• Title, Summary, Keyword: invertebrates

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Relationships between Invertebrate Availability and the Abundance of Three Species of Shrews and the Shrew-mole in Managed Forests (산림 내에서 곤충의 현존도와 식충목 4 종의 풍부도간의 상관 관계)

  • Lee, Sang Don
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.441-449
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    • 1995
  • The abundance of coarse woody debris (CWD) has been hypothesized to increase niche for forest dwelling insectivores, concentration of nutrients, and the diversity of invertebrates. However, no abjective assessment based on replication in the field has yet been done. this study was carried out to test the relationships between invertebrate availability and the abundance of four insectivores (Sorex trowbridgii, S. vagrans, S. monticolus and Neurotrichus gibbsii) in western Washington, USA. Pitfall traps were used to determine abundance and diversity of invertebrates. Abundance of insectivores was not different between habitats except for S. vagrans which was more abundant in habitats with low amounts of CWD than in habitats with high amounts of CWD. Simpson’s diversity index computed for invertebrates did not differ between habitats. There were no significant relationships between the diversity indices of invertebrates and the abundance of shrews. Shrew abundance and the Coleoperan beetles also did not show any significant relationship. The results suggested insectivores might select a wide range of prey items in addition to surface-active invertebrates.

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Characteristics of Benthic Invertebrates in Organic and Conventional Paddy Field (논 생태계 내 유기농법 재배 지역과 관행농법 재배 지역의 저서무척추동물군집의 특성)

  • Han, Min-Su;Nam, Hyung-Kyu;Kang, Kee-Kyung;Kim, Miran;Na, Young-Eun;Kim, Hye Rim;Kim, Myung-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.17-23
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    • 2013
  • BACKGROUND: Today, environmentally friendly farming has become an important feature of agricultural policy. It promotes or sustains farming systems which protect and enhance the environment. This study was conducted to compare benthic invertebrate communities in an organic and a conventional paddy field in South Korea. METHODS AND RESULTS: Benthic invertebrates were collected at 11 regions of a rice paddy from June to August, 2009, 2010 and 2011. These comparisons undertaken using a community assessment approaches such as the number of individuals and species and community composition. Generally, the larger number of individuals and species of benthic invertebrates was observed in an organic paddy than in a conventional paddy field. Organic paddy fields could supported the wider range of species and abundance in aquatic invertebrates comparing to conventional paddy fields. Carrying capacity to support larger numbers of invertebrates also tends to be higher in organic paddy than in conventional paddy field. Specially, organic farming regions surrounded by forests were high quality habitat for benthic invertebrates than other surrounded regions such as grassland. CONCLUSION(S): We concluded that organic farming was more advantaged to benthic invertebrates than conventional farming. In order to improve biodiversity in rice paddy field, farming regimes without agricultural chemicals are recommended. The effect of organic management on biodiversity and abundance of benthic invertebrates could be maximized across highland farmland.

Chemical compositions and biological activities of marine invertebrates from the East Sea of South Korea

  • Kim, Geun-Hyeong;Park, Hyeon-Ho;Chandika, Pathum;Ko, Seok-Chun;Jung, Kyung-Mi;Yoon, Sang Chul;Oh, Taeg-Yun;Kim, Young-Mog;Jung, Won-Kyo
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.13.1-13.9
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    • 2019
  • Background: Marine invertebrates are well known as pivotal bioresources with bioactive substances such as anti-inflammatory sterols, antitumor terpenes, and antimicrobial peptides. However, there are few scientific reports on chemical compositions and bioactivities of marine invertebrates from the East Sea of South Korea. Methods: In this study, chemical compositions and biological activities were evaluated on both 70% EtOH and hot water extracts of 5 species of marine invertebrates (Crossaster papposus japonicus, Actinostola carlgreni, Stomphia coccinea, Actinostola sp., and Heliometra glacialis) collected from the East Sea of South Korea. The antioxidant activities were measured by ABTS radical scavenging assay. The cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activity were evaluated using MTT and Griess reagents. Moreover, the antibacterial effect was evaluated using paper disc assay and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Results: In the results of antioxidant activities, 70% EtOH extract of A. carlgreni showed the highest activity ($IC_{50}\;0.19{\pm}0.03mg/ml$) compared to other extracts. Moreover, 70% EtOH extract of A. carlgreni could significantly suppress the nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7. All extracts treated under $400{\mu}g/ml$ have no cytotoxic effects on RAW 264.7 macrophages. In the antibacterial test, both 70% EtOH extracts of C. papposus japonicus and H. glacialis showed a significant antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus aureus. The MIC values were evaluated at 256 and $512{\mu}g/ml$, respectively. Conclusions: These results suggested the bioactive potentials of marine invertebrates from the East Sea of South Korea in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications.

