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Identification of Factors Controlling Expression of Purple Color in Hypocotyl of Soybean Sprouts (콩나물 재배 시 자색 배축 발현 요인 구명)

  • Choi, Man-Soo;Jeong, Namhee;Kim, Dool-Yi;Kim, Jae-Hyun;Jin, Mina;Chun, Jaebuhm;Moon, Jung-Kyung
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.63 no.1
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    • pp.41-47
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    • 2018
  • Soybean sprouts have good digestibility, high isoflavone content compared with soybean seeds, and large amounts of aspartic acid, which is effective in eliminating hangovers. However, the region between the cotyledon and hypocotyl in soybean sprouts appears purple, the product value of soybean sprouts reduces. To date, the scientific correlation among factors such as growth temperature, spray water temperature, and cultivation periods for soybean varieties related to purple color expression between the cotyledon and hypocotyl of soybean sprouts are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors regulating the expression of purple color between the cotyledon and hypocotyl of soybean sprouts. Of 15 Korean soybean varieties with purple color in the hypocotyls and flowers, 9 varieties, including Sowonkong, Wonhwang, Sinhwa, Eunhakong, Pungsannamulkong, Paldonamulkong, Kwangankong, Shingang, and Jangki showed purple color between the cotyledon and hypocotyl of sprouts. However, the remaining six cultivars, including Dachae, Myeongjunamulkong, Sobaeknamulkong, Sojinnamulkong, Anpyeong, and Jonam, did not show purple color. The proportion of soybean sprouts with purple hypocotyls was the lowest at $26^{\circ}C$ and there was no significant difference at the other three cultivation temperature conditions ($17^{\circ}C$, $20^{\circ}C$, and $23^{\circ}C$). Similar to the results of the cultivation temperature experiment at five different spray water temperatures ($10^{\circ}C$, $17^{\circ}C$, $20^{\circ}C$, $23^{\circ}C$, and $26^{\circ}C$), the proportion of soybean sprouts with purple hypocotyls was the highest at the lowest spray water temperature ($10^{\circ}C$), and lowest at the highest temperature. Additionally, there was no purple color expression in soybean sprout hypocotyls on the $3^{rd}$ day after soybean sprouting. However, the highest expression level was observed on the $4^{th}$ day. Then, on the $5^{th}$ day, the proportion of soybean sprouts with purple hypocotyls reduced significantly, compared with that on the $4^{th}$ day. The results showed that interaction among these factors under cultivation conditions was remarkably effective for the expression of purple color in hypocotyls under the dark condition. These results suggested that cultivation temperature and spray water temperature for purple color expression in soybean sprout hypocotyls are the most important factors in the sprout cultivation environment.

Protective Effect of Isoflavone, Genistein from Soybean on Singlet Oxygen Induced Photohemolysis of Human Erythrocytes ($^1O_2$으로 유도된 사람 적혈구의 광용혈에 있어서 대두의 아이소플라본인 제니스테인의 보호작용)

  • Park, Soo-Nam
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.510-518
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    • 2003
  • Protective effects of natural components including genistein (4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone) from Glycine max MERRILL on the rose-bengal sensitized photohemolysis of human erythrocytes were investigated. Genistein $(10{\sim}100\;{\mu}m)$ suppressed photohemolysis in a concentration-dependent manner, and was more effective than the lipid peroxidation chain blocker, ${\alpha}$-tocopherol (Vit. E). Glycoside of genistein, genistin, the water-soluble antioxidant, L-ascorbate, and the iron chelator, myo-inositol hexaphosphoric acid dodecasodium salt (sodium phytate) did not exhibit protective effect against photohemolysis. L-Ascorbate and sodium phytate stimulated photohemolysis at high concentration $(500\;{\mu}m)$. ${\alpha}$-Carotene 3,3'-diol (lutein), a singlet oxygen $(^1O_2)$ quencher, exhibited pronounced protective effect, an indication that $^1O_2$ is important in photohemolysis sensitized by rose-bengal. Reactive oxygen scavenging activities $(OSC_{50})$ of natural antioxidants including genistein on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in $Fe^{3+}-EDTA/H_2O_2$ system using the luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay were in the order of sodium phytate > L-ascorbate > ${\alpha}$-tocopherol > genistein > genistin. $OSC_{50}$ value of genistein, genistin, ${\alpha}$-tocopherol, L-ascorbate, and sodium phytate were 41.0, 109.0, 9.0, 5.2, and $0.56{\mu}m$ respectively. The order of free radical (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH) scavenging activity $(FSC_{50})$ was L-ascorbate > ${\alpha}$-tocopherol > genistein > genistin. These results indicate that genistein can function as an antioxidant in biological systems, particularly skin exposed to solar UV radiation by scavenging $^1O_2$ and other ROS, and to protect cellular membranes against ROS.

