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A Study on lung dose of Intensity modulated and volumetric modulated arc therapy plans using restricted angle of Non-small cell lung cancer (비소세포 폐암의 제한된 각도를 이용한 세기변조와 용적변조회전 방사선치료계획의 폐 선량에 관한 연구)

  • Yeom, Misuk;Lee, Woosuk;Kim, Daesup;Back, Geummun
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.21-28
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    • 2014
  • Purpose : For non-small cell lung cancer, if the treatment volume is large or the total lung volume is small, and the tumor is located in midline of patient's body, total lung dose tends to increase due to tolerance dose of spinal cord. The purpose of this study is to compare and evaluate the total lung dose of three dimensional conformal radiotherapy(3D CRT), intensity modulated radiotherapy(IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy(VMAT) using restricted angle for non-small cell lung cancer patients. Materials and Methods : The treatment plans for four patients, being treated on TrueBeam STx($Varian^{TM}$, USA) with 10 MV and prescribed dose of 60 Gy in 30 fractions, 3D CRT, restricted angle IMRT and VAMT radiotherapy plans were established. Planning target volume(PTV), dose to total lung and spinal cord were evaluated using the dose volume histogram(DVH). Conformity index(CI), homogeneity index(HI), Paddick's index(PCI) for the PTV, $V_{30}$, $V_{20}$, $V_{10}$, $V_5$, mean dose for total lung and maximum dose for spinal cord was assessed. Results : Average value of CI, HI and PCI for PTV was $0.944{\pm}0.009$, $1.106{\pm}0.027$, $1.084{\pm}0.016$ respectively. $V_{20}$ values from 3D CRT, IMRT and VMAT plans were 30.7%, 20.2% and 21.2% for the first patient, 33.0%, 29.2% and 31.5% for second patient, 51.3%, 34.3% and 36.9% for third patient, finally 56.9%, 33.7% and 40.0% for the last patient. It was noticed that the $V_{20}$ was lowest in the IMRT plan using restricted angle. Maximum dose for spinal cord was evaluated to lower than the tolerance dose. Conclusion : For non-small cell lung cancer, IMRT with restricted angle or VMAT could minimize the lung dose and lower the dose to spinal cord below the tolerance level. Considering PTV coverage and tolerance dose to spinal cord, it was possible to obtain IMRT plan with smaller angle and this could result in lower dose to lung when compared to VMAT.

Management for locally advanced cervical cancer: new trends and controversial issues

  • Cho, Oyeon;Chun, Mison
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.254-264
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    • 2018
  • This article reviewed new trends and controversial issues, including the intensification of chemotherapy and recent brachytherapy (BT) advances, and also reviewed recent consensuses from different societies on the management of locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). Intensive chemotherapy during and after radiation therapy (RT) was not recommended as a standard treatment due to severe toxicities reported by several studies. The use of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for pelvic RT planning has increased the clinical utilization of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the evaluation of pelvic lymph node metastasis and pelvic bone marrow. Recent RT techniques for LACC patients mainly aim to minimize toxicities by sparing the normal bladder and rectum tissues and shortening the overall treatment time by administering a simultaneous integrated boost for metastatic pelvic lymph node in pelvic IMRT followed by MRI-based image guided adaptive BT.

Dosimetric comparison of IMRT versus 3DCRT for post-mastectomy chest wall irradiation

  • Rastogi, Kartick;Sharma, Shantanu;Gupta, Shivani;Agarwal, Nikesh;Bhaskar, Sandeep;Jain, Sandeep
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: To compare the dose distribution of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) to left chest wall. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seven patients were randomised for PMRT in 3DCRT group (n = 64) and IMRT group (n = 43). All patients received 50 Gy in 25 fractions. Planning target volume (PTV) parameters-$D_{near-max}$ ($D_2$), $D_{near-min}$ ($D_{98}$), $D_{mean}$, $V_{95}$, and $V_{107}$-homogeneity index (HI), and conformity index (CI) were compared. The mean doses of lung and heart, percentage volume of ipsilateral lung receiving 5 Gy ($V_5$), 20 Gy ($V_{20}$), and 55 Gy ($V_{55}$) and that of heart receiving 5 Gy ($V_5$), 25 Gy ($V_{25}$), and 45 Gy ($V_{45}$) were extracted from dose-volume histograms and compared. Results: PTV parameters were comparable between the two groups. CI was significantly improved with IMRT (1.127 vs. 1.254, p < 0.001) but HI was similar (0.094 vs. 0.096, p = 0.83) compared to 3DCRT. IMRT in comparison to 3DCRT significantly reduced the high-dose volumes of lung ($V_{20}$, 22.09% vs. 30.16%; $V_{55}$, 5.16% vs. 10.27%; p < 0.001) and heart ($V_{25}$, 4.59% vs. 9.19%; $V_{45}$, 1.85% vs. 7.09%; p < 0.001); mean dose of lung and heart (11.39 vs. 14.22 Gy and 4.57 vs. 8.96 Gy, respectively; p < 0.001) but not the low-dose volume ($V_5$ lung, 61.48% vs. 51.05%; $V_5$ heart, 31.02% vs. 23.27%; p < 0.001). Conclusions: For left sided breast cancer, IMRT significantly improves the conformity of plan and reduce the mean dose and high-dose volumes of ipsilateral lung and heart compared to 3DCRT, but 3DCRT is superior in terms of low-dose volume.

