• Title, Summary, Keyword: intensity modulated radiotherapy

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Advances and Challenges in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

  • Qu, Song;Liang, Zhong-Guo;Zhu, Xiao-Dong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.1687-1692
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    • 2015
  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is an endemic disease within specific regions in the world. Radiotherapy is the main treatment. In recent decades, intensity-modulated radiation therapy has undergone a rapid evolution. Compared with two-dimensional radiotherapy and/or three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, evidence has shown it may improve quality of life and prognosis for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In addition, helical tomotherapy is an emerging technology of intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Its superiority in dosimetric and clinical outcomes has been demonstrated when compared to traditional intensity-modulated radiation therapy. However, many challenges need to be overcome for intensity-modulated radiation therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the future. Issues such as the status of concurrent chemotherapy, updating of target delineation, the role of replanning during IMRT, the causes of the main local failure pattern require settlement. The present study reviews traditional intensity-modulated radiation therapy, helical tomotherapy, and new challenges in the management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Decrease of Irradiated Volume using Rotational Treatment by Avoidance Sector in Radiation Therapy for Esophageal Cancer (식도암의 방사선치료에서 부분 각도에 의한 회전 치료를 이용한 조사체적의 감소)

  • Hwang, Chulhwan;Kim, Seong Hu;Koo, Jae Heung;Son, Jong Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.583-592
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    • 2018
  • In this study, plans to apply 3D conformal radiotherapy, intensity modulated radiotherapy, and volumetric intensity modulated arc radiotherapy to esophageal cancer radiotherapy were compared. In particular, arc therapy was applied to reduce irradiated volume and spread of low-dose during intensity modulated radiation therapy and volumetric intensity modulated arc radiotherapy by limiting part of irradiated angle, in order to compare target doses and dose for surrounding normal tissues of the two methods and those of 3D conformal radiotherapy. No significant difference in target dose was found among the three methods. The 5 Gy volume(V5) of the lung showed 56.53% of conformal radiotherapy, 52.03% of intensity modulated radiotherapy, and 47.84% of volumetric modulated arc therapy(CRT-IMRT p=0.035, CRT-VMAT p<0.001, IMRT-VMAT p<0.001). The 10 Gy volume(V10) showed a significant difference in conformal radiotherapy 35.12%, intensity modulated radiotherapy 34.04%, and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy 33.28%, showing significant difference in intensity modulated radiotherapy(p=0.018), volumetric modulated arc therapy(p=0.035), no significant difference in dose was found at 20 Gy volume. The mean dose and 20 Gy volume of the heart were not significantly different according to the treatment plan, but the 30 and 40 Gy volumes were 37.16% and 22.46% in the volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy, showing significant differences(p=0.028) in comparison with conformal radiotherapy. It is believed that, by limiting part of the irradiated angle during intensity modulated radiotherapy and volumetric intensity modulated arc radiotherapy, the irradiated volume and, thereby, the 5-10 Gy area and toxicity of the lung can be reduced while maintaining dose distribution of the target dose.

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy: a review with a physics perspective

  • Cho, Byungchul
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2018
  • Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been considered the most successful development in radiation oncology since the introduction of computed tomography into treatment planning that enabled three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in 1980s. More than three decades have passed since the concept of inverse planning was first introduced in 1982, and IMRT has become the most important and common modality in radiation therapy. This review will present developments in inverse IMRT treatment planning and IMRT delivery using multileaf collimators, along with the associated key concepts. Other relevant issues and future perspectives are also presented.

Dosimetric comparison between modulated arc therapy and static intensity modulated radiotherapy in thoracic esophageal cancer: a single institutional experience