Correlation of Quality Characteristics of Soybean Cultivars and Whole Soymilk Palatability (콩 품종별 품질특성과 전두유 식미의 상관관계)

  • Lee, Ji Hae;Lee, Yu Young;Son, Yurim;Yeum, Kyung-Jin;Lee, Yoon-Mi;Lee, Byong Won;Woo, Koan Sik;Kim, Hyun-Joo;Han, Sangik;Lee, Byoung Kyu
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.63 no.4
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    • pp.322-330
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    • 2018
  • The correlation between the nutritional composition of soybeans and whole soymilk palatability was investigated using nine soybean cultivars (Teagwangkong, Daewonkong, Saedanback, Jinpung, Daechan, Miso, Cheongmiin, Cheongja 3, and Socheongja). Physicochemical analysis of soybeans, showed that the protein and lipid contents were 37.7-46.0 and 15.2-20.9%, respectively. Unsaturated fatty acids were 81.1-84.8% of total fatty acids, of which linoleic acids was 49.7-56.8%. Total tocopherol was $243.5-361.3{\mu}g/g$ of extract, of which ${\gamma}$-tocopherol was $67.14-86.49{\mu}g/g$. Total isoflavone contents varied within cultivars from $495.4-1,443.8{\mu}g/g$ of extract. Daidzin and genistin were 252.1-556.0 and $241.8-730.7{\mu}g/g$, respectively, which were major isoflavones in soybeans. For the sensory evaluation, whole soymilk was made from nine soybean cultivars and 20 panels investigate its palatability. The Daechan cultivar had the highest (9.1), and Cheongmiin the lowest (5.6), overall palatability score. Interestingly, sensory results were strongly correlated with linoleic acid (0.746) and stearic acid (-0.716) content. In summary, the fatty acid composition of soybeans is the key factor in determining the palatability of whole soymilk. This study could be applied to determine the suitability of cultivars for soybean products, including whole soymilk.

Effects of Endocrine Disruptors on the Expression of Estrogen Receptors in Ovary and Uterus from Immature Rats (내분비계 장애물질이 미성숙한 흰쥐의 난소와 자궁에서의 에스트로겐 수용체 발현에 미치는 효과)

  • Lee, Kyeung-Yeup;Lee, Sung-Ho
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.255-261
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    • 2006
  • Although some phytoes rogens might have beneficiary rather than adverse effects, most endocrine disrupting compounds(EDCs) are considered to be harmful to human and wildlife health through interfering the endocrine system. Previously we found that prepubertal exposure to genistein(GS), a well-known isoflavone phytoestrogen, could activate the reproductive system of immature female rats resulting precocious puberty. Interestingly, di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate(DEHP) exposure brought inverse result, a delayed puberty, in the same experimental regimen. In this study, we examined whether prepubertal exposure to GS or DEHP affect the gene expressions of estrogen receptors($ER\;{\alpha}$ and $ER\;{\beta}$) and LH receptor(LHR) which represent the maturational status of ovary and uterus in immature rats. GS (100 mg/kg/day) was administered daily from postnatal day 25 to the day when the first vaginal opening(VO) was observed, and the animals were sacrificed on the next day(day 32). Similarly, DEHP(l00 mg/kg/day) was administered daily from postnatal day 25 through the day when the first V.O. in control group was observed, and the animals were sacrificed on the next day(day 36). To determine the transcriptional changes in the hormone receptors, total RNAs were extracted from ovary and uterus and were applied to semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). In the GS group, the transcriptional activities of $ER\;{\alpha}$, $ER\;{\beta}$ and LHR in uterus and LHR in ovary were significantly increased when compared to those of control group. In the DEHP group, the transcriptional activities of all the hormone receptors measured were significantly lowered when compared to those of control group. These alteration of the reproductive hormone receptor expressions in ovary and uterus might be represent the phenotypic aspects(secondary sexual characteristics) such as tissue weights and reproductive hormone levels during perinatal period in immature female rats.

