• Title, Summary, Keyword: intensity modulated radiotherapy

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Dosimetric comparison of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in total scalp irradiation: a single institutional experience

  • Ostheimer, Christian;Hubsch, Patrick;Janich, Martin;Gerlach, Reinhard;Vordermark, Dirk
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.313-321
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Total scalp irradiation (TSI) is a rare but challenging indication. We previously reported that non-coplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was superior to coplanar IMRT in organ-at-risk (OAR) protection and target dose distribution. This consecutive treatment planning study compared IMRT with volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Materials and Methods: A retrospective treatment plan databank search was performed and 5 patient cases were randomly selected. Cranial imaging was restored from the initial planning computed tomography (CT) and target volumes and OAR were redelineated. For each patients, three treatment plans were calculated (coplanar/non-coplanar IMRT, VMAT; prescribed dose 50 Gy, single dose 2 Gy). Conformity, homogeneity and dose volume histograms were used for plan. Results: VMAT featured the lowest monitor units and the sharpest dose gradient (1.6 Gy/mm). Planning target volume (PTV) coverage and homogeneity was better in VMAT (coverage, 0.95; homogeneity index [HI], 0.118) compared to IMRT (coverage, 0.94; HI, 0.119) but coplanar IMRT produced the most conformal plans (conformity index [CI], 0.43). Minimum PTV dose range was 66.8%-88.4% in coplanar, 77.5%-88.2% in non-coplanar IMRT and 82.8%-90.3% in VMAT. Mean dose to the brain, brain stem, optic system (maximum dose) and lenses were 18.6, 13.2, 9.1, and 5.2 Gy for VMAT, 21.9, 13.4, 14.5, and 6.3 Gy for non-coplanar and 22.8, 16.5, 11.5, and 5.9 Gy for coplanar IMRT. Maximum optic chiasm dose was 7.7, 8.4, and 11.1 Gy (non-coplanar IMRT, VMAT, and coplanar IMRT). Conclusion: Target coverage, homogeneity and OAR protection, was slightly superior in VMAT plans which also produced the sharpest dose gradient towards healthy tissue.

Simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer

  • Bae, Bong Kyung;Kang, Min Kyu;Kim, Jae-Chul;Kim, Mi Young;Choi, Gyu-Seog;Kim, Jong Gwang;Kang, Byung Woog;Kim, Hye Jin;Park, Soo Yeun
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.208-216
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) for preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), by comparing with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Materials and Methods: Patients who were treated with PCRT for LARC from 2015 January to 2016 December were retrospectively enrolled. Total doses of 45 Gy to 50.4 Gy with 3D-CRT or SIB-IMRT were administered concomitantly with 5-fluorouracil plus leucovorin or capecitabine. Surgery was performed 8 weeks after PCRT. Between PCRT and surgery, one cycle of additional chemotherapy was administered. Pathologic tumor responses were compared between SIB-IMRT and 3D-CRT groups. Acute gastrointestinal, genitourinary, hematologic, and skin toxicities were compared between the two groups based on the RTOG toxicity criteria. Results: SIB-IMRT was used in 53 patients, and 3D-CRT in 41 patients. After PCRT, no significant differences were noted in tumor responses, pathologic complete response (9% vs. 7%; p = 1.000), pathologic tumor regression Grade 3 or higher (85% vs. 71%; p = 0.096), and R0 resection (87% vs. 85%; p = 0.843). Grade 2 genitourinary toxicities were significantly lesser in the SIB-IMRT group (8% vs. 24%; p = 0.023), but gastrointestinal toxicities were not different across the two groups. Conclusion: SIB-IMRT showed lower GU toxicity and similar tumor responses when compared with 3D-CRT in PCRT for LARC.

