuries was fractures 54.8%, trauma 14.5%, amputation 11.7%, open wound, and burns. The largest number of fractures occurred in people in the 30~39 year age group, 63.2 % over 10 years of work, 55.6% in work places of 300~400 people, 63.6% construction 63.2% and general workers 57.2 %. 5. The largest group of injuries was upper extremity 45.3%, lower extremity 24.0%, trunk 18.5 % and head or neck 12.2%. Of these groups, upper extremity injuries were the highest in those less 20 years old 75.0%, less than 1 years of work 59.5%, in work places of 500~999 people 60.0%, manufacturing 56.6 % and production workers 55.6%. 6. Periods of injury showed 34 people injured in September, to be the largest followed by October, 32 August, 22 people July, 19 people and the lowest December, 2 people. During the week, Friday had the largest group injured, 35 people followed by Saturday, 26 people and the lowest was Wednesday, 17 people, During the day 1400 hours had the largest group injured, 38 people followed by 800 hours, 31 people. 7. On a basis of 5 as the highest mark, the average, according to worker satisfaction showed facility safety 3.55, work environment 3.47, income 3.44, job 3.21 and treatment 2.98. 8. The correlation between general characteristics and injury showed that age was directly correlated to the duration of work(r=.2591) p<0.01, age was directly correlated to industry (r=2311) p<0.01, and the duration was directly correlated to occupation(r =.4372) p<0.001.

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Evaluation of Project-Based Learning on Community Dental Hygiene Practice Education (지역사회치위생학 실습 교육에서의 프로젝트 기반 학습 효과 평가)

  • Yoo, Sang-Hee;Bae, Soo-Myoung;Shin, Bo-Mi;Shin, Sun-Jung
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.368-374
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate community dental hygiene practice education, by verifying its effect after applying project-based learning in improving the practical and social skills of learners. A 15-week project-based community dental hygiene practice course was held for 27 senior students, who took community dental hygiene practice course in the Department of Dental Hygiene, Gangneung-Wonju National University. Twenty-seven students were composed of 4 teams. Each team selected a target group for four workplaces for adult workers to apply the oral health promotion project. The project was then planned and conducted based on a survey on the health problems confronting each group, and an evaluation was carried out after 4 weeks. From the results obtained in comparing confidence in problem solving ability, project value, teamwork competency, and community dental hygienist competence before and after course, the improvement in project value and teamwork competence scores was not statistically significant, but all four areas showed positive results. After analyzing the project actuality, learning outcomes, and project satisfaction after course results, the actuality of the project was 19.30 points, the learning achievement was 45.19 points, and the satisfaction was 19.19 points, demonstrating that the aim of achieving actual performance competence and a learning performance exceeding expectations was accomplished. After conducting an interview survey with 8 students, it was found that they had learned social skills involving problem-solving abilities and confidence, and teamwork competence such as cooperation, role responsibility, creative thinking ability, and communication skills. Community dental hygienists should be able to acquire learner-level practical skills and social skills in the community dental hygiene and practical courses, according to their competencies and job needs. It is necessary to develop a project?based systematic learning module to enable the community dental hygiene practice to operate as a subject closely related to fields in other dental hygiene departments.

Comparison of Work Values of Undergraduate-level Foodservice Major Students (외식.급식경영 전공 학생들의 근로 가치관 비교)

