• Title, Summary, Keyword: intensity modulated radiotherapy

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Hypofractionated radiotherapy for early glottic cancer: a retrospective interim analysis of a single institution

  • Lee, Jeong Won;Lee, Jeong Eun;Park, Junhee;Sohn, Jin Ho;Ahn, Dongbin
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.82-90
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: To evaluate the results of hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFX) for early glottic cancer. Materials and Methods: Eighty-five patients with cT1-2N0M0 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottis who had undergone HFX, performed using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT, n = 66) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT, n = 19) were analyzed. For all patients, radiotherapy was administered at 60.75 Gy in 27 fractions. Forty-three patients received a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) of 2.3-2.5 Gy per tumor fraction. Results: The median follow-up duration was 29.9 months (range, 5.5 to 76.5 months). All patients achieved complete remission at a median of 50 days after the end of radiotherapy (range, 14 to 206 days). The 5-year rates for locoregional recurrence-free survival was 88.1%, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 86.2%. T2 stage was a prognostic factor for locoregional recurrence-free survival after radiotherapy (p = 0.002). SIB for the tumor did not affect disease control and survival (p = 0.191 and p = 0.387, respectively). No patients experienced acute or chronic toxicities of ≥grade 3. IMRT significantly decreased the dose administered to the carotid artery as opposed to 3D CRT (V35, p < 0.001; V50, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Patients treated with HFX achieved acceptable locoregional disease control rates and overall survival rates compared with previous HFX studies. A fraction size of 2.25 Gy provided good disease control regardless of SIB administration.

Dose Planning Study of Target Volume Coverage with Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Penang General Hospital Experience

  • Vincent Phua, Chee Ee;Tan, Boon Seang;Tan, Ai Lian;Eng, Kae Yann;Ng, Bong Seng;Ung, Ngie Min
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.2243-2248
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    • 2013
  • Background: To compare the dosimetric coverage of target volumes and organs at risk in the radical treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) between intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). Materials and Methods: Data from 10 consecutive patients treated with IMRT from June-October 2011 in Penang General Hospital were collected retrospectively for analysis. For each patient, dose volume histograms were generated for both the IMRT and 3DCRT plans using a total dose of 70Gy. Comparison of the plans was accomplished by comparing the target volume coverage (5 measures) and sparing of organs at risk (17 organs) for each patient using both IMRT and 3DCRT. The means of each comparison target volume coverage measures and organs at risk measures were obtained and tested for statistical significance using the paired Student t-test. Results: All 5 measures for target volume coverage showed marked dosimetric superiority of IMRT over 3DCRT. V70 and V66.5 for PTV70 showed an absolute improvement of 39.3% and 24.1% respectively. V59.4 and V56.4 for PTV59.4 showed advantages of 18.4% and 16.4%. Moreover, the mean PTV70 dose revealed a 5.1 Gy higher dose with IMRT. Only 4 out of 17 organs at risk showed statistically significant difference in their means which were clinically meaningful between the IMRT and 3DCRT techniques. IMRT was superior in sparing the spinal cord (less 5.8Gy), V30 of right parotid (less 14.3%) and V30 of the left parotid (less 13.1%). The V55 of the left cochlea was lower with 3DCRT (less 44.3%). Conclusions: IMRT is superior to 3DCRT due to its dosimetric advantage in target volume coverage while delivering acceptable doses to organs at risk. A total dose of 70Gy with IMRT should be considered as a standard of care for radical treatment of NPC.

Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Penang General Hospital Experience

  • Phua, Chee Ee;Tan, Boon Seang;Tan, Ai Lian;Eng, Kae Yann;Ng, Bong Seng;Malik, Rozita Abdul;Ishak, Wan Zamaniah Wan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.3287-3292
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: To study the overall treatment time (OTT) and acute toxicity of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: This retrospective study covered all NPC patients who underwent radical IMRT treatment at the Penang General Hospital from June 2011 to February 2012. Patients of any age and stage of disease with histologically proven diagnosis were included. Information was collected on patient demographics, clinical stage, treatment received, including any neoadjuvant and/or concurrent chemotherapy, acute toxity and completion of IMRT within the OTT. Results: A total of 26 NPC patients were treated with IMRT during the study period; 88.5% had stage III/IV disease. 45.2% received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy while 50.0% were given concurrent chemo-irradiation. All patients completed the treatment and 92.3% within the 7 weeks OTT. Xerostomia was present in all patients with 92.3% having grade 2. Severe grade III/IV acute toxicity occurred in 73.1% of patients, the commonest of which was oral mucositis (57.6%). This was followed by dysphagia which occurred in 53.8%, skin reactions in 42.3% and weight loss in 19.2%. However, haematological toxicity was mild with only one patient having leucopaenia. Conclusion: IMRT treatment for NPC is feasible in our center. More importantly, it can be delivered within the 7 weeks OTT in the majority of patients. Severe grade 3/4 toxicity is very common (73.1%) and thus maximal nutritional and analgesic support is required throughout the treatment.

Carotid sparing intensity modulated radiotherapy on early glottic cancer: preliminary study

  • Choi, Hoon Sik;Jeong, Bae Kwon;Jeong, Hojin;Song, Jin Ho;Kim, Jin Pyeong;Park, Jung Je;Woo, Seung Hoon;Kang, Ki Mun
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.26-33
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: To compare the dose distribution between carotid sparing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and opposed lateral field technique (LAFT), and to determine the effects of carotid sparing IMRT in early glottic cancer patients who have risk factors for atherosclerosis. Materials and Methods: Ten early glottic cancer patients were treated with carotid sparing IMRT. For each patient, the conventional LAFT plan was developed for comparison. IMRT and LAFT plans were compared in terms of planning target volume (PTV) coverage, conformity index, homogeneity index, and the doses to planning organ at risk volume (PRV) for carotid arteries, spinal cord and pharyngeal constrictor muscle. Results: Recurrence was not observed in any patients during the follow-up period. $V_{95%}$ for PTV showed no significant difference between IMRT and LAFT plans, while $V_{100%}$ was significantly higher in the IMRT plan (95.5% vs. 94.6%, p = 0.005). The homogeneity index (11.6%) and conformity index (1.4) in the IMRT plan were significantly better than those in the LAFT plans (8.5% and 5.1, respectively) (p = 0.005). The median $V_{5Gy}$ (90.0%), $V_{25Gy}$ (13.5%), and $V_{50Gy}$ (0%) for carotid artery PRV in the IMRT plan were significantly lower than those in the LAFT plan (99.1%, 89.0%, and 77.3%, respectively) (p = 0.005). Conclusion: Our study suggests that carotid sparing IMRT can significantly decrease the dose to carotid arteries compared to LAFT, and it would be considered for early glottic cancer patient with high risk of atherosclerosis.

Influence of jaw tracking in intensity-modulated and volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy for head and neck cancers: a dosimetric study

  • Mani, Karthick Raj;Upadhayay, Sagar;Das, K.J. Maria
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.90-100
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: To Study the dosimetric advantage of the Jaw tracking technique in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for Head and Neck Cancers. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively selected 10 previously treated head and neck cancer patients stage (T1/T2, N1, M0) in this study. All the patients were planned for IMRT and VMAT with simultaneous integrated boost technique. IMRT and VMAT plans were performed with jaw tracking (JT) and with static jaw (SJ) technique by keeping the same constraints and priorities for a particular patient. Target conformity, dose to the critical structures and low dose volumes were recorded and analyzed for IMRT and VMAT plans with and without JT for all the patients. Results: The conformity index average of all patients followed by standard deviation (${\bar{x}}{\pm}{\sigma}_{\bar{x}}$) of the JT-IMRT, SJ-IMRT, JT-VMAT, and SJ-VMAT were $1.72{\pm}0.56$, $1.67{\pm}0.57$, $1.83{\pm}0.65$, and $1.85{\pm}0.64$, and homogeneity index were $0.059{\pm}0.05$, $0.064{\pm}0.05$, $0.064{\pm}0.04$, and $0.064{\pm}0.05$. JT-IMRT shows significant mean reduction in right parotid and left parotid shows of 7.64% (p < 0.001) and 7.45% (p < 0.001) compare to SJ-IMRT. JT-IMRT plans also shows considerable dose reduction to thyroid, inferior constrictors, spinal cord and brainstem compared to the SJ-IMRT plans. Conclusion: Significant dose reductions were observed for critical structure in the JT-IMRT compared to SJ-IMRT technique. In JT-VMAT plans dose reduction to the critical structure were not significant compared to the SJ-IMRT due to relatively lesser monitor units.