Dosimetric advantages and clinical outcomes of simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy for anal squamous cell carcinoma

  • Sakanaka, Katsuyuki;Itasaka, Satoshi;Ishida, Yuichi;Fujii, Kota;Horimatsu, Takahiro;Mizowaki, Takashi;Sakai, Yoshiharu;Hiraoka, Masahiro
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.368-379
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the dosimetric difference between simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), and the clinical outcomes of anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) chemoradiotherapy featuring SIB-IMRT. Materials and Methods: This study included ten patients with ASCC who underwent chemoradiotherapy using SIB-IMRT with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C. SIB-IMRT delivered 54 Gy to each primary tumor plus metastatic lymph nodes and 45 Gy to regional lymph nodes, in 30 fractions. Four patients received additional boosts to the primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes; the median total dose was 54 Gy (range, 54 to 60 Gy). We additionally created 3DCRT plans following the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9811 protocol to allow dosimetric comparisons with SIB-IMRT. Locoregional control, overall survival, and toxicity were calculated for the clinical outcome evaluation. Results: Compared to 3DCRT, SIB-IMRT significantly reduced doses to the external genitalia, bladder, and intestine, delivering the doses to target and elective nodal region. At a median follow-up time of 46 months, 3-year locoregional control and overall survival rates were 88.9% and 100%, respectively. Acute toxicities were treated conservatively. All patients completed radiotherapy with brief interruptions (range, 0 to 2 days). No patient experienced ${\geq}grade$ 3 late toxicity during the follow-up period. Conclusion: The dosimetric advantages of SIB-IMRT appeared to reduce the toxicity of chemoradiotherapy for ASCC achieving high locoregional control in the extended period.

Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy: Does It Have a Role in Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma?

  • Choi, Seo Hee;Seong, Jinsil
    • Yonsei Medical Journal
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    • v.59 no.8
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    • pp.912-922
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    • 2018
  • Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a form of radiotherapy that delivers high doses of irradiation with high precision in a small number of fractions. However, it has not frequently been performed for the liver due to the risk of radiation-induced liver toxicity. Furthermore, liver SBRT is cumbersome because it requires accurate patient repositioning, target localization, control of breathing-related motion, and confers a toxicity risk to the small bowel. Recently, with the advancement of modern technologies including intensity-modulated RT and image-guided RT, SBRT has been shown to significantly improve local control and survival outcomes for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), specifically those unfit for other local therapies. While it can be used as a standalone treatment for those patients, it can also be applied either as an alternative or as an adjunct to other HCC therapies (e.g., transarterial chemoembolization, and radiofrequency ablation). SBRT might be an effective and safe bridging therapy for patients awaiting liver transplantation. Furthermore, in recent studies, SBRT has been shown to have a potential role as an immunostimulator, supporting the novel combination strategy of immunoradiotherapy for HCC. In this review, the role of SBRT with some technical issues is discussed. In addition, future implications of SBRT as an immunostimulator are considered.

Determining the Optimal Dose Prescription for the Planning Target Volume with Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients

  • Liu, Xi-Jun;Lin, Xiu-Tong;Yin, Yong;Chen, Jin-Hu;Xing, Li-Gang;Yu, Jin-Ming
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.2573-2577
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    • 2016
  • Objective: The aim of this study was to determine a method of dose prescription that minimizes normal tissue irradiation outside the planning target volume (PTV) during stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Previous research and patients with typical T1 lung tumors with peripheral lesions in the lung were selected for analysis. A PTV and several organs at risk (OARs) were constructed for the dose calculated; six treatment plans employing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were produced, in which the dose was prescribed to encompass the PTV, with the prescription isodose level (PIL) set at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 or 95% of the isocenter dose. Additionally, four OARs around the PTV were constructed to evaluate the dose received in adjacent tissues. Results: The use of higher PILs for SBRT resulted in improved sparing of OARs, with the exception of the volume of lung treated with a lower dose. Conclusions: The use of lower PILs is likely to create significant inhomogeneity of the dose delivered to the target, which may be beneficial for the control of tumors with poor conformity indices.