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Development of Sugar-Soaked Black Soybean Snack and Its Quality Change on Functional Components (당침지 검정콩 스낵 제품의 개발 및 기능성 성분의 변화)

  • Song, Nho-Eul;Song, Young-Ran;Kim, Jong-Hui;Kim, Young-Eun;Han, Ah-Reum;Jeong, Do-Youn;Baik, Sang-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.853-859
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    • 2011
  • We developed and investigated sugar-soaked black soybean snack (SSBSS) to increase the availability of black soybean. The most desirable moisture contents and texture properties of hardness and gumminess in preparing SSBSS were obtained at a sugar concentration of $40^{\circ}brix$ for the first sugar soaking step and $50^{\circ}brix$ for the second sugar soaking process. Sensory evaluation also showed that SSBSS prepared with $40^{\circ}brix$ for first sugar soaking step and $50^{\circ}brix$ for the second sugar soaking process was graded higher than the other samples in all questionnaires. Prepared SSBSS had a final moisture content of $5.50{\pm}0.39%$, crude protein content of $16.25{\pm}0.07%$, and crude lipid content of $34.26{\pm}3.95%$. The ash and carbohydrate contents of SSBSS were $0.51{\pm}0.05%$ and $43.48{\pm}0.01%$, respectively, and the final glucose content was $10.20{\pm}0.10^{\circ}brix$. GABA concentration was $15.24{\pm}1.47\;mg$/g and the contents of daidzein, genistein, daidzin, and genistin were $695.7{\pm}6.08\;{\mu}g$/g, $810.6{\pm}3.9\;{\mu}g$/g, $755.8{\pm}39.6\;{\mu}g$/g, and $1640.7{\pm}390.8\;{\mu}g$/g, respectively. In addition, the phenolic compound and flavonoid contents in SSBSS were $0.16{\pm}0.01$ and $2.33{\pm}0.40\;mg$/g, respectively.

A New Black Seed Coat Soybean Cultivar, 'Daeheug' with Lodging Tolerance, and Large Seed Size (검정콩 대립 내도복 신품종 '대흑')

  • Han, Won-Young;Baek, In-Youl;Ko, Jong-Min;Kim, Hyun-Tae;Oh, Ki-Won;Shin, Sang-Ouk;Park, Keum-Yong;Ha, Tae-Jung;Shin, Doo-Chull;Chung, Myung-Gun;Kang, Sung-Taek;Yun, Hong-Tae;Oh, Young-Jin;Kim, Je-Kyu;Kim, Ho-Yeong;Choi, Jae-Keun;Lee, Seong-Su;Son, Chang-Ki;Kim, Yong-Duk
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.267-271
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    • 2010
  • A new black seed coat soybean cultivar, 'Daeheug', was developed at the National Institute of Crop Science (NICS) in 2007. The breeding goal for black seed coat soybean is to develop the cultivar with large seed size, high yield, lodging tolerance, and resistance to disease such as soybean mosaic virus (SMV), and bacterial pustule. 'Daeheug' was selected from the cross between 'Daehwang' which had yellow seed coat, large seed size, and late maturity, and 'Milyang 79' which was lodging tolerant, and SMV resistant with medium seed size, black seed coat, and yellow cotyledon. The preliminary, advanced and regional yield trials for evaluation and selection of this cultivar were carried out from 2003 to 2007. It has determinate growth habit, purple flower, brown pubescence, brown pod color, black seed coat, yellow cotyledon, spherical flattened seed shape, oval leaf shape and large seed size (34.3 g/100 seeds). In maturity, 'Daeheug' was 2 days later than the check cultivar 'Ilpumgeomjeongkong'. In the seed quality such as isoflavone contents ($635{\mu}g/g$), and anthocyanin contents ($11.2m{\ell}/g$ of seed coat), 'Daeheug' was better than the check cultivar. It has good adaptability for cooking with rice in ratio of water absorption and seed hardness. Specially, it has good processability for soybean tea with 2.13 absorbance at 530 nm, scavenge activity of DPPH radical was high, and contents of total phenolics was $1,263{\mu}g/m{\ell}$. The average yield of 'Daeheug' was 2.26 ton per hectare in the regional yield trials (RYT) carried out in six locations of Korea from 2005 to 2007.