Dosimetric comparison of axilla and groin radiotherapy techniques for high-risk and locally advanced skin cancer

  • Mattes, Malcolm D.;Zhou, Ying;Berry, Sean L.;Barker, Christopher A.
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.145-155
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Radiation therapy targeting axilla and groin lymph nodes improves regional disease control in locally advanced and high-risk skin cancers. However, trials generally used conventional two-dimensional radiotherapy (2D-RT), contributing towards relatively high rates of side effects from treatment. The goal of this study is to determine if three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), or volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) may improve radiation delivery to the target while avoiding organs at risk in the clinical context of skin cancer regional nodal irradiation. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with locally advanced/high-risk skin cancers underwent computed tomography simulation. The relevant axilla or groin planning target volumes and organs at risk were delineated using standard definitions. Paired t-tests were used to compare the mean values of several dose-volumetric parameters for each of the 4 techniques. Results: In the axilla, the largest improvement for 3D-CRT compared to 2D-RT was for homogeneity index (13.9 vs. 54.3), at the expense of higher lung $V_{20}$ (28.0% vs. 12.6%). In the groin, the largest improvements for 3D-CRT compared to 2D-RT were for anorectum $D_{max}$ (13.6 vs. 38.9 Gy), bowel $D_{200cc}$ (7.3 vs. 23.1 Gy), femur $D_{50}$ (34.6 vs. 57.2 Gy), and genitalia $D_{max}$ (37.6 vs. 51.1 Gy). IMRT had further improvements compared to 3D-CRT for humerus $D_{mean}$ (16.9 vs. 22.4 Gy), brachial plexus $D_5$ (57.4 vs. 61.3 Gy), bladder $D_5$ (26.8 vs. 36.5 Gy), and femur $D_{50}$ (18.7 vs. 34.6 Gy). Fewer differences were observed between IMRT and VMAT. Conclusion: Compared to 2D-RT and 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT had dosimetric advantages in the treatment of nodal regions of skin cancer patients.

Dosimetric comparison of coplanar and non-coplanar volumetric-modulated arc therapy in head and neck cancer treated with radiotherapy

  • Gayen, Sanjib;Kombathula, Sri Harsha;Manna, Sumanta;Varshney, Sonal;Pareek, Puneet
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.138-147
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric variations in patients of head and neck cancer treated with definitive or adjuvant radiotherapy using optimized non-coplanar (ncVMAT) beams with coplanar (cVMAT) beams using volumetric arc therapy. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two patients of head and neck cancer that had received radiotherapy using VMAT in our department were retrospectively analyzed. Each of the patients was planned using coplanar and non-coplanar orientations using an optimized couch angle and fluences. We analyzed the Conformity Index (CIRTOG), Dose Homogeneity Index (DHI), Heterogeneity Index (HIRTOG), low dose volume, target and organs-at-risk coverage in both the plans without changing planning optimization parameters. Results: The prescription dose ranged from 60 Gy to 70 Gy. Using ncVMAT, CIRTOG, DHI and HIRTOG, and tumor coverage (ID95%) had improved, low dose spillage volume in the body V5Gy was increased and V10Gy was reduced. Integral dose and intensity-modulated radiation therapy factor had increased in ncVMAT. In the case of non-coplanar beam arrangements, maximum dose (Dmax) of right and left humeral head were reduced significantly whereas apex of the right and left lung mean dose were increased. Conclusion: The use of ncVMAT produced better target coverage and sparing of the shoulder and soft tissue of the neck as well as the critical organ compared with the cVMAT in patients of head and neck malignancy.