Fatty Acid Composition of 35 Species of Marine Invertebrates

  • Jeong Bo-Young;Choi Byeong-Dae;Moon Soo-Kyung;Lee Jong-Soo;Jeong Woo-Geon
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.232-241
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    • 1998
  • Fatty acid compositions of 35 species of marine invertebrates (13 species of Bivalvia, 10 species of Gastropoda, 4 species of Cephalopoda, 4 species of Crustacea, 2 species of Ascidacea, 2 species of Holothuroidea) were studied using gas-liquid chromatography. Total lipids in all samples were very low, ranging from $0.24\%$ to $1.96\%$. The prominent fatty acids were 16:0, 20:5 (n-3), 22:6 (n-3), 18:0, 16:1 (n-7), 20:4 (n-6), 18:1 (n-9) and 18:1 (n-7) in the majority of marine invertebrates. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was the richest fatty acid group in all invertebrates, accounting for $55.3\pm6.70\%$ of total fatty acids (TFA), followed by saturated $(26.2\pm4.33\%)$ and monounsaturated fatty acid $(18.5\pm5.87\% )$. No correlation was found between total lipid content and each fatty acid group. Cephalopoda contained the highest level of n-3 PUFA $(54.6\pm5.17\%)$, while Holothuroidea and Gastropoda contained the lowest level of n-3 PUFA, accounting for $26.5\pm4.44\%$ and $28.4\pm4.04\%$, respectively. Bivalvia and Ascidacea are plankton feeders, which were rich in 20:5 (n-3) and 22:6 (n-3). Carnivorous species of Cephalopoda were prominently rich in 22:6 (n-3), ranging from $26.7\%$ to $46.1\%$ of the TFA. However, some species of Gastropoda are seaweed feeder (herbivorous), which contained high level of 20:4 (n-6) compared to plankton feeder and carnivorous species. In addition, blue and red colored sea cucumbers, and turban shells with and without apophyses belong to the same species, but they live in different habitats. These organisms were found to have different fatty acid compositions. Therefore, fatty acid compositions of these invertebrates might be affected by their different environments, particularly their diet.

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Geological Distribution of Aquatic Invertebrates Living in Paddy Fields of South Korea (한국의 논에 서식하는 수서무척추생물의 지리적 군집 분포)

  • Kim, Myung-Hyun;Han, Min-Su;Nam, Hyung-Kyu;Kang, Kee-Kyung;Kim, Miran
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.1136-1142
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    • 2012
  • The roles of paddy fields are re-evaluated as an artificial wetland. Although 44% of total aquatic invertebrates in South Korea are observed in a rice paddy, information of their distribution and characteristics of habitat use is limited yet. This study was carried out to provide information and characterizing distribution of community of aquatic invertebrates using a rice paddy through the South Korea. Aquatic invertebrates were collected at 284 sites of a rice paddy in South Korea from June to August, 2005, 2006 and 2007. We grouped sampling sites according to its species and population of aquatic invertebrates using a non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). Total 21 orders 60 families 114 species were collected from a rice paddy. Coleoptera (25%), Heteroptera (17%), Diptera (17%) and Odonata (12%) were observed. Aquatic invertebrates were classified into three groups (Group 1: Gangwon, Gyeonggi and Chungbuk; Group 2: Chungnam, Jeonbuk, Jeonnam and Jeju; Group 3: Gyeongbuk and Kyeongnam). In Group 1, Muljarus japonicas distributed mainly Gangwondo and Chungbuk. In Group 2, Sigara nigroventralis and S. substriata were mainly observed. In Group 3, higher density of Daphnia sp. and Chironomidae gen. spp. was found in the southern part of Korea.