A New Black Seed Coat Soybean Cultivar, 'Heugseong' with Large Seed and High Yield (검정콩 단경 대립 다수성 신품종 '흑성')

  • Han, Won-Young;Kim, Hyun-Tae;Baek, In-Youl;Ko, Jong-Min;Oh, Ki-Won;Shin, Sang-Ouk;Park, Keum-Yong;Ha, Tae-Jung;Moon, Joong-Kyung;Lim, Sea-Gyu;Chung, Myung-Geun;Kang, Sung-Taek;Yun, Hong-Tae;Oh, Young-Jin;Kim, Sun-Lim;Choi, Jae-Keun;Joo, Jeong-Il;Son, Chang-Ki;Kim, Yong-Duk
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.668-673
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    • 2010
  • A new black seed coat soybean cultivar, 'Heugseong' was developed at the National Institute of Crop Science (NICS) in 2008. The goal to breed the black seed coat soybean is to develop the cultivar with large seed size, high yield, lodging tolerance, and resistance to disease such as soybean mosaic virus (SMV), and bacterial pustule. 'Heugseong' was selected from the cross between 'Gnome85', showing yellow seed coat, lodging tolerance, and high yield, and 'Cheongja', showing green cotyledon, and black seed coat. The preliminary, advanced and regional yield trials for this cultivar were carried out from 2004 to 2008. It has determinate growth habit, purple flower, brown pubescence, brown pod color, black seed coat, yellow cotyledon, elongated seed shape, oval leaf shape and large seed size (29.2 grams per 100 seeds). It was 4 days later in maturity than the check cultivar 'Ilpumgeomjeongkong'. 'Heugseong' was better than the check cultivar in the seed quality of isoflavone contents(1,913 ${\mu}g/g$). It has good adaptability for cooking with rice in ratio of water absorption and seed hardness, for physics of black tofu, and for fermented black soybean paste. The average yield of 'Heugseong' was 2.37 ton per hectare in the regional yield trials carried out in six locations of Korea from 2006 to 2008.

Anti-obesity Effects of Black Bean Chungkugjang Extract in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and Obese Mice Induced by High Fat Diet (검은콩 청국장 추출물이 3T3-L1 지방세포와 고지방식이를 급여한 마우스의 항비만효과에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, Young-Sun;Jeong, Jong-Moon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.9
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    • pp.1235-1243
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    • 2011
  • In this study, we investigated the antioxidative activity (scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and superoxide anion radical) and anti-obesity effects of black bean chungkugjang extract (BBCE). DPPH free radical-scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical-scavenging activity ($SC_{50}$ value) of BBCE were $162.7{\pm}2.8$ ppm, and $205.62{\pm}3.6$ ppm, respectively. The anti-obesity effects of BBCE were investigated by measuring Oil Red O staining in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. BBCE reduced the content of Oil Red O dye in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also examined the effects of BBCE on adiposity, serum lipid, and leptin levels in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice were fed the BBCE experimental diets for 7 weeks, after which they were sacrificed. ICR male mice were randomly divided into three groups, one normal diet group (ND group) and two high fat diet groups with or without BBCE supplementation (HFD group and HFD-BBCE group). The results showed that weight gain and the food efficiency ratio significantly decreased upon addition of BBCE compared to those of the HFD group. Further, white adipose tissue weights of epididymal, mesenteric, and retroperitoneal areas in the HFD-BBCE group were reduced to 34.8%, 7.1%, and 40.6%, respectively, compared to that of the HFD group. The serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and leptin in the HFD-BBCE group were significantly lower than those of the HFD group. Based on these results, it can be concluded that BBCE may have beneficial effects on reducing fat mass and serum lipid content.