  • Yoon, Ji-Young
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.134-145
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the work values of undergraduate-level foodservice major students. In order to assess work values of the participating students, this study adopted 'Maryland Work Values Inventory'. Data from a total of 290 surveys were collected. The participants consisted of 146 commercial foodservice major students and 144 institutional foodservice major students. Among the seven work values, both groups ranked 'job advancement' as the most important work value. Commercial foodservice major students rated 'altruism' as the least important work value, whereas it was 'stimulation' for institutional foodservice major students. 'Need for work' was evaluated statistically higher by junior and senior students compared to sophomore students of commercial foodservice major (p<0.05). In both foodservice majors, a positive relationship was found between work value scores and grade levels. All work value scores tended to be higher for students in higher grades. This tendency was especially statistically clear for the value 'need for work' for commercial foodservice major students and 'money and prestige' for institutional foodservice major students (p<0.05). There were some gaps in the work values between students with different career field choices. For the commercial foodservice majors, those interested in fine dining perceived 'satisfaction and accomplishment' and 'altruism' as more important [4.33 (p<0.05) and 4.05 (p<0.01), respectively] compared to students who had interests in fast food restaurants (4.06 and 3.67 respectively). Scores for 'satisfaction & accomplishment' (p<0.05), 'money & prestige' (p<0.001), and 'stimulation' (p<0.001) were significantly different among institutional foodservice major students. In addition, students more interested in industrial foodservice field regarded 'money & prestige' and 'stimulation' as less important as indicated by noticeably lower scores (3.74, 3.55 respectively) in comparison to the other group (p<0.001). The results of this study, which explored foodservice major students' work values, suggest that there is an increased need for the students to build up their work values as well as for the foodservice industry to offer appropriate work values to future foodservice employees.

Psychosocial Risk Factors of Postpartum Depression (산후우울증의 심리사회적 위험요인)

  • Park, Si-Sung;Han, Kwi-Won
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.124-133
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    • 1999
  • Objective : Postpartum depression(PPD) was known to be caused by many factors including various psychosocial risk factors. This study was performed to identify the psychosocial risk factors for ppd, preliminarily in Korea. Methods : A group of 119 postpartum women, each of whom was at 6 to 8 weeks after delivery was identified at the time when they visited to the child health clinic or postnatal check-up clinic. The risk factors were surveyed by the self-reported questionnaire. The items of questionnaire were consisted of known risk factors in other studies and other possible stress-related factors. PPD was assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale(EPDS) and the degree of postpartum depression was determined by its score. Results : 16 women(13.45%) in the high risk group were diagnosed as PPD among the 119 women. Risk factors including past experience of depressive symptoms and low level of marital satisfaction were founded more frequently in women in the high risk group than in the low risk group. The score of EPDS was significantly high in the group who experienced depressive symptoms in the past, anxiety or depression during pregnancy, stressful life event during the period of recent pregnancy and postpartum, and who had low level of marital satisfaction. There was a positive correlation between age and the score of EPDS. However, the postpartum depressive symptoms were not influenced by the level of education, job, retirement due to pregnancy and delivery, wanted or unwanted pregnancy, delivery method, feeding method, the hospitalization of infant, expected and real gender of infant. Conclusion : These results suggest that PPD is quite frequent at postpartum period. Various risk factors contribute to the development of PPD. If clinicians pay attention to the risk factors of PPD and give appropriate psychiatric intervention to the mothers during pregnancy and postpartum, it will be easy for the clinicians to recognize and treat PPD in the early stage.

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A Study on the Actual Condition of the Adult-smoking in a Region (일 지역 성인의 흡연실태)

