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Analysis of Water Loss Rate and Irrigation Efficiency in Irrigation Canal at the Dong-Jin District (동진지구 관개용수로의 손실률 및 관개효율 분석)

  • Hong, Eun-Mi;Choi, Jin-Yong;Nam, Won-Ho;Lee, Sang-Hyun;Choi, Jin-Kyu;Kim, Jin-Taek
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.57 no.2
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    • pp.93-101
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the paddy irrigation efficiency using real-time water level monitoring data and intermittent irrigation model in Gimjae, Dong-Jin irrigation district. For this study, the real-time water level data in Gimjae main canal and other secondary canals were collected from 2012 to 2014 and converted to daily discharge using rating curve in each canal. From intermittent irrigation model in paddy, irrigation water requirement was estimated and irrigation efficiency was calculated. The average amount of irrigation water supply per unit irrigation area was 1,011 mm in Gimjae main canal for 12,749 ha irrigation area, 1,011 mm in the secondary canal of upper region and 1,470 mm in the secondary canal of lower region. The median irrigation loss was 43 % in Gimjae main canal, 25 % in secondary canal of upper region and 35 % in the secondary canal of lower region. The larger irrigation area is, the irrigation loss rates tend to decrease in secondary canals. Monthly median irrigation losses in upper region were 10 (June) - 40 % (September) and those in lower region were 25 (May) to 40 % (April, June, August, and September). The results of canal management loss can be available as the basic data for irrigation water management and estimating guideline of optimal irrigation water supply to improve agricultural water use efficiencies.

A Study on the Unified Operation and Maintenance System of Irrigation Facilities in Korea - With Reference to the Survey Results on the Activities of Irrigation Fraternities in Chungnam Province - (농업용수리시설의 유지관리체제일원화에 관한 연구 - 충남지역 수리계 운영실태조사결과를 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Sung-Min;Lim, Jae-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.53-75
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    • 2004
  • This study is aimed at identifying the national economic value of the irrigation facilities by reviewing the existing papers on economic values of the irrigation facilities and presenting current status of dual O & M problems of the irrigation facilities. This study suggested the unified O & M system rather than continuing the existing dual O & M system of irrigation facilities based on the surveyed results of the activities of irrigation fraternities in Chungnam Province. The findings and proposals for the successful unified and mono O & M system of the irrigation facilities are as follows: (1) Total number of irrigation facilities in the nation accounts for 67,582, while the total length of irrigation and drainage canals amounted to about 174,259km. On account of the total length of structural canals was estimated at 31%, much losses of water and much O & M costs have been inevitable for the full irrigation rice culture. In spite of the past heavy investment for irrigation facilities, the ratio of rain-fed and partially irrigated paddy fields accounts for 23% in 2003. Both Korea Agricultural and Rural Infrastructure Corporation (KARICO) and the city and Gun Governments have managed the irrigation facilities separately by irrigation fraternities. The KARICO have commanded 59% of irrigation paddy area with 18% of the total irrigation facilities, while the city and Gun governments covered 41% of irrigation paddy area with 82% of the existing number of irrigation facilities representing small and medium scale. (2) The 1999 demand prices of irrigation water per ton expressed in 2000 constant market price was estimated at 388 won, the supply price was amounted to 184 won per ton. Considering the supply and demand curve of the irrigation water, the existing irrigation facilities could not satisfy the demand of irrigation water. (3) In 1999, total present added value of the irrigation facilities during the economic life accounted for 48 trillion won, while total supply cost was 44.7 trillion won. The marginal benefit and cost ratio of irrigation water was 1.08. (4) The total O & M cost per year amounting to 681.1 billion won have been required to maintain and repair the existing irrigation facilities in Korea. For the successful unified O & M of irrigation facilities covering whole irrigated paddy field in Korea, 950 billion won of O & M costs are required to keep up the marginal benefit of irrigation water as 2,800 billion won per year. The total O & M cost as 950 billion won should be allocated 40%, 380 billion won for O & M costs of irrigation facilities and 60%, 570 billion won for improvement of irrigation facilities. (5) The study investigated and reviewed the present O & M status of the irrigation facilities by small and medium irrigation fraternities. Most of the farmers belong to the irrigation fraternities preferred not only unified O & M but also KARICO take-over of the whole O & M activities of the irrigation facilities. The prevailing O & M cost per 10a expended by the Corporation was amounted to 104,890 won, while that of city and Gun governments was only amounted to 4,600 won per 10a. regarding the small amount of O & M cost expended by city and Gun governments, it is evident that the existing irrigation system have been managed ineffectively and deteriorated the facilities comparing that of KARICO. In conclusion, the Government could not satisfied the demand of irrigation water by suppling water with existing irrigation facilities. Therefore new additional investment and financial support for irrigation water development should be made to convert rain-fed and partially irrigated paddy fields into fully irrigated ones. The operation and maintenance cost should be supported to keep the marginal values of rice production of existing irrigation facilities in the national economy and to modernize the obsolete irrigation facilities. By unifying the existing dual O & M systems, all the farmers belong to the irrigated paddy fields have to be equally benefited and could be increased their farm income and be stabilized their rural lives.

