• Title, Summary, Keyword: irradiance

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Analysis of Clear Sky Index Defined by Various Ways Using Solar Resource Map Based on Chollian Satellite Imagery (천리안 위성 영상 기반 태양자원지도를 활용한 다양한 정의에서의 청천지수 특성 분석)

  • Kim, Chang Ki;Kim, Hyun-Goo;Kang, Yong-Heack;Yun, Chang-Yeol
    • Journal of the Korean Solar Energy Society
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.47-57
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    • 2019
  • Clear sky indices were estimated by various ways based on in-situ observation and satellite-derived solar irradiance. In principle, clear sky index defined by clear sky solar irradiance indicates the impacts of cloud on the incoming solar irradiance. However, clear sky index widely used in energy sciences is formulated by extraterrestrial irradiance, which implies the extinction of solar irradiance due to mainly aerosol, water vapor and clouds drops. This study examined the relative difference of clear sky indices and then major characteristics of clear sky irradiance when sky is clear are investigated. Clear sky is defined when clear sky index based on clear sky irradiance is higher than 0.9. In contrast, clear sky index defined by extraterrestrial irradiance is distributed between 0.4 and 0.8. When aerosol optical depth and air mass coefficient are relative larger, solar irradiance is lower due to enhanced extinction, which leads to the lower value of clear sky index defined by extraterrestrial irradiance.

Statistical Study and Prediction of Variability of Erythemal Ultraviolet Irradiance Solar Values in Valencia, Spain

  • Gurrea, Gonzalo;Blanca-Gimenez, Vicente;Perez, Vicente;Serrano, Maria-Antonia;Moreno, Juan-Carlos
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.599-610
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    • 2018
  • The goal of this study was to statistically analyse the variability of global irradiance and ultraviolet erythemal (UVER) irradiance and their interrelationships with global and UVER irradiance, global clearness indices and ozone. A prediction of short-term UVER solar irradiance values was also obtained. Extreme values of UVER irradiance were included in the data set, as well as a time series of ultraviolet irradiance variability (UIV). The study period was from 2005 to 2014 and approximately 250,000 readings were taken at 5-min intervals. The effect of the clearness indices on global irradiance variability (GIV) and UIV was also recorded and bi-dimensional distributions were used to gather information on the two measured variables. With regard to daily GIV and UIV, it is also shown that for global clearness index ($k_t$) values lower than 0.6 both global and UVER irradiance had greater variability and that UIVon cloud-free days ($k_t$ higher than 0.65) exceeds GIV. To study the dependence between UIVand GIV the ${\chi}^2$ statistical method was used. It can be concluded that there is a 95% probability of a clear dependency between the variabilities. A connection between high $k_t$ (corresponding to cloudless days) and low variabilities was found in the analysis of bidimensional distributions. Extreme values of UVER irradiance were also analyzed and it was possible to calculate the probable future values of UVER irradiance by extrapolating the values of the adjustment curve obtained from the Gumbel distribution.

Recent Changes in Solar Irradiance, Air Temperature and Cloudiness at King Sejong Station, Antarctica (남극 세종기지에서 최근 태양 복사, 기온과 운량의 변화)

  • Lee, Bang Yong;Cho, Hi Ku;Kim, Jhoon;Jung, Yeon Jin;Lee, Yun Gon
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.333-342
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    • 2006
  • The long-term trends of global solar irradiance, air temperature, specific humidity and cloudiness measured at King Sejong station, Antarctica, during the period of 1988-2004, have been investigated. A statistically insignificant decrease, -0.21 $Wm^{-2}yr^{-1}$ (-0.26 %$yr^{-1}$, P<0.5) in global solar irradiance was found in an analysis from the time series of the monthly mean values, except for the increasing trends only in two months of January and June. The trends in irradiance are directly and inversely associated with the cloudiness trends in annual and monthly means. The trends in surface air temperature show a slight warming, $0.03^{\circ}Cyr^{-1}$ (1.88 %$yr^{-1}$, P<0.5) on the annual average, with cooling trend in the summer months and the warming in the winter. The exact relationship, if any, between the irradiance and temperature trends is not known. No significant tendency was found in specific humidity for the same periods. Recent (1996-2004) erythermal ultraviolet irradiance shows decreasing trend in annual mean, -0.15 $mWm^{-2}yr^{-1}$ (-1.18 %$yr^{-1}$, P<0.1) which is about five times the trends of global solar irradiance. The ratio of erythermal ultraviolet to global solar irradiance shows remarkable seasonal variations with annual mean value of 0.01 % and a peak in October and November, showing the increase of ultraviolet irradiance resulting from the Antarctic ozone hole. The sensitivity of global solar irradiance to the change in cloudiness is roughly $13%oktas^{-1}$ which is about twice of the value at the South Pole due to the difference in the average surface reflectance between the two stations. Much more sensitive values of $59%oktas^{-1}$ was found for erythermal UV irradiance than for the global solar irradiance.

