• Title, Summary, Keyword: iron content

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The Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Fe-methionine Chelate and FeSO4 on the Iron Content of Broiler Meat

  • Seo, S.H.;Lee, H.K.;Ahn, H.J.;Paik, I.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.103-106
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    • 2008
  • A broiler experiment was conducted to compare the effects of supplementary iron sources and levels on the iron content of broiler meat. Two hundred and fifty hatched Ross broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments. Each treatment had 5 replicates of 10 birds (5 males and 5 females). Birds were housed in raised floor batteries and fed traditional broiler diets ad libitum for 5 weeks. Dietary treatments were as follows: Control, Fe-Met 100 (100 ppm iron as Fe-methionine), Fe-Met 200, $FeSO_4$ 100 (100 ppm iron as $FeSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$) and $FeSO_4\;200$. There were no significant differences among treatments in parameters related to production performance. Liver contained approximately 10 times more iron than the leg muscle which contained approximately 3 times more iron than either breast muscle or wing muscle. Significant differences in iron content in the broiler meat were observed. In the breast meat, Fe-Met treatments were significantly (p<0.05) higher than other treatments in iron content. In the leg meat, Fe-Met treatments and $FeSO_4\;200$ treatment were significantly higher than the control in iron content. In the wing muscle, Fe-Met 200 treatment was significantly higher than other treatments in iron content. Iron content in the liver was significantly influenced by source and supplementation level of iron. Fe-Met treatments were higher than $FeSO_4$ treatments and 200 ppm treatments were higher than 100 ppm treatments in iron content in the liver. It is concluded that iron-methionine chelate is more efficient than iron sulfate and 200 ppm iron supplementation as Fe-Met is recommended for maximum iron enrichment in broiler meat.

Effects of Iron, Silicon and Zinc Contained in Molten Aluminum on Aluminizing of Cast Iron (주철 소지상에 용융알루미늄 도금시 철 규소 및 아연의 영향)

  • Choi, Chong-Sool;Moon, Sung-Wuck
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.144-153
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    • 1987
  • In the case of dipping the Ni-Resist cast iron into molten aluminum with iron content, the thickness of intermetallic compound was remarkably increased with increasing iron content. The thickness was shown by following equation in the range of 1-3% iron content; $x=22.5t^{1/2}+4.47{\cdot}t{\cdot}(Fe%)$. where, x is thickness(${\mu}m$), t the time (minute), Fe% the iron w/o. When the Ni-Resist cast iron was dipped into the molten aluminum containing zinc content, the intermetallic compound thickness was also increased with increasing zinc contents. And thickness was represented by the following equation in the range of 2-10% zinc content; $x=3.46t^{1/2}+0.27{\cdot}t{\cdot}(Zn%)$. However, in the case of dipping the Ni-resist cast iron into molten aluminum with silicon content, the thickness of intermetallic compound was decreased with increasing silicon content, as shown in the following equation; $x=7.17t^{1/2}-0.15{\cdot}t{\cdot}(Si%)$. The intermetallic compound formed onto Ni-Resist cast iron was identified to be $FeAl_3\;and\;Fe_3Al$. As the result of hardness measurement, the peak hardness appeared in the intermetallic compound at near interface of the cast iron and the compound.

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Variation of Iron Content and Ferritin Distribution during Development Stage under Conditions of Iron Nutritional Status from Hydroponic Culture in Red Pepper ( Capsicum annuum L. )

  • Kim, Young-Ho;Lee, Young-Ok;Nou, Ill-Sup;Shin, Ill-Yong;Kameya, Toshiaki;Saito, Takashi;Kang, Kown-Kyoo
    • Plant Resources
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 1998
  • Total iron content and ferritin distribution have been determined in red pepper(Capsicum annuum L.) during development stage under conditions of iron nutritional status from hydroponic culture. Color of the leaves become chlorotic on iron deficient and high concentration. The plant height on each iron concentration had retarding effect at concentration lower than $25\muM$ and greater than 125$25\muM$. In normal green leaves. Total iron content was almost constant with a mean value of $2.5\mumole$ of iron/mg of dry matter, except at 63day, for which it increases slightly to $4\mumole$. Howere, iron content of chlorotic plants grew on iron free medium was not almost detectable. Also in post chlorotic leaves(++Fe), iron content was evidently increase unitl 7days after transfer on liquid medium, but decreased from after 14days. Also, ferritin protein analysed total protein extracts prepared from leaves of different ages using antibodies raised against ferritin protein. Ferritin protein deereased progressively during the first week of germination and was not detectable in vegetative tissues. Ferritin protein in post chlorotic leaves wasevidently strongly cnhanced until 11days after transfer on liquid medium but decreased until the leves became chlorotic.