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Comparison of Irrigation Methods for Upland Crops (전작물의 관개법에 관한 비교연구)

  • 정하우
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.1861-1871
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    • 1970
  • This experiment was carried out to compare soil moisture contents and the amounts of irrigation water by varying irrigating methods for chinese cabbages. The irrigating methods were non-irrigation (Plot A), furrow irrigation(Plot B). fixed nozzle pipe irrigation(Plot C), subsoil pipeline irrigation at the depths of 15cm. and 30cm., laying out in the middle of the rows of chinese cabbages(Plot D) and subsoil pipeline irrigation at the depths of 15cm, and 30cm., laying out beneath the rows of the roots of chinese cabbages(Plot E). In this experiment soil moisture contents were measured by using a simple electric device. As a result, the fallowing items are derived; 1) A significionce of 5% was observed between the yields produced at the furrow irrigation plot and fixed nozzle pipe irrigation plot, and those at the non-irrigation plot and subsoil pipe-line irrigation plot. 2) In the subsoil pipe-line irrgatiion, the Plot D type was observed to be slightly better than the Plot E type in the effect of the growth of cabbages. 3) The ratio of the amounts of irrigation water applied in the furrow irrigation plot, fixed nozzle pipe irrigation plot and subsoil pipe-line irrigation plot is approximately 3.2:2.1.

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Assessment of the Amount of Irrigation Water for Red Pepper by Water Saving Irrigation Manual (노지재배 고추재배시 물절약형 관개 기준에 의한 물절약량 산정 연구)

  • Eom, Ki-Cheol;Park, So-Hyun;Yoo, Sung-Yung
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.301-305
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    • 2012
  • The amount of irrigation water can be calculated based on the irrigation schedule in irrigation manual. At present, the maximum irrigation manual, which was developed in 1999 for the maximum yield with maxmum irrigation, is using. Now the water saving irrigation manual for red pepper, without decrease of crop yield, has been developded in 45 areas of korea. Among 45 regions, 9 regions which were selected respectively from 9 Provinces of Korea, were used for this study. The water saving irrigation manual has been used easily without soil sampling and measurement of soil water status. The objective of this study is to assess the possibility of the saving of irrigation water compared to the maximum irrigation manual. The average potential evapo-transpiration (PET) during 30 years in 9 region for the red pepper cultivation was a $2.69mm\;day^{-1}$. The saving amount of irrigation water for red pepper cultivation by saving irrigation manual compared to the maximum irrigation manual in a year was 309.4 mm, 303.3 mm and 309.5 mm in the soil of Sandy Loam (SL), Loam (L) and Silty Loam (SiL), respectively. The average saving amount of irrigation water for red pepper cultivation by saving irrigation manual compared to the maximum irrigation manual in a year was 307.4 mm.

Water Use Efficiency of Subsurface Drip Irrigation and Furrow Irrigation (지하점적관개와 고랑관개의 물 이용 효율)

  • Song, In-Hong;Waller Peter. M.;Choi, C. Yeon-Sik;Kwun, Soon-Kuk
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.3-13
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    • 2007
  • The primary objective of this study was to compare water use efficiencies between subsurface drip irrigation and furrow irrigation. The uniformity of used drip lines was tested to determine if clogging would be a threat to the long-term success of a subsurface drip irrigation system. Three crops, cantaloupe, lettuce, and bell pepper, were grown in four plots for each irrigation system. Significantly less water was applied with subsurface drip irrigation than with furrow irrigation (29.5 % less for cantaloupe and 43.2 % less for bell poppet) in order to produce similar crop yields. Water use efficiencies with subsurface drip irrigation were significantly higher than those with furrow irrigation fur cantaloupe (P-value = 0.018) and bell pepper (P-value ${\leq}$ 0.001). Drip-irrigated lettuce, a shallow-rooted crop, had moderately higher water use efficiency during the first two seasons, while no difference was observed in the third season. After the experiment, the uniformity of the drip lines was 92.1 % on average and classified as good. The high values fur water use efficiency and uniformity indicate that subsurface drip irrigation can be a sustainable method for conserving irrigation water.