Variation of Solar Photovoltaic Power Estimation due to Solar Irradiance Decomposition Models (일사량 직산분리 모델에 따른 표준기상연도 데이터와 태양광 발전 예측량의 불확실성)

  • Jo, Eul-Hyo;Lee, Hyun-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Solar Energy Society
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.81-89
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    • 2019
  • Long-term solar irradiance data are required for reliable performance evaluation and feasibility analysis of solar photovoltaic systems. However, measurement data of the global horizontal irradiance (GHI) are only available for major cities in Korea. Neither the direct normal irradiance (DNI) nor the diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) are available, which are also needed to calculate the irradiance on the tilted surface of PV array. It is a simple approach to take advantage of the decomposition model that extracts DNI and DHI from GHI. In this study, we investigate variations of solar PV power estimation due to the choice of decomposition model. The GHI data from Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) were used and different sets of typical meteorological year (TMY) data using some well-known decomposition models were generated. Then, power outputs with the different TMY data were calculated, and a variation of 3.7% was estimated due to the choice of decomposition model.

Analysis of cloud cover and solar irradiance of typical meteorological data (표준기상데이터의 운량과 일사량 데이터 비교 분석)

  • Yoo, Ho-Chun;Lee, Kwan-Ho;Kang, Hyun-Gu
    • 한국태양에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.330-335
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    • 2009
  • kDomestic studies on meteorologicaldata have been carried out, however they were mostly not constant but limited to fragment compilation. The studies on solar energy, among others, have been relatively active but the measurement of solar irradiance is also limited to some extent. This study, in an effort to identify the difference in data between solar radiance and cloud cover, was intended to compare and analyze the typical meteorological data developed by Korean Solar Energy Society with the solar irradiance calculated using the typical meteorological data and cloud cover data provided by current simulation program. Monthly average solar irradiance from the meteorological data (ISO TRY) of Korea's typical meteorological data which was actuallymeasured appeared to be far below the monthly solar irradiance from the American Department of Energy. The solar irradiance calculated based on cloud cover indicates very limited difference between the two data, so the solar irradiance measured by Korean typical metrologicaldata (ISO TRY) indicated the similar value, which demonstrates the solar irradiance data from Korean Meteorological Administration is more accurate than those US National Weather Center.

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Investigation of Performance Degradation of Shack Hartmann Wavefront Sensing Due to Pupil Irradiance Profile

  • Lee Jun-Ho;Lee Yaung-Cheol;Kang Eung-Cheol
    • Journal of the Optical Society of Korea
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.16-22
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    • 2006
  • Wavefront sensing using a Shack-Hartmann sensor has been widely used for estimating wavefront errors or distortions. The sensor combines the local slopes, which are estimated from the centroids of each lenslet image, to give the overall wavefront reconstruction. It was previously shown that the pupil-plane irradiance profile effects the centroid estimation. Furthermore, a previous study reported that the reconstructed wavefront from a planar wavefront with a Gaussian pupil irradiance profile contains large focus and spherical aberration terms when there is a focus error. However, it has not been reported yet how seriously the pupil irradiance profiles, which can occur in practical applications, effect the sensing errors. This paper considered two cases when the irradiance profiles are not uniform: 1) when the light source is Gaussian and 2) when there is a partial interference due to a double reflection by a beam splitting element. The images formed by a Shack-Hartmann sensor were simulated through fast Fourier transform and were then supposed to be detected by a noiseless CCD camera. The simulations found that sensing errors, due to the Gaussian irradiance profile and the partial interference, were found to be smaller than RMS ${\lambda}/50$ when ${\lambda}$ is $0.6328\;{\mu}m$, which can be ignored in most practical cases where the reference and test beams have the same irradiance profiles.