The Dietary Effect of Royal Jelly Supplementation on Epidermal Levels of Filaggrin and Free Amino Acids during Menopause in Rats (폐경기 노화 유도 전후의 로얄제리 식이공급이 백서 표피의 필라그린과 유리아미노산 함량 및 관련 대사 효소의 단백질 발현 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yeaji;Han, Sang-Mi;Cho, Yunhi
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.389-396
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    • 2013
  • Epidermal hydration is mainly maintained by natural moisturizing factors (NMFs). Of these various NMFs, free amino acids (AAs) are major constituents generated by filaggrin degradation. The reduction of these AAs has been reported in aging skin induced during menopause. In this study, we examined whether the dietary supplementation of royal jelly (RJ) during the pre- and post-menopausal period alters epidermal levels of filaggrins, free AAs, and peptidylarginine deiminase-3 (PAD-3) (an enzyme involved in filaggrin degradation processes). Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups: groups fed a control diet for 12 weeks, in which an ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operation (SHAM) were underwent at week 4; groups fed a diet with 1% RJ harvested in different area of Korea (RJ1 and RJ2); and a group fed a diet with isoflavone (IF), the typical functional food for menopause prevention, for 4 weeks before and 8 weeks after an ovariectomy operation. In the epidermis of group OVX, total filaggrins (including profilaggrin and filaggrin) were reduced; these levels in groups RJ1 and IF were similar or less than in group OVX. However, total AAs, which showed no apparent difference between groups SHAM and OVX, were highly increased in groups RJ1 and IF. Specifically, aspartate (Asp) and proline (Pro), the major AAs in functioning NMF, were highly increased in group RJ1. Although total filaggrins, profilaggrin, filaggrin and PAD3 increased, total AAs (including Asp and Pro) in group RJ2 were modest or less than in group RJ1. The PAD3 alteration was not apparent among the four other groups. Taken together, we demonstrate that the diet supplementation of RJ1 enhanced filaggrin degradation (but not through the increased protein expression of PAD3), and increased total AAs, Asp and Pro. RJ1 could be a dietary supplementation for preventing the skin aging induced during menopause.

Effects of Soy Protein Concentrate and Age on Plasma Lipids and Phospholipid Fatty Acid Patterns in Female Rats (콩 단백 성분 및 연령이 암컷 흰쥐의 혈장 지질 농도와 인지질 지방산 패턴에 미치는 영향)

  • 정은정;김수연;김지영;안지영;박정화;차명화;이양자
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.269-277
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    • 2003
  • Effects of soy protein concentrate (SPC) containing isoflavone and casein diets on plasma phospholipid (PLs)-fatty acid patterns were investigated in 7-& 40- wk old female rats. Diets containing 16% SPC (soy/young:SY, soy/old: SO) and casein (casein/young : CY, casein/ old: CO) supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol were fed for 4 wks. Fatty acid compositions of plasma PLs were determined by TLC and GLC. Compared to the dietary protein effects, age effects on serum lipids were more profound. The levels of total cholesterol (Chol.), triglyceride, HDL-Chol., (LDL+VLDL)-Chol. and atherogenic index (AI) were higher in older groups (OC & OS) than younger groups (YC &. YS). Soy groups had higher Ell)L-Chol. level and lower (LDL+ VLDL)-Chol. and AI, compared with casein groups. The compositions of C22:0, Cl8:1 $\omega$9 and sum of MUFA in plasma PLs were significantly higher in casein group (CY & CO) than soy group (SY & SO), but those of sum of SFA were higher in soy group. The compositions of C22:0, Cl8:1 $\omega$9, C22:1, Cl8:3$\omega$3 and C22:4$\omega$6 were higher and those of C22:6$\omega$3, sum of $\omega$3, Cl8: 2$\omega$6 C20:4$\omega$6, sum of $\omega$6 and sum of PUFA were lower in plasma PLs of younger rats. The average P/S and $\omega$3/$\omega$6 ratio in older group was higher. The $\Delta$-7 desaturation index (16:0⇒16:1$\omega$7) and $\Delta$-9 desaturation index (18:0⇒18:1$\omega$9) were lower in soy group than casein group, while $\Delta$-6 and $\Delta$-5 desaturation index were not affected by dietary protein. The $\Delta$-4 desaturation index (22:4$\omega$6⇒22:5$\omega$6) were higher and elongation index (20:4$\omega$6⇒22:4$\omega$6) were lower in older group. The ratio of the products of $\omega$3 fatty acid series (Cl8:3) was significantly higher in older group, which indicated that age affected the plasma PUFA metabolism. On the other hand, older rats had higher serum cholesterol level compared with younger rats. Taken together, these changes in fatty acid composition might cause minimal changes in tile membrane fluidity induced by the increase serum cholesterol level.