Water Saving Irrigation Standard of Tomato in Greenhouse

  • Eom, Ki-Cheol;Lee, Byung-Kook;Koh, Mun-Hwan;Eom, Ho-Yong;Sonn, Yeun-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.313-321
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    • 2013
  • The Average daily PET (Potential evapotranspiration), evaluated based on the last 30 years meteorological data and the lysimeter experiment carried out by RDA during 11 years, of 9 regions in Korea for the tomato cultivated in greenhouse, was $3.41mm\;day^{-1}$. Two kinds of water saving irrigation standard (WSIS), deficit irrigation standard (DIS) and partial root-zone drying irrigation standard (PRDIS) that include the irrigation interval and the amount of irrigation water according to the region, soil texture and growing stage, were established. According to the DIS and PRDIS, the cultivator can save water up to 29.2% and 53.7%, respectively, for tomato cultivation in greenhouse compared to the full irrigation standard (FIS) which established in 1999. WSIS can be used easily by the cultivator without complicate procedures such as soil sampling and measurement of soil water status by expensive sensors. But the cultivator should care about irrigation method such as PRDI (partial root-zone drying irrigation) without yield decrease.

Elect on Saving Water of Underground Trickle Irrigation (지중관수 방법에 의한 용수절감 효과)

  • Kim J. H.;Kim C. S.;Kim T. W.;Hong J. H.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.102-109
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    • 2005
  • Water consumption at the farm is up to 48 percent of water resource of South Korea while manufacturing industry's is only $9.6\%$. The area of arable land is 2,077,067 ha and 27 percent of it is used for growing fruits and vegetables using furrow or surface irrigation at the greenhouse. Surface irrigation at the greenhouse for fruits and vegetables has problems such as over watering and insufficient supply of water to the fine roots of the plant. However, the research on the new method of irrigation to save water usage is few. The characteristics of soil wetting was measured for using surface irrigation and underground trickle irrigation method where water was supplied at 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm beneath the surface ground. Followings are summary of this study. 1. The efficiency of underground trickle irrigation was expected to be as high as twice of surface irrigation such as drip watering or sprinkling. 2. This improvement could be possible by using less than $50\%$ of irrigation water than surface irrigation to supply similar amount of water near fine roots. 3. Surface irrigation causes soil compaction as deep as 20 cm below the surface ground which reduces soil porosity and root respiration ending up developing less fine roots. 4. Underground trickle irrigation can prevent overdamping in the greenhouse since it does not over wet the surface soil. At winter, the amount of agricultural chemical usage could be reduced since this irrigation method does not develop blight or crop disease from condensation of water vapor.

Evaluation of Water Supply Adequacy using Real-time Water Level Monitoring System in Paddy Irrigation Canals (실시간 관개수로 수위 모니터링을 활용한 논 관개용수 공급적정성 평가)

  • Hong, Eun Mi;Nam, Won-Ho;Choi, Jin-Yong;Kim, Jin-Taek
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.56 no.4
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2014
  • Appropriate amount of water supply to paddy fields in proper time is important to achieve efficient agricultural water management. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the irrigation water supply adequacy for paddy fields using water level data in irrigation canals. For the evaluation, the real-time water level data were collected from main canals in the Dongjin irrigation district for 2 years. Using the water level data, delivered irrigation water amounts at the distribution points of each canal were calculated. The water balance model for paddy field was designed considering intermittent irrigation and the irrigation water requirement was estimated. Irrigation water supply adequacy was analyzed from main canals to the irrigation blocks based on the comparison between estimated requirement and delivered irrigation water amounts. From the adequacy analysis, irrigation water supply showed poor management condition in 2012 with low efficiency except the Daepyong canal section, and the adequacy in 2013 was good or fair except the Yongsung canal section. When irrigation water for paddy fields was insufficient, water supply adequacy was affected by irrigation area, but when irrigation water was enough to supply, adequacy was affected by distance from main canal to distribution points. These results of the spatial and temporal dimensions of the irrigation adequacy could be utilized for efficient irrigation water management to improve the temporal uniformity and equity in the water distribution for paddy fields.

Drills for New Irrigation Methods in Xinjiang

  • Ba, Huizhen;Yang, Zhijun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
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    • pp.239-245
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    • 1993
  • Xinjiang locates on the Middle Eurasia. Droaght features Xinjiang's climate , especially during the spring sowing season. Therefore, efficiency irrigation system is indispensable to Xinjiang farming. Furrow orborder irrigation system has replaced flooding irrigation. In farmland , new irrigation methods have been developed and introduced to more fields. This article introduce tow sowing machines for new irrigation methods. (1) Furrow or border grain drill : (2) On-firm irrigation drill.

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Analysis of Irrigation Water Use from Pumping Station (양수장 지구를 대상으로 한 농업용수 이용특성 분석(관개배수 \circled2))

  • 박기욱;정하우;석대식
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers Conference
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    • pp.169-174
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    • 2000
  • The analysis of irrigation water use characteristics from a pumping station is implemented. Sangjoo district was selected as a test area. Irrigation water are varied according to manners of water manager, weather change and irrigation system changes such as the repair and improvement of irrigation canal, installation of an auxiliary water sources and canal structure. From the results, average irrigation water is 1,136mm during irrigation period from 1987 to 1997 in sanjoo district. After improvement of irrigation district, irrigation water was increased 45% as average water use in this area.

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