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Effect of Retained Austenite Content on the Wear Properties of Austempered C/V Graphite Iron (오스템퍼링 처리한 C/V 흑연 주철의 마모에 미치는 잔류 오스테나이트량의 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Joo, Do-Jae;Kim, Hong-Beom;Cheon, Byung-Wook;Choi, Chang-Ock
    • Journal of Korea Foundry Society
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.340-348
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    • 1998
  • C/V graphite iron has superior tensile strength, toughness and ductility than grey iron, and better castability than ductile iron. The retained austenite content of C/V graphite iron by austempering treatment affects on the mechanical properties such as ductility, hardness, wear properties and machinability. C/V graphite iron alloyed with Cu and Mo were carried out on the austenitizing at $900^{\circ}C$ for 1 hour, and the austempering at $240{\sim}400^{\circ}C$ for 1 hr. And then the mechanical and wear properties of austempered C/V graphite iron have been investigated by the retained austenite content. In consequence, the retained austenite content was found to be 18.2% in austempering temperature at $240^{\circ}C$, and was increased 39.2% at $400^{\circ}C$. Tensile strength and hardness of austempered C/V graphite iron were decreased as the retained austenite content increased, but elongation was increased. The rolling wear loss were increased as the retained austenite content increased. The wear surface of as-cast became to be rough. The microstructure of austempered C/V graphite iron was became to be acicular ausferrite in austempering at $240^{\circ}C$, and feathery ausferrite at $400^{\circ}C$.

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Gene Expression and Iron Accumulation in Progeny of Transformants Introduced Fp1 Gene Encoding the Iron Storage Protein in Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

  • Kang, Kwon-Kyoo;Kim, Young-Ho
    • Plant Resources
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.26-30
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    • 2001
  • To improve the iron content of red pepper, we have transferred the entire coding sequence of the ferritin gene(Fpl) into Capsicum annuum (L. cv. Chungyang and Bukang) by Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Transformants were found to contain the Fp1 gene at up to three loci, increased distinct iron content changes. In transgenic plants, iron content was as much as 7-fold to 8-folds greater than that of their untransformed counterparts. Furthermore, the Rl progenies from transformant(A7, A8) co-segregated into a 15:1 ratio for both Kanamycin resistance and genotype of high iron.

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Preventive Effect of Selenium Supplementation on Iron Accumulation of Rats Fed Diets Containing High Levels of iron (철분의 과잉섭취시 셀레늄 섭취수준이 철분과잉 축적에 대한 예방효과에 관한 연구)

  • 전예숙
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.318-325
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of selenium supplementation of iron accumulation of rats fed diets containing high levels or iron. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley weaning rats were fed with diets containing various levels of iron(adequate : 35ppm, 2-fold : 70ppm, 4-fold : 140ppm) and selenium(adequat : 0.05ppm and high : 0.05ppm) for 12 weeks. Feed intakes of 2-fold and 4-fold iron groups were higher than that of adequate iron group. There was no difference body weight gain across iron and selenium containing diet groups. Hemoglobin level was increasd with iron increment and decreased with selenium supplementation. Iron contents in serum and tissues were increased as iron intake was increased. Liver iron content was decreased with selenium supplementation. Selenium content in liver was decreased with iron increment and increased with selenium supplementation. In the case of iron balance, iron excretion through urine and feces was significantly increased as iron intake was increased. However, apparent absorbability and retention rate of iron were not significantly affected by dietary iron or selenium.

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Temporal changes in mitochondrial activities of rat heart after a single injection of iron, including increased complex II activity

  • Kim, Mi-Sun;Song, Eun-Sook
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.91-98
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    • 2010
  • Male rats were given a single injection of iron, and temporal changes in iron content and iron-induced effects were examined in heart cellular fractions. Over a period of 72 h, the contents of total and labile iron, reactive oxygen species, and NO in tissue homogenate, nuclear debris, and postmitochondrial fractions were mostly constant, but in mitochondria they continuously increased. An abrupt decrease in membrane potential and NAD(P)H at 12 h was also found in mitochondria. The respiratory control ratio was reduced slowly with a slight recovery at 72 h, suggesting uncoupling by iron.While the ATP content of tissue homogenate decreased steadily until 72 h, it showed a prominent increase in mitochondria at 12 h. Total iron and calcium concentration also progressively increased in mitochondria over 72 h. Enzyme activity of the oxidative phosphorylation system was significantly altered by iron injection: activities of complexes I, III, and IV were reduced considerably, but complex II activity and the ATPase activity of complex V were enhanced. A reversal of activity in complexes I and II at 12 h suggested reverse electron transfer due to iron overload. These results support the argument that mitochondrial activities including oxidative phosphorylation are modulated by excessive iron.