A Comprehensive Dosimetric Analysis of Inverse Planned Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Multistatic Fields Technique for Left Breast Radiotherapy (좌측 유방 방사선치료를 위한 역치료계획의 세기변조방사선치료와 다중빔조사영역치료기법 사이의 포괄적 선량측정 분석)

  • Moon, Sung-Kwon;Youn, Seon-Min
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.39-49
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: This aim of this study is to analyze the dosimetric difference between intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using 3 or 5 beams and MSF in the radiotherapy of the left breast. Materials and Methods: We performed a comparative analysis of two radiotherapy modalities that can achieve improved dose homogeneity. First is the multistatic fields technique that simultaneously uses both major and minor irradiation fields. The other is IMRT, which employs 3 or 5 beams using a fixed multileaf collimator. We designed treatment plans for 16 early left breast cancer patients who had taken breast conservation surgery and radiotherapy, and analyzed them from a dosimetric standpoint. Results: For the mean values of $V_{95}$ and dose homogeneity index, no statistically significant difference was observed among the three therapies. Extreme hot spots receiving over 110% of the prescribed dose were not found in any of the three methods. A Tukey test performed on IMRT showed a significantly larger increase in exposure dose to the ipsilateral lung and heart than multistatic fields technique (MSF) in the low-dose area, but in the high-dose area, MSF showed a slight increase. Conclusion: In order to improve dose homogeneity, the application of MSF, which can be easily planned and applied more widely, is considered an optimal alternative to IMRT for radiotherapy of early left breast cancer.

Locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy plus concurrent weekly cisplatin with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy

  • Wee, Chan Woo;Keam, Bhumsuk;Heo, Dae Seog;Sung, Myung-Whun;Won, Tae-Bin;Wu, Hong-Gyun
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.98-108
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The outcomes of locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with/without neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Eighty-three patients who underwent NCT followed by CCRT (49%) or CCRT with/without adjuvant chemotherapy (51%) were reviewed. To the gross tumor, 67.5 Gy was prescribed. Weekly cisplatin was used as concurrent chemotherapy. Results: With a median follow-up of 49.4 months, the 5-year local control, regional control, distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival rates were 94.7%, 89.3%, 77.8%, 68.0%, and 81.8%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the American Joint Committee on Cancer stage (p = 0.016) and N stage (p = 0.001) were negative factors for DMFS and DFS, respectively. Overall, NCT demonstrated no benefit and an increased risk of severe hematologic toxicity. However, compared to patients treated with CCRT alone, NCT showed potential of improving DMFS in stage IV patients. Conclusion: CCRT using IMRT resulted in excellent local control and survival outcome. Without evidence of survival benefit from phase III randomized trials, NCT should be carefully administered in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients who are at high-risk of developing distant metastasis and radiotherapy-related mucositis. The results of ongoing trials are awaited.

Treatment outcome of anaplastic ependymoma under the age of 3 treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy

  • Lee, Joongyo;Chung, Seung Yeun;Han, Jung Woo;Kim, Dong-Seok;Kim, Jina;Moon, Jin Young;Yoon, Hong In;Suh, Chang-Ok
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.26-34
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) allows for more precise treatment, reducing unwanted radiation to nearby structures. We investigated the safety and feasibility of IMRT for anaplastic ependymoma patients below 3 years of age. Materials and Methods: A total of 9 anaplastic ependymoma patients below 3 years of age, who received IMRT between October 2011 and December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The median equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions was 52.0 Gy (range, 48.0 to 60.0 Gy). Treatment outcomes and neurologic morbidities were reviewed in detail. Results: The median patient age was 20.9 months (range, 12.1 to 31.2 months). All patients underwent surgery. The rates of 5-year overall survival, freedom from local recurrence, and progression-free survival were 40.6%, 53.3%, and 26.7%, respectively. Of the 9 patients, 5 experienced recurrences (3 had local recurrence, 1 had both local recurrence and cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] seeding, and 1 had CSF seeding alone). Five patients died because of disease progression. Assessment of neurologic morbidity revealed motor dysfunction in 3 patients, all of whom presented with hydrocephalus at initial diagnosis because of the location of the tumor and already had neurologic deficits before radiotherapy (RT). Conclusion: Neurologic morbidity is not caused by RT alone but may result from mass effects of the tumor and surgical sequelae. Administration of IMRT to anaplastic ependymoma patients below 3 years of age yielded encouraging local control and tolerable morbidities. High-precision modern RT such as IMRT can be considered for very young patients with anaplastic ependymoma.