Present Status and Future Aspects of Radiation Oncology in Korea (방사선 치료의 국내 현황과 미래)

  • Huh, Seung-Jae
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.211-216
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    • 2006
  • $\underline{Purpose}$: An analysis of the infrastructure for radiotherapy in Korea was performed to establish a baseline plan in 2006 for future development. $\underline{Materials\;and\;Methods}$: The data were obtained from 61 radiotherapy centers. The survey covered the number of radiotherapy centers, major equipment and personnel. Centers were classified into technical level groups according to the IAEA criteria. $\underline{Results}$: 28,789 new patients were treated with radiation therapy in 2004. There were 104 megavoltage devices in 61 institutions, which included 96 linear accelerators, two Cobalt 60 units, three Tomotherapy units, two Cyberknife units and one proton accelerator in 2006. Thirty-five high dose rate remote after-loading systems and 20 CT-simulators were surveyed. Personnel included 132 radiation oncologists, 50 radiation oncology residents, 64 medical physicists, 130 nurses and 369 radiation therapy technologists. All of the facilities employed treatment-planning computers and simulators, among these thirty-two percent (20 facilities) used a CT-simulator. Sixty-six percent (40 facilities) used a PET/CT scanner, and 35% (22 facilities) had the capacity to implement intensity modulated radiation therapy. Twenty-five facilities (41%) were included in technical level 3 group (having one of intensity modulated radiotherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy or intra-operative radiotherapy system). $\underline{Conclusion}$: Radiation oncology in Korea evolved greatly in both quality and quantity recently and demand for radiotherapy in Korea is increasing steadily. The information in this analysis represents important data to develop the future planning of equipment and human resources.

Treatment outcome of localized prostate cancer by 70 Gy hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy with a customized rectal balloon

  • Kim, Hyunjung;Kim, Jun Won;Hong, Sung Joon;Rha, Koon Ho;Lee, Chang-Geol;Yang, Seung Choul;Choi, Young Deuk;Suh, Chang-Ok;Cho, Jaeho
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.187-197
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: We aimed to analyze the treatment outcome and long-term toxicity of 70 Gy hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for localized prostate cancer using a customized rectal balloon. Materials and Methods: We reviewed medical records of 86 prostate cancer patients who received curative radiotherapy between January 2004 and December 2011 at our institution. Patients were designated as low (12.8%), intermediate (20.9%), or high risk (66.3%). Thirty patients received a total dose of 70 Gy in 28 fractions over 5 weeks via IMRT (the Hypo-IMRT group); 56 received 70.2 Gy in 39 fractions over 7 weeks via 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (the CF-3DRT group, which served as a reference for comparison). A customized rectal balloon was placed in Hypo-IMRT group throughout the entire radiotherapy course. Androgen deprivation therapy was administered to 47 patients (Hypo-IMRT group, 17; CF-3DRT group, 30). Late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity were evaluated according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: The median follow-up period was 74.4 months (range, 18.8 to 125.9 months). The 5-year actuarial biochemical relapse-free survival rates for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients were 100%, 100%, and 88.5%, respectively, for the Hypo-IMRT group and 80%, 77.8%, and 63.6%, respectively, for the CF-3DRT group (p < 0.046). No patient presented with acute or late GU toxicity ${\geq}$grade 3. Late grade 3 GI toxicity occurred in 2 patients (3.6%) in the CF-3DRT group and 1 patient (3.3%) in the Hypo-IMRT group. Conclusion: Hypo-IMRT with a customized rectal balloon resulted in excellent biochemical control rates with minimal toxicity in localized prostate cancer patients.