  • Chong Young-sook
    • Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.97-113
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    • 1999
  • To investigate the actual condition of the adult-smoking in Chinan County. I used self-reporting questionnaires among 923 residents living in nine districts selected at random among the sites of eleven eup-myons from December 28. 1998 to January 6. 1999. collected data and analyized using SPSS. The smoking rate of adults in Chinan County was $36.9\%$. There was a significant difference in smoking rate according to the age. gender, education and job among general characteristics. The smoking rate in group of above 40s was about $40\%$ and that of the male took $55.5\%$ which was higher than that of female and the smoking rate of the people having high-school education was the highest$(46.2\%)$. With regard to the career. the smoking rate of the farmers ranked first$(46.1\%)$. Therefore anti-smoking business for smokers should be focused on above 40 years old, males. people having high school education and farmers. As the result of the survey of smoking habits of 340 people who smoke currently, the average smoking begining age was 21.8 and $81.5\%$ among them was between 16-25 years old. $4.4\%$ was under 15. during around the elementary school. Most motives to smoke were as followed; curiosity or taste$(33.6\%)$, relief of stress $(31.2\%)$, peer presure$(26.5\%)$ And considering the amount of the cigarette which is smoked per day, the case which is less than a pack of cigarettes was highest as $75.5\%$ and the people who smoke over one pack of cigarettes took $24.5\%$. As for the kind of tobacco which is smoked, how to smoke and the desire for the smoking, most case was toxin was moderate$(47.8\%)$ or mild$(46.9\%)$. shallowly$(49.0\%)$ or deeply$(46.3\%)$ and under stress$(33.4\%)$. after meals$(27.8\%)$, during drink$(15.7\%)$ and so on. The highest point marked among the factors of smoking motives was 'the reduce of negative emotion' $(3.27\pm1.00)$. followed by 'uncomfortable habits' $(2.87\pm1.02)$, 'addiction' $(2.84\pm1.06)$. 'habit' $(2.74\pm1.12)$. 'pleasure' $(2.70\pm1.04)$. 'stimulus' $(2.59\pm.90)$, 'sensation-exercise satisfaction' $(2.42\pm.97)$. Smokers smoke to reduce the negative emotions when angry in most common case. depressed. anxious. uncomfortable. lone. ashamed or embarrased. and intend to solve the certain problem. etc. Other motives are uncomfortable habit. addiction. habit. pleasure and the pursuit of stimulus. The level of nicotine dependence of adults m Chinan County was 10.57 which amount to 'high' wholly. As the resulf of the level of nicotine dependence score. the people who are low in the level of nicotine was $33.5\%$. the people who are high was $48.2\%$. very high was $18.4\%$. The approach for anti-smoking for smokers should be conducted differently according to the level of the nicotine. For the people who are in low level of nicotin dependence the prohibition of the smoking should be guided through the approach to foster strong will. for those who are in 'high' by acquiring proper method for the prohibition of smoking. and for those who are 'very high' the anti-smoking should be induced by providing proper program because of the possibility of the suffer from abstinence syndrome. The difference of the level of nicotine with the general characteristics of the objects had not statistically significant difference. The difference of the level of nicotine dependence accompanied by smoking habit had statistically significant difference according to the amount of smoke, the kind of tobacos. smoke inhale habit. In other words, the group of heavy smokers had higher level of the nicotine dependence than that of the light smokers relatively and the group which smoke strong taboaco has higher level of nicotine than that of which smoke mild or moderate. And the group of smokers who smoke deeply has higher level of nicotine than that who smoke shallowly or nonswallow. Aa a result of the analysis of the correlation between smoking motive factors and the level of nicotine, there was the indication that people who smoke for the decrease of the negative emotion. habit, pleasure. stimulus. sensation-exercise satisfaction had high level of the nicotine dependence. As the result of the anti-smoking will of smokers. $65.0\%$ of them had prohibition of smoking will. $29.3\%$ had no will to quit smoke. The most important reason for anti-smoking was health. $67.9\%$ had experience to try to quit smoke and the biggest reason to fail to quit smoking was the lack of the will power to keep anti-smoking. $52.8\%$ of them were advised to stop smoking from their spouses or children. only $2.8\%$ were by medical. The people who have the opinion to need anti-smoking education were $69.6\%$. Therefore when the business for the hygine of the mouth for adult is set. it should be centered on the people who have intention of prohibition of the smoking and help to quit smoking by way of other affirmative counter-program not smoking under stress.