Dosimetric Comparison between Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy and 3 Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Rectal Cancer

  • Simson, David K;Mitra, Swarupa;Ahlawat, Parveen;Sharma, Manoj Kumar;Yadav, Girigesh;Mishra, Manindra Bhushan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.4935-4937
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    • 2016
  • Objective: To compare dosimetric parameters of 3 dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3 DCRT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in terms of target coverage and doses to organs at risk (OAR) in the management of rectal carcinoma. Methods: In this prospective study, conducted between August 2014 and March 2016, all patients underwent CT simulation along with a bladder protocol and target contouring according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) guidelines. Two plans were made for each patient (3 DCRT and IMRT) for comparison of target coverage and OAR. Result: A total of 43 patients were recruited into this study. While there were no significant differences in mean Planning Target Volume (PTV) D95% and mean PTV D98% between 3 DCRT and IMRT, mean PTV D2% and mean PTV D50% were significantly higher in 3 DCRT plans. Compared to IMRT, 3 DCRT resulted in significantly higher volumes of hot spots, lower volumes of cold spots, and higher doses to the entire OAR. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that IMRT achieves superior normal tissue avoidance (bladder and bowel) compared to 3 DCRT, with comparable target dose coverage.

Adjuvant Radiotherapy after Breast Conserving Treatment for Breast Cancer:A Dosimetric Comparison between Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy and Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy

  • Liu, Zhe-Ming;Ge, Xiao-Lin;Chen, Jia-Yan;Wang, Pei-Pei;Zhang, Chi;Yang, Xi;Zhu, Hong-Cheng;Liu, Jia;Qin, Qin;Xu, Li-Ping;Lu, Jing;Zhan, Liang-Liang;Cheng, Hong-Yan;Sun, Xin-Chen
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.3257-3265
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    • 2015
  • Background: Radiotherapy is an important treatment of choice for breast cancer patients after breast-conserving surgery, and we compare the feasibility of using dual arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT2), single arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT1) and Multi-beam Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (M-IMRT) on patients after breast-conserving surgery. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with breast cancer (half right-sided and half left-sided) treated by conservative lumpectomy and requiring whole breast radiotherapy with tumor bed boost were planned with three different radiotherapy techniques: 1) VMAT1; 2) VMAT2; 3) M-IMRT. The distributions for the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) were compared. Dosimetries for all the techniques were compared. Results: All three techniques satisfied the dose constraint well. VMAT2 showed no obvious difference in the homogeneity index (HI) and conformity index (CI) of the PTV with respect to M-IMRT and VMAT1. VMAT2 clearly improved the treatment efficiency and can also decrease the mean dose and V5Gy of the contralateral lung. The mean dose and maximum dose of the spinal cord and contralateral breast were lower for VMAT2 than the other two techniques. The very low dose distribution (V1Gy) of the contralateral breast also showed great reduction in VMAT2 compared with the other two techniques. For the ipsilateral lung of right-sided breast cancer, the mean dose was decreased significantly in VMAT2 compared with VMAT1 and M-IMRT. The V20Gy and V30Gy of the ipsilateral lung of the left-sided breast cancer for VMAT2 showed obvious reduction compared with the other two techniques. The heart statistics of VMAT2 also decreased considerably compared to VMAT1 and M-IMRT. Conclusions: Compared to the other two techniques, the dual arc volumetric modulated arc therapy technique reduced radiation dose exposure to the organs at risk and maintained a reasonable target dose distribution.