Whole pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy for high-risk prostate cancer: a preliminary report

  • Joo, Ji Hyeon;Kim, Yeon Joo;Kim, Young Seok;Choi, Eun Kyung;Kim, Jong Hoon;Lee, Sang-Wook;Song, Si Yeol;Yoon, Sang Min;Kim, Su Ssan;Park, Jin-Hong;Jeong, Yuri;Ahn, Hanjong;Kim, Choung-Soo;Lee, Jae-Lyun;Ahn, Seung Do
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.199-205
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: To assess the clinical efficacy and toxicity of whole pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (WP-IMRT) for high-risk prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Patients with high-risk prostate cancer treated between 2008 and 2013 were reviewed. The study included patients who had undergone WP-IMRT with image guidance using electronic portal imaging devices and/or cone-beam computed tomography. The endorectal balloon was used in 93% of patients. Patients received either 46 Gy to the whole pelvis plus a boost of up to 76 Gy to the prostate in 2 Gy daily fractions, or 44 Gy to the whole pelvis plus a boost of up to 72.6 Gy to the prostate in 2.2 Gy fractions. Results: The study cohort included 70 patients, of whom 55 (78%) had a Gleason score of 8 to 10 and 50 (71%) had a prostate-specific antigen level > 20 ng/mL. The androgen deprivation therapy was combined in 62 patients. The biochemical failure-free survival rate was 86.7% at 2 years. Acute any grade gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity rates were 47% and 73%, respectively. The actuarial rate of late grade 2 or worse toxicity at 2 years was 12.9% for GI, and 5.7% for GU with no late grade 4 toxicity. Conclusion: WP-IMRT was well tolerated with no severe acute or late toxicities, resulting in at least similar biochemical control to that of the historic control group with a small field. The long-term efficacy and toxicity will be assessed in the future, and a prospective randomized trial is needed to verify these findings.

Evaluation of Skin Dose of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients (유방암환자의 세기조절방사선치료에서 피부선량 평가)

  • Kim, Sung-Kyu;Kim, Myung-Se;Yun, Sang-Mo
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.167-171
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    • 2007
  • In the case of radiotherapy following breast conservation therapy for breast cancer patients, the characteristic of skin dose was investigated in the treatment of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for breast cancer patients by comparing and analysing entrance skin dose irradiated during radiotherapy using tangential technique radiotherpy, and IMRT. The calculation dose irradiated to breast skin was compared with TLD measurement dose in treatment planning by performing the two methods of radiotherapy using tangential technique, and IMRT in treatment planning equipment. The skin absorbed dose was measured to pass a nipple by spacing of 1 cm distance from center to edge of body. In the radiotherapy of tangential technique, for the irradiation of 180 cGy to PTV, the calculation dose was ranged from 103.5 cGy to 155.2 cGy, measurement dose was ranged from 107.5 cGy to 156.2 cGy, and skin dose in the center was maximum 1.45 times more irradiated than that in the edge. In the IMRT, for the irradiation of 180 cGy to PTV, the calculation dose was ranged 9.8 cGy at 80.2 cGy, measurement dose was ranged 8.9 cGy at 77.2 cGy, and skin dose in the center was maximum 0.23 times less irradiated than that in the edge. IMRT was more effective for skin radiation risks because radiation dose irradiated to skin in IMRT was much less than that in radiotherapy of tangential field technique.

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Preliminary results of entire pleural intensity-modulated radiotherapy in a neoadjuvant setting for resectable malignant mesothelioma