Effects of salmon carcass on forest and stream ecosystems, in Hokkaido, Japan -evidence by stable isotope analysis-

  • Yanai, Seiji;Kochi, Kaori
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Sciences Society Conference
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    • pp.198-203
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    • 2003
  • The effects of salmon carcasses on forest and stream ecosystems were determined by nitrogen stable isotope analysis in natural streams in Hokkaido, Northern Japan, where numerous chum salmon (Oncoryhncus keta) were migrated upstream ITom ocean to spawn in autumn. The leaves and soils surrounding riparian forest and stream dwelling invertebrates were collected before and after migration. The nitrogen stable isotope ratio $({\delta}^{15}N)$ of riparian vegetation (Salix spp.) were different depending on the presence of salmon and distance from the stream. The $({\delta}^{15}N)$ of stream dwelling invertebrates were different between salmon present and absent stream. This difference was tested using the experiment channel by implanting salmon carcasses. The nitrogen stable isotope ratio of epilithic algae and leaf shredding animals were nearly 3 higher in the salmon implanted treatment suggesting that around 20% of salmon derived nitrogen was uptake either in algae and leaf shredding invertebrates. These results suggest that the salmon carcasses effects not only on stream primary production but also on primary consumers, which decompose leaves fertilized with nitrogen from carcasses.

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The Origin of Food Sources for Nuttallia olivacea and Nereidae by Fatty Acid Analysis (지방산을 이용한 Nuttallia olivacea 및 Nereidae의 먹이원에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Woo-Seok;Kim, Boo-Gil
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.1083-1092
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    • 2010
  • The spatial variability in the food chain structure of an estuary environment (Nanakita estuary, Japan) was investigated using fatty acid. Potential organic matter sources (terrestiral plants, macroalgae, benthic microalgae, dinflagellates and bacteria), sedimentary organic matters and benthic invertebrates (Nuttallia olivacea and Nereidae) were sampled in four locations with different tidal flat type. The main objective of the present study was to determine the origin of sediment and the food sources of N. olivacea and Nereidae along with small-scale spatial variability. The origin of sedimentary organic matters were mainly the fatty acid of bacteria and benthic microalgae. Especially, The organic matter of terrestrial plant origin was found the highest in station C. The diets of N. olivacea and Nereidae were found to be dominated by diatoms and terrestrial plants. Whereas, macroalgae and dinoflagellates showed little influence to benthic invertebrates. Moreover, according to principal component analysis, it is showed that benthic invertebrates in the same region are using the same food without relation with species. On the other hand, the N. olivacea and Nereidae of station D clearly contrasts with station B in terms of main food sources. From these results, it is suggested that food competition of benthic invertebrates revealed high a connection between small-scale spatial variability and food source in estuary.

Fatty Acid Compositions of Three Species of Marine Invertebrates (3종의 해산 무척추동물의 지방산 조성)

  • Jeong, Bo-Young;Moon, Soo-Kyung;Jeong, Woo-Geon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.291-299
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    • 1993
  • The lipid components of the gonad of sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, ark shell Scapharca bro-ughtonii and "Gaebul" (Korea name, a worm) Urechis unicinctus were investigated. The total lipid (TL) contents of the sea urchin, the ark shell and the "Gaebul" were 6.10, 0.67 and 0.79%, respectively. The percentages of phospholipid (PL) in TL were higher in the "Gaebul"(72.4%) and ark shell(64.9%) compared to the sea urchin (41.7%). The major lipid classes of PL were phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, and the former was rich in the sea urchin (56.2%) and the latter in the "Gaebul"(34.4%). In the class of non-polar lipid (NL), the major lipid classes were different from species ; the sea urchin was rich in triglyceride(TG, 89.0%), the ark shell rich in TG (69.2%) and cholesterol (ST 26.8%) and the "Gaebul"rich in ST (70.7%). The prominent fatty acids of the sea urchin were 16 : 0, 14 : 0, 20 : 5n-3, 20 : 4n-6 and 20 : 4n-6 and 20 : 2NMID(non-methylene interupted dien). The percentage of 20 : 4n-6 was the highest of the investigated invertebrates, accounting for 19.8% in PL, but 22 : 6n-3 was not detected in the sea urchin. In case of the ark shell, the prominent fatty acids were 16 : 0, 18 : 0, 20 : 5n-3, 22 : 6n-3 and 22 : 2NMID, especially 22 : 6n-3(9.58%) was richer compared to that of the "Gaebul". The prominent fatty acids of the "Gaebul"were 20 : 5n-3, 16 : 0, 18 : 0 20 : 1n-9, 16 : 1n-7 and 14 : 0. The percentage of 20 : 5n-3 (22.0%) was highest in the PL of the "Gaebul"among the three invertebrates. These differences in the lipid components of all the sample is considered to be due to the different food habits and environmental condition of the invertebrates.