Estimation of the PAR Irradiance Ratio and Its Variability under Clear-sky Conditions at Ieodo in the East China Sea

  • Byun, Do-Seong;Cho, Yang-Ki
    • Ocean Science Journal
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.235-244
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    • 2006
  • Determining 'photosynthetically active radiation' (PAR) is a key part of calculating phytoplankton productivity in a biogeochemical model. We explore the daily and seasonal variability in the ratio of PAR irradiance to total irradiance that occurred at Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS) in the East China Sea under clear-sky conditions in 2004 using a simple radiative transfer model (RTM). Meteorological data observed at IORS and aerosol optical properties derived from Aerosol Robotic Network observations at Gosan are used for the RTM. Preliminary results suggest that the use of simple PAR irradiance-ratio values is appropriate in calculating phytoplankton productivity as follows: an average of $0.44\;({\pm}0.01)$ in January to an average of $0.48\;({\pm}0.01)$ in July, with average daily variabilities over these periods of about $0.016\;({\pm}0.008)$ and $0.025\;({\pm}0.008)$, respectively. The model experiments demonstrate that variations in the major controlling input parameters (i.e. solar zenith angle, precipitable water vapor and aerosol optical thickness) cause PAR irradiance ratio variation at daily and seasonal timescales. Further, increases (>0.012) in the PAR irradiance ratio just below the sea-surface are positively correlated with high solar zenith angles and strong wind stresses relative to those just above the sea-surface.

Characteristics and Prediction of Total Ozone and UV-B Irradiance in East Asia Including the Korean Peninsula (한반도를 포함한 동아시아 영역에서 오존전량과 유해자외선의 특성과 예측)

  • Moon, Yun-Seob;Seok, Min-Woo;Kim, Yoo-Keun
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.701-718
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    • 2006
  • The average ratio of the daily UV-B to total solar (75) irradiance at Busan (35.23$^{\circ}$N, 129.07$^{\circ}$E) in Korea is found as 0.11%. There is also a high exponential relationship between hourly UV-B and total solar irradiance: UV-B=exp (a$\times$(75-b))(R$^2$=0.93). The daily variation of total ozone is compared with the UV-B irradiance at Pohang (36.03$^{\circ}$N, 129.40$^{\circ}$E) in Korea using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data during the period of May to July in 2005. The total ozone (TO) has been maintained to a decreasing trend since 1979, which leading to a negative correlation with the ground-level UV-B irradiance doting the given period of cloudless day: UV-B=239.23-0.056 TO (R$^2$=0.52). The statistical predictions of daily total ozone are analyzed by using the data of the Brewer spectrophotometer and TOMS in East Asia including the Korean peninsula. The long-term monthly averages of total ozone using the multiplicative seasonal AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model are used to predict the hourly mean UV-B irradiance by interpolating the daily mean total ozone far the predicting period. We also can predict the next day's total ozone by using regression models based on the present day's total ozone by TOMS and the next day's predicted maximum air temperature by the Meteorological Mesoscale Model 5 (MM5). These predicted and observed total ozone amounts are used to input data of the parameterization model (PM) of hourly UV-B irradiance. The PM of UV-B irradiance is based on the main parameters such as cloudiness, solar zenith angle, total ozone, opacity of aerosols, altitude, and surface albedo. The input data for the model requires daily total ozone, hourly amount and type of cloud, visibility and air pressure. To simplify cloud effects in the model, the constant cloud transmittance are used. For example, the correlation coefficient of the PM using these cloud transmissivities is shown high in more than 0.91 for cloudy days in Busan, and the relative mean bias error (RMBE) and the relative root mean square error (RRMSE) are less than 21% and 27%, respectively. In this study, the daily variations of calculated and predicted UV-B irradiance are presented in high correlation coefficients of more than 0.86 at each monitoring site of the Korean peninsula as well as East Asia. The RMBE is within 10% of the mean measured hourly irradiance, and the RRMSE is within 15% for hourly irradiance, respectively. Although errors are present in cloud amounts and total ozone, the results are still acceptable.