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A study on the state of inservice education for dental hygienists and their relevant awareness (치과위생사의 보수교육 실태 및 인식에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Jae-Yeon;Kim, Kyung-Mi;Cho, Myung-Sook;Ahn, Geum-Sun;Song, Kyoung-Hee;Choi, Hye-Jung;Choi, Youn-Seon;Hwang, Yoon-Sook
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.73-89
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the reality of inservice education provided to members of Korean Dental Hygienists Association, the state of relevant academic conferences, and the perception of the members about inservice education and academic conference. It's basically meant to help boost their participation in inservice education and their satisfaction with it, and to show some of the right directions for that. The subjects in this study were dental hygienists who attended a symposium on July 1, 2006. After a survey was conducted, the answer sheets from 489 participants were analyzed, and the findings of the study were as follows: 1. General hospitals and university hospitals made up the largest group(91.4%) that gave a monthly leave of absence, and the second largest group was dental hospitals(75.4%), followed by dental clinics(58.3%) and public dental clinics(48.0%). The most common closing time in dental clinics and dental hospitals was 5 p.m., and that was 12 p.m. in general hospitals and university hospitals. The dental hygienists in public dental clinics didn't work on Saturdays. By type of workplace, treatment was the most common duty for the dental hygienists in dental clinics and dental hospitals to perform, and those who worked at general hospitals, university hospitals and public health clinics were in charge of extensive range of jobs. 2. The rates of the dental hygienists who took that education stood at 94.9% in public dental clinics, 78.7% in dental hospitals and 75.3% in dental clinics, general hospitals and university hospitals. Regarding how many marks they got on an yearly basis, those who got eight marks or more made up the largest group(55.6%), followed by four marks or more(11.8%), six marks or more(3.4%), and two marks or more(1.5%). As for the usefulness of inservice education for their job performance, the largest number of the dental hygienists(40.8%) found it to be helpful, and the second greatest group(37.5%) considered its effectiveness to be so-so. The third largest group(8.4%) found it to be of great use, and the fourth biggest group(4.2%) considered it to be of no service. The fifth biggest group(l.3%) thought it was absolutely useless. By type of workplace, the workers in dental clinics, dental hospitals, general hospitals and university hospitals wanted the most to learn how to take care of clinical work(acquisition of up-to-date technology), and those in public health clinics hoped the most to learn about public dental health. By type of workplace, the workers in dental clinics had their sight set on self-development the most, and the dental hygienists in dental hospitals, general hospitals, university hospitals and public health clinics were most in pursuit of acquiring new knowledge. By type of workplace, the specific given conditions at work were most singled out by the dental clinic workers as the reason, and the dental hospital employees pointed out time constraints the most. The dental hygienists in general hospitals and university hospitals cited time constraints and financial burden the most, and the public health clinic personnels mentioned inaccessibility of a place for inservice education as the reason. 3. The public health clinic workers participated in academic conferences the most(90.8%), followed by the general and university hospital personnels(68.8%), dental hospital employees(65.6%) and dental clinic workers(65.5%). By type of workplace, the public health clinic workers(73.5%) expressed the most satisfaction, followed by the general and university hospital employees(67.7%), dental clinic workers(62.3%) and dental hospital personnels(54.1%). By type of workplace, the employees of dental clinics, dental hospitals, general hospitals and university hospitals preferred Saturdays, and the public health clinic workers had a liking for weekdays. As for a favored place, hotels were most preferred, followed by university hospitals, general hospitals, college lecture rooms, district halls and local public institutions. Hotels were most favored regardless of the type of workplace. 4. Regarding outlook on inservice education, they had the highest opinion on the facilities and given conditions of lecture rooms($3.41{\pm}0.83$), followed by the professionalism of lecturers($3.34{\pm}0.83$), procedures of receipt and attendance confirmation($3.34{\pm}0.83$) and class size($3.13{\pm}0.89$). On the contrary, they took the most dismal view of the inaccessibility of a place of inservice education($2.08{\pm}0.92$), followed by limited opportunity and limited date for that education($2.51{\pm}0.99$), extra financial burden($2.53{\pm}1.18$) and high tuition fee($2.57{\pm}0.96$).

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A Study on Martial art for suggesting the role of Martial art Sports as a Leisure Activity (여가활동으로서의 무도스포츠 역할 재고를 위한 고찰)