  • Hong, Ji Hyun;Lee, Hyo Chun;Choi, Kyu Hye;Moon, Seok Whan;Kim, Kyung Soo;Hong, Suk Hee;Hong, Ju-Young;Kim, Yeon-Sil;Multidisciplinary Team of Lung Cancer in Seoul St. Mary's Hospital
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.101-109
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the multimodality treatment with neoadjuvant intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for resectable clinical T1-3N0-1M0 malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Materials and Methods: A total of eleven patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy between March 2016 and June 2018 were reviewed. Patients received 25 Gy in 5 fractions to entire ipsilateral hemithorax with helical tomotherapy. Results: All of patients were men with a median age of 56 years. Epithelioid subtype was found in 10 patients. All patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with pemetrexed-cisplatin regimen. Ten patients (90.9%) completed 25 Gy/5 fractions and one (9.0%) completed 20 Gy/4 fractions of radiotherapy. IMRT was well tolerated with only one acute grade 3 radiation pneumonitis. Surgery was performed 1 week (median, 8 days; range, 1 to 15 days) after completing IMRT. Extrapleural pneumonectomy was performed in 4 patients (36.3%), extended pleurectomy/decortication in 2 (18.2%) and pleurectomy/decortications in 5 (63.6%). There was no grade 3+ surgical complication except two deaths after EPP in 1 month. Based on operative findings and pathologic staging, adjuvant chemotherapy was delivered in 7 patients (63.6%), and 2 (18.2%) were decided to add adjuvant radiotherapy. After a median follow-up of 14.6 months (range, 2.8 to 30 months), there were 3 local recurrence (33.3%) and 1 distant metastasis (11.1%). Conclusion: Neoadjuvant entire pleural IMRT can be delivered with a favorable radiation complication. An optimal strategy has to be made in resectable MPM patients who would benefit from neoadjuvant radiation and surgery. Further studies are needed to look at long-term outcomes.

'Simultaneous Modulated Accelerated Radiation Therapy' (SMART) Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma : the Asan Medical Center (비인강암의 세기조절방사선치료기술을 이용한 동시차등조사가속치료의 예비성적)

  • Lee Sang-Wook;Back Geum-Mun;Yi Byong-Yong;Choi Eun-Kyung;Kim Jong-Hoon;Ahn Seung-Do;Shin Seong-Soo;Kim Sang-Yoon;Nam Soon-Yuhl;Choi Seung-Ho;Kim Sung-Bae;Song Si-Yeol
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: To introduce our early experience with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Eight patients who underwent IMRT for no disseminated nasopharyngeal carcinoma at the Asan Medical Center between September 2001 and November 2002 were evaluate by prospective analysis. According to the 1997 American Joint Committee on Cancer staging classification, 5 had Stage III, and 3 had Stage IVB disease. The IMRT plans were designed to be delivered as a 'Simultaneous Modulated Accelerated Radiation Therapy' (SMART) using the 'step and shoot' technique with a MLC (multileaf collimator). Daily fractions of 2.2-2.5Gy and 1.9-2Gy were prescribed and delivered to the GTV and CTV and clinically negative neck node, respectively. The prescribed dose was 70A-79.0Gy to the gross tumor volume (GTV), 60Gy to the clinical target volume (CTV) and metastatic nodal station, and 46Gy to the clinically negative neck. All patients also received weekly cisplatin during radiotherapy. Acute and late normal tissue effects were graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) radiation morbidity scoring criteria. Results: Follow-up period was ranging from 5 to 18 months. All patients showed complete response and loco-regional control rate was 100% but one patient died of malnutrition due to treatment related toxicity. There were no Grade 3 or 4 xerostomia and all patients had experienced improvement of salivary gland function. Conclusion: 'Simultaneous Modulated Accelerated Radiation Therapy' (SMART) boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy technique allows parotid sparing as evidenced both clinically and by dosimetry. Initial tumor response and loco-regional control was promising. It is clinically feasible. A larger population of patients and a long-term follow-up are needed to evaluate ultimate tumor control and late toxicity.

Analysis of setup error at rectal cancer radiotherapy technique (직장암 방사선치료기법별 자세오차에 관한 분석)

  • Kim, Jeong-Ho;Bae, Seok-Hwan;Kim, Ki-Jin;Yu, Se-Jong;Kim, Jee-Yoon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.6346-6352
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    • 2013
  • Radiotherapy of rectal cancer requires a stabilized image but the movement of patients is almost unavoidable in radiotherapy. In this study, the setup error using the radiation treatment technique was compared according to the loading time and BMI(Body Mass Index) for 14 patients with rectal cancer. In addition, the variation of the dose by the average setup error was compared. Therefore, the technique of a selective standard was established. As a result, 3DCRT(3-Dimensional Radiation Therapy) and VMAT(Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy) showed a similar time and error. In comparison, IMRT(Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy) increased the time two fold and the error four fold. In BMI, a more pyknic patient showed a larger error for all techniques. Regarding the dose, IMRT and VMAT increased much more than 3DCRT in the average error at the small bowel. Therefore, 3DCRT of the short time will be applied to pyknic rectal cancer. Moreover, VMAT selects than IMRT in the overexposure of the small bowel.