The effects of clouds on enhancing surface solar irradiance (구름에 의한 지표 일사량의 증가)

  • Jung, Yeonjin;Cho, Hi Ku;Kim, Jhoon;Kim, Young Joon;Kim, Yun Mi
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.131-142
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    • 2011
  • Spectral solar irradiances were observed using a visible and UV Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer on the rooftop of the Science Building at Yonsei University, Seoul ($37.57^{\circ}N$, $126.98^{\circ}E$, 86 m) during one year period in 2006. 1-min measurements of global(total) and diffuse solar irradiances over the solar zenith angle (SZA) ranges from $20^{\circ}$ to $70^{\circ}$ were used to examine the effects of clouds and total optical depth (TOD) on enhancing four solar irradiance components (broadband 395-955 nm, UV channel 304.5 nm, visible channel 495.2 nm, and infrared channel 869.2 nm) together with the sky camera images for the assessment of cloud conditions at the time of each measurement. The obtained clear-sky irradiance measurements were used for empirical model of clear-sky irradiance with the cosine of the solar zenith angle (SZA) as an independent variable. These developed models produce continuous estimates of global and diffuse solar irradiances for clear sky. Then, the clear-sky irradiances are used to estimate the effects of clouds and TOD on the enhancement of surface solar irradiance as a difference between the measured and the estimated clear-sky values. It was found that the enhancements occur at TODs less than 1.0 (i.e. transmissivity greater than 37%) when solar disk was not obscured or obscured by optically thin clouds. Although the TOD is less than 1.0, the probability of the occurrence for the enhancements shows 50~65% depending on four different solar radiation components with the low UV irradiance. The cumulus types such as stratoculmus and altoculumus were found to produce localized enhancement of broadband global solar irradiance of up to 36.0% at TOD of 0.43 under overcast skies (cloud cover 90%) when direct solar beam was unobstructed through the broken clouds. However, those same type clouds were found to attenuate up to 80% of the incoming global solar irradiance at TOD of about 7.0. The maximum global UV enhancement was only 3.8% which is much lower than those of other three solar components because of the light scattering efficiency of cloud drops. It was shown that the most of the enhancements occurred under cloud cover from 40 to 90%. The broadband global enhancement greater than 20% occurred for SZAs ranging from 28 to $62^{\circ}$. The broadband diffuse irradiance has been increased up to 467.8% (TOD 0.34) by clouds. In the case of channel 869.0 nm, the maximum diffuse enhancement was 609.5%. Thus, it is required to measure irradiance for various cloud conditions in order to obtain climatological values, to trace the differences among cloud types, and to eventually estimate the influence on solar irradiance by cloud characteristics.

The Effects of Genotype, Density and Irradiance on the Growth and Mortality of the Brown Seeweed serratus Germlings

  • Choi, Han-Gil
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.127-132
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    • 2003
  • Effects of genotype, settlement density and irradiane on the growth, mortality and population structure of Fucus serratus germlings were examined in the laboratory. The growth of F. serratus germlings was influenced by genotype of parent plants, which is likely to occur by microclimatic differentiation of substrata. The growth of germlings were greater at lower densities than higher densities indicating that intraspecific competition between germlings occurred within three weeks. Also, the growth of F. serratus germlings was better at $120\mumol\;m^-2/s^-1$ than at $60\mumol\;m^-2/s^-1$. However, mortality of germlings was determined by settlement density rather than irradiance. In population structure, skewness was increased at low irradiance and high density indicating that population structure could be changed by intraspecific competition. Thus, it is concluded that genotypic differentiation of F. serratus germlings occurred in a microgeographic scale, and the experimental density and irradiance level affected the growth of germlings.