  • Lim, Young-Sam
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.564-570
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the preceding studies and suggest alternatives to establish the role and value of martial arts sports as a leisure activity. To achieve the purpose of this study, the keywords and themes of leisure-related journals were extracted and the articles and current status of martial arts-related journals in Korea were derived using SPSS descriptive statistics method. The subjects of the analysis were 'mudo' and 'leisure' of leisure-related journals between 2005 and 2017, and an interpretative textual analysis was conducted to analyze the contents of individual studies. According to the results of the survey on the actual condition of participation in the 2016 National Sports for all, Taekwondo was ranked 5th among the top 5 sports with 6.1% of the sports for all, and Taekwondo and Kendo were ranked 1st and 2nd respectively in the sports for all students and the clubs that they want to join in the future. Second, the study on martial arts in the journals related to leisure was found most in 2006 and 2010, but only one study was not conducted after 2014, which confirmed that the absolute number of studies was very insufficient. Third, the research themes of the journals related to leisure were serious leisure, female college students, physical self-concept, social development, leisure recreation class, job satisfaction, life satisfaction, training, leisure constraints, etc., and the study of martial arts related to leisure was found to require quantitative and qualitative multilateral approaches. Fourth, in the current status of dance related studies by year in domestic journals, two of 23 studies in 2007 were conducted on leisure topics, and the average number of studies related to domestic martial arts and leisure related papers was 5.65%, which is very low. In conclusion, as a result of analyzing the trend of research on leisure as a martial arts sport, it is necessary to suggest the direction of future research that can reconsider the role and value of martial arts sport as a leisure activity that can improve the quality of life and happiness in future society through quantitative and qualitative improvement.

Performance State and Improvement Countermeasure of Primary Health Care Posts (보건진료소(保健診療所)와 업무실태(業務實態)와 개선방안(改善方案))

  • Park, Young-Hee;Kam, Sin;Han, Chang-Hyun;Cha, Byung-Jun;Kim, Tae-Woong;Gie, Jung-Aie;Kim, Byong-Guk
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.353-377
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    • 2000
  • This study was performed to investigate the performance state and improvement countermeasure of Primary Health care Posts(PHPs). The operation reports of PHPs(1996 330 PHPs, 1999 313 PHPs) located in Kyongsangbuk-Do and data collected by self-administered questionnaire survey of 280 community health practitioners(CHPs) were analyzed. The major results were as follows: Population per PHP in 1999 decreased in number compared with 1996. But population of the aged increased in number. The performance status of PHP in 1999 increased compared with 1996. A hundred forty one community health practitioners(50.4%) replied that the fiscal standing of PHP was good. Only 1.4% replied that the fiscal standing of PHP was difficult. For the degree of satisfaction in affairs, overall of community health practitioners felt proud. The degree of cooperation between PHP and public health institutions was high and the degree of cooperation of between PHP and private medical institutions was high. The degree of cooperation between PHP and Health Center was significantly different by age of CHP, the service period of CHP, and CHP's service period at present PHP. Over seventy percent of CHPs replied that they had cooperative relationship with operation council, village health workers, community organization. CHPs who drew up the paper on PHP's health activity plan were 96.4 % and only 11.4% of CHPs participated drawing up the report on the second community health plan. CHPs who grasped the blood pressure and smoking status of residents over 70% were 88.2%, 63.9% respectively and the grasp rate of blood pressure fur residents were significantly different according to age and educational level of CHP. CHPs received job education in addition continuous job education arid participated on research program in last 3 years were 27.5%, respectively. CHPs performed the return health program for residents in last 3years were 65.4%. Over 95% of CHPs replied that PHPs might be necessary and 53.9% of CHPs replied that the role of PHPs should be increased. CHPS indicated that major reasons of FHPs lockout were lack of understanding for PHP and administrative convenience, CHPs were officials in special government service governors intention of self-governing body. CHPs suggested number of population in health need such as the aged and patients with chronic disease, opinion of residents, population size, traffic situation and network in order as evaluation criteria for PHP and suggested results of health performance, degree of relationship with residents, results of medical examination anti treatment, ability for administration and affairs in order as evaluation criteria for CHP. CHPs replied that the important countermeasures for PHPs under standard were affairs improvement of PHPs and shifting of location to health weakness area in city. Over 50% of CHPs indicated that the most important thing for improvement of PHPs was affairs adjustment of CLIP. And CHPs suggested that health programs carried out in priority at PHP were management of diabetes mellitus and hypertention. home visiting health care, health care for the aged. The Affairs of BLIP should be adjusted to satisfy community health need and health programs such as management of diabetes mellitus and hypertention, home visiting health care, health care for the aged should be activated in order that PHPs become organization reflecting value system of primary health care.