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Characteristics of Ground-dwelling Invertebrate Communities at Nari Basin and Tonggumi Area in Ulleungdo Island (울릉도 나리분지와 통구미지역의 경작지와 그 주변지역에 서식하는 지표배회성 무척추동물 군집 비교)

  • Nam, Hyung-Kyu;Song, Young-Ju;Kwon, Soon-Ik;Eo, Jinu;Yoon, Sung-Soo;Kwon, Bong-Kwan;Kim, Myung-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.21-32
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    • 2018
  • This study was carried out to define the characteristics of the identified ground-dwelling invertebrate communities at Nari basin and Tonggumi area in Ulleungdo Island, designated as a nationally important agricultural heritage. The habitat types were divided into the following categories: crop land, forest, and ecotone, and the soil-dwelling invertebrates were collected according to habitat type. The ground-dwelling invertebrates were collected using a pitfall trap, and a self-organizing map (SOM) was applied to the invertebrates dataset to define the characteristics in invertebrates distribution. The SOM clearly classified the relevant information into four clusters, and extracted ecological information from the invertebrates dataset. The cluster II was composed of invertebrate communities which are collected in the Tonggumi area. The Tonggumi area is where mountainous areas were developed for agricultural purposes, which has geographical features commonly observed in Ulleungdo Island. It is noted that the cluster II has different characteristics as compared other clusters. The results of this study are expected to be used for the preservation of agricultural environment and maintenance of biodiversity by providing basic data, on the biotope of Ulleungdo Island designated as a nationally important agricultural heritage and information on the characteristics of the applicable ground-dwelling invertebrate communities.

The Comparison of Community Characteristics of Ground-dwelling Invertebrates According Agroecosystem Types in the Eastern Region of the Korean Peninsula (한반도 동부 농업생태계에 따른 지표배회성 무척추동물의 군집 특성 비교)

  • Ahn, Chi-Hyun;Oh, Young-Ju;Ock, Suk-Mi;Lee, Wook-Jae;Sohn, Soo-In;Kim, Myung-Hyun;Na, Young-Eun;Kim, Chang-Seok
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.56 no.1
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    • pp.29-39
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    • 2017
  • To compare the features of ground-dwelling invertebrates according agroecosystems, we selected paddy fields, dry fields, orchards in the Eastern region of Korea. The surveys were performed by using pit-fall traps twice per year from 2013 to 2015. Total 6,420 individuals of 172 species belonging to 13 orders, 58 families were investigated in the Eastern region, the species of Hymenoptera (38.26%), Orthoptera (16.28%) accounted large portion of the communities. In the geographical observation, invertebrates were caught was 2,983 individuals in Gyeongsangnam-do, the diversity index of Gyeongsangbuk-do community was higher than of the others and abundance and species richness of paddy field were higher than from dry field or orchard. To understand the relation between taxonomic groups and environmental factors, we carried out the canonical correspondence analysis and hierarchical clustering. As a result, Homoptera, Blattaria, Isoptera, and Coleoptera were positively related to soil pH, soil temperature, and moisture contents, and negatively related to the others. Invertebrate community also were patterned dependently by type of ecosystems. This results were shown that distribution of invertebrates is a few influenced the relationship of the space habituated invertebrates and environmental factors.