The Role of Modern Radiotherapy Technology in the Treatment of Esophageal Cancer

  • Moon, Sung Ho;Suh, Yang-Gun
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.184-190
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    • 2020
  • Radiation therapy (RT) has improved patient outcomes, but treatment-related complication rates remain high. In the conventional 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) era, there was little room for toxicity reduction because of the need to balance the estimated toxicity to organs at risk (OARs), derived from dose-volume histogram data for organs including the lung, heart, spinal cord, and liver, with the planning target volume (PTV) dose. Intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) is an advanced form of conformal RT that utilizes computer-controlled linear accelerators to deliver precise radiation doses to the PTV. The dosimetric advantages of IMRT enable better sparing of normal tissues and OARs than is possible with 3D-CRT. A major breakthrough in the treatment of esophageal cancer (EC), whether early or locally advanced, is the use of proton beam therapy (PBT). Protons deposit their highest dose of radiation at the tumor, while leaving none behind; the resulting effective dose reduction to healthy tissues and OARs considerably reduces acute and delayed RT-related toxicity. In recent studies, PBT has been found to alleviate severe lymphopenia resulting from combined chemo-radiation, opening up the possibility of reducing immune suppression, which might be associated with a poor prognosis in cases of locally advanced EC.

Dose Planning of Forward Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Nasopharyngeal Cancer using Compensating Filters (보상여과판을 이용한 비인강암의 전방위 강도변조 방사선치료계획)

  • Chu Sung Sil;Lee Sang-wook;Suh Chang Ok;Kim Gwi Eon
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.53-65
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : To improve the local control of patients with nasopharyngeal cancer, we have implemented 3-D conformal radiotherapy and forward intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to used of compensating filters. Three dimension conformal radiotherapy with intensity modulation is a new modality for cancer treatments. We designed 3-D treatment planning with 3-D RTP (radiation treatment planning system) and evaluation dose distribution with tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Material and Methods : We have developed a treatment plan consisting four intensity modulated photon fields that are delivered through the compensating tilters and block transmission for critical organs. We get a full size CT imaging including head and neck as 3 mm slices, and delineating PTV (planning target volume) and surrounding critical organs, and reconstructed 3D imaging on the computer windows. In the planning stage, the planner specifies the number of beams and their directions including non-coplanar, and the prescribed doses for the target volume and the permissible dose of normal organs and the overlap regions. We designed compensating filter according to tissue deficit and PTV volume shape also dose weighting for each field to obtain adequate dose distribution, and shielding blocks weighting for transmission. Therapeutic gains were evaluated by numerical equation of tumor control probability and normal tissue complication probability. The TCP and NTCP by DVH (dose volume histogram) were compared with the 3-D conformal radiotherapy and forward intensity modulated conformal radiotherapy by compensator and blocks weighting. Optimization for the weight distribution was peformed iteration with initial guess weight or the even weight distribution. The TCP and NTCP by DVH were compared with the 3-D conformal radiotherapy and intensitiy modulated conformal radiotherapy by compensator and blocks weighting. Results : Using a four field IMRT plan, we have customized dose distribution to conform and deliver sufficient dose to the PTV. In addition, in the overlap regions between the PTV and the normal organs (spinal cord, salivary grand, pituitary, optic nerves), the dose is kept within the tolerance of the respective organs. We evaluated to obtain sufficient TCP value and acceptable NTCP using compensating filters. Quality assurance checks show acceptable agreement between the planned and the implemented MLC(multi-leaf collimator). Conclusion : IMRT provides a powerful and efficient solution for complex planning problems where the surrounding normal tissues place severe constraints on the prescription dose. The intensity modulated fields can be efficaciously and accurately delivered using compensating filters.

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