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Comparative Analysis of Community Health Practitioner's Activities and Primary Health Post Management Before and After Officialization of Community Health practitioner (보건진료원의 정규직화 전과 후의 보건진료원 활동 및 보건진료소 관리운영체계의 비교 분석)

  • Yun, Suk-Ok;Jung, Moon-Sook
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.141-158
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    • 1994
  • To provide better health care services to the rural population, the government has made the Community Health Practitioner(CHP) a regular government official from April 1, 1992. This study was carried out to study the impact of officialization of CHP on the activities and management system of Primary Health Post(PHP). Fifty PHPs were selected by two stage sampling, cluster and simple random, from 595 PHPs in Kyungnam and Kyungpook provinces. Data were collected by a personal interview with CHPs and review of records and reports kept in the PHPs. The study was done for the periods of January 1-March 31, 1992 (before officialization) and January 1-March 31, 1993 (after officialization). Ninety-six percent of the CHPs wanted to become a regular government official in the hope of better job security and higher salary. The proportion of CHPs who were proud of their iob was increased from 24% to 46% after officialization. Those CHPs who felt insecure for their job decreased from 30% to 10%. Monthly salary was increased by 34% from 802,600 Won to 1,076,000 Won and 90% of the CHPs were satisfied with their salary, also more CHPs responded that they have autonomy in their work planning, implementation of plan, management of the post, and evaluation of their activity. There were no appreciable changes in such CHPs' activities as assessment of local health resources, drawing map for the catchment area, utilization of community organization, grasping the current population structure in the catchment area, keeping the family health records, individual and group health education, and school health service. However, the number of home visits was increased from 13.6 times on the average per month per CHP to 27.5 times. More mothers and children were referred to other medical facilities for the immunization and family planning services. Average number of patients of hypertension, cancer, and diabetes in three months period was decreased from 12.7 to 11.6, from 1.5 to 1.2, and 4.3 to 3.4, respectively. Records for the patient care, drug management, and equipment were well kept but not for other records. The level of record keeping was not changed after officialization. The proportion of PHPs which had support from the health center was increased for drug supply from 14.0% to 30.0%, for consumable commodities from 22.0% to 52.0%, for maintenance of PHP from 54.0% to 68.0%, for supply of health education materials from 34.0% to 44.0%, and supply of equipment from 54.0% to 58.0%. Total monthly revenue of a PHP was increased by about 50,000 Won; increased by 22,000 Won in patient care and 34,700 Won in the government subsidy but decreased in the membership due and donation. However, there was no remarkable changes in the expenditure. The proportion of PHPs which had received official notes from the health center for the purpose of guidance and supervision of the CHPs was increased from 20% to 38% during three months period and the average number of telephone call for supervision from the health center per PHP was increased from 1.8 to 2.1 times(p<0.01). However, the proportion of PHPs that had supervisory visit and conference was reduced from 79% to 62%, and from 88% to 74%, respectively. The proportion of CHPs who maintained a cooperative relationship with Myun Health Workers was reduced from 42% to 36%, that with the director of health center from 46% to 24%, that with the chief of public health administration section from 56% to 36%, and that with the chairman of PHP management council from 62% to 38%. Most of the CHPs (92% before and 82% after officialization) stated that the PHP management council is not helpful for the PHP. CHPs who considered the PHP management council unnecessary increased from 4% to 16%(p<0.05). Suggestions made by the CHPs for the improvement of CHP program included emphasis on health education, assurance of autonomy for PHP management, increase of the kind of drugs that can be dispensed by CHPs, and appointment of an experienced CHP in the health center as the supervisor of CHPs. The results of this study revealed that the role and function of CHPs as reflected in their activities have not been changed after officialization. However, satisfaction in job security and salary was improved as well as the autonomy. Support of health center to the PHP was improved but more official notes were sent to the PHPs which required the CHPs more paper works. Number of telephone calls for supervision was increased but there was little administrative and technical guidance for the CHP activities.

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