Bioavailability of Iron-fortified Whey Protein Concentrate in Iron-deficient Rats

  • Nakano, Tomoki;Goto, Tomomi;Nakaji, Tarushige;Aoki, Takayoshi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.7
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    • pp.1120-1126
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    • 2007
  • An iron-fortified whey protein concentrate (Fe-WPC) was prepared by addition of ferric chloride to concentrated whey. A large part of the iron in the Fe-WPC existed as complexes with proteins such as ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin. The bioavailability of iron from Fe-WPC was evaluated using iron-deficient rats, in comparison with heme iron. Rats were separated into a control group and an iron-deficiency group. Rats in the control group were given the standard diet containing ferrous sulfate as the source of iron throughout the experimental feeding period. Rats in the iron-deficiency group were made anemic by feeding on an Fe-deficient diet without any added iron for 3 wk. After the iron-deficiency period, the iron-deficiency group was separated into an Fe-WPC group and a heme iron group fed Fe-WPC and hemin as the sole source of iron, respectively. The hemoglobin content, iron content in liver, hemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE) and apparent iron absorption rate were examined when iron-deficient rats were fed either Fe-WPC or hemin as the sole source of iron for 20 d. Hemoglobin content was significantly higher in the rats fed the Fe-WPC diet than in rats fed the hemin diet. HRE in rats fed the Fe-WPC diet was significantly higher than in rats fed the hemin diet. The apparent iron absorption rate in rats fed the Fe-WPC diet tended to be higher than in rats fed the hemin diet (p = 0.054). The solubility of iron in the small intestine of rats at 2.5 h after ingestion of the Fe-WPC diet was approximately twice that of rats fed the hemin diet. These results indicated that the iron bioavailability of Fe-WPC was higher than that of hemin, which seemed due, in part, to the different iron solubility in the intestine.

The Effect of Dietary Phytate Content on Iron Absorption and Status in Young Korean Women

  • Kim, Ji-Hye;Li, Sun-Hee;Joung, Hyo-Jee;Paik, Hee-Young
    • International Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.35-44
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    • 2003
  • This study investigated the effects of dietary phyate reduction on the apparent absorption and biochemical parameters of iron status in young Korean women. Fourteen healthy, young women consumed low and high phytate diets for ten days of each experimental period. Duplicate diet samples, a fasting blood sample on day 9, and complete fecal samples for five consecutive days starting from day 5 of each diet period were collected. The iron content of diet and fecal samples were analyzed to calculate apparent absorption. Serum samples were analyzed for iron, ferritin, transferrin receptor and TIBC; transferrin saturation was also calculated. The apparent absorption of iron tended to increase in the low phytate period (32.51%) compared to the high phytate period (17.91%), but the difference was not significant (p=0.06). Serum ferritin decreased and serum transferrin receptor increased significantly during the low phytate diet although the mean values were within the normal range. Serum iron and transferrin saturation did not change significantly. In conclusion, the results indicated that reducing dietary phytate for ten days negatively affected iron nutritional parameters, but it moderately and positively affected apparent iron absorption in young Korean women. Further research on the long-term effects of a low phytate diet with an adequate iron content for vows Korean women is necessary.

A Study on the Graphitization and Scaling Resistance property of High Al-Cast Iron (고(高)알루미늄 내열주철(耐熱鑄鐵)에서의 흑연구상화(黑鉛球狀化)와 내산화성(耐酸化性)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, D.K.;La, H.Y.
    • Journal of Korea Foundry Society
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.2-9
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    • 1981
  • Graphite spheroidization and scaling resistance of cast iron containing 5-10% Al were investigated. It is impossible to obtain spheroidal graphite in cast iron containing Al with 8 % and over, but possible to obtain spheroidal graphite even in cast iron with an Al content of about 10 % by increasing Si content. In the scaling test carried out under the heating condition of $950^{\circ}C$ in air for total of 50 hours, the scaling resistance of cast iron containing Al with 8 % and over was remarkably superior, and also spheroidal graphite cast iron was superior to flake graphite cast iron. The scale became thinner more compacts and more protective with increasing Al content.

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