  • Choi, Kyu Hye;Kim, Jina;Lee, Sea-Won;Kang, Young-nam;Jang, HongSeok
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.63-70
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare dosimetric characteristics of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and two types of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) which are step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiotherapy (s-IMRT) and modulated arc therapy (mARC) for thoracic esophageal cancer and analyze whether IMRT could reduce organ-at-risk (OAR) dose. Materials and Methods: We performed 3D-CRT, s-IMRT, and mARC planning for ten patients with thoracic esophageal cancer. The dose-volume histogram for each plan was extracted and the mean dose and clinically significant parameters were analyzed. Results: Analysis of target coverage showed that the conformity index (CI) and conformation number (CN) in mARC were superior to the other two plans (CI, p = 0.050; CN, p = 0.042). For the comparison of OAR, lung V5 was lowest in s-IMRT, followed by 3D-CRT, and mARC (p = 0.033). s-IMRT and mARC had lower values than 3D-CRT for heart $V_{30}$ (p = 0.039), $V_{40}$ (p = 0.040), and $V_{50}$ (p = 0.032). Conclusion: Effective conservation of the lung and heart in thoracic esophageal cancer could be expected when using s-IMRT. The mARC was lower in lung $V_{10}$, $V_{20}$, and $V_{30}$ than in 3D-CRT, but could not be proven superior in lung $V_5$. In conclusion, low-dose exposure to the lung and heart were expected to be lower in s-IMRT, reducing complications such as radiation pneumonitis or heart-related toxicities.

Volumetric modulated arc therapy for carotid sparing in the management of early glottic cancer

  • Kim, Young Suk;Lee, Jaegi;Park, Jong In;Sung, Wonmo;Lee, Sol Min;Kim, Gwi Eon
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.18-25
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Radiotherapy of the neck is known to cause carotid artery stenosis. We compared the carotid artery dose received between volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and conventional fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans in patients with early glottic cancer. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one early glottic cancer patients who previously underwent definitive radiotherapy were selected for this study. For each patient, double arc VMAT, 8-field IMRT, 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), and lateral parallel-opposed photon field radiotherapy (LPRT) plans were created. The 3DCRT plan was generated using lateral parallel-opposed photon fields plus an anterior photon field. VMAT and IMRT treatment plan optimization was performed under standardized conditions to obtain adequate target volume coverage and spare the carotid artery. Dose-volume specifications for the VMAT, IMRT, 3DCRT, and LPRT plans were calculated with radiotherapy planning system. Monitor units (MUs) and delivery time were measured to evaluate treatment efficiency. Results: Target volume coverage and homogeneity results were comparable between VMAT and IMRT; however, VMAT was superior to IMRT for carotid artery dose sparing. The mean dose to the carotid arteries in double arc VMAT was reduced by 6.8% compared to fixed-field IMRT (p < 0.001). The MUs for VMAT and IMRT were not significantly different (p = 0.089). VMAT allowed an approximately two-fold reduction in treatment delivery time in comparison to IMRT (3 to 5 minutes vs. 5 to 10 minutes). Conclusion: VMAT resulted in a lower carotid artery dose compared to conventional fixed-field IMRT, and maintained good target coverage in patients with early glottic cancer.

The Role of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy in Cancer Treatment

  • Cheung, Kin-Yin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Medical Physics Conference
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    • pp.6-8
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    • 2002
  • Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is an advanced but expensive form of 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy technique. While the initial clinical data appear to be promising for some treatment sites, the cost effectiveness of the treatment modality has yet to be justified by long-term clinical outcome. This presentation reviews the potential efficacy and limitation of IMRT in respect of the practicality, dosimetry, and resource aspects. It tries to explore and draw conclusions on the strategies for using this sophisticated and expensive treatment technique from AFOMP perspective.

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Dosimetric Evaluation of 3-D Conformal and Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer after Conservative Surgery

  • Mansouri, Safae;Naim, Asmaa;Glaria, Luis;Marsiglia, Hugo
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.4727-4732
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    • 2014
  • Background: Breast cancers are becoming more frequently diagnosed at early stages with improved long term outcomes. Late normal tissue complications induced by radiotherapy must be avoided with new breast radiotherapy techniques being developed. The aim of the study was to compare dosimetric parameters of planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk between conformal (CRT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) after breast-conserving surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients with early stage left breast cancer received adjuvant radiotherapy after conservative surgery, 10 by 3D-CRT and 10 by IMRT, with a dose of 50 Gy in 25 sessions. Plans were compared according to dose-volume histogram analyses in terms of PTV homogeneity and conformity indices as well as organs at risk dose and volume parameters. Results: The HI and CI of PTV showed no difference between 3D-CRT and IMRT, V95 gave 9.8% coverage for 3D-CRT versus 99% for IMRT, V107 volumes were recorded 11% and 1.3%, respectively. Tangential beam IMRT increased volume of ipsilateral lung V5 average of 90%, ipsilateral V20 lung volume was 13%, 19% with IMRT and 3D-CRT respectively. Patients treated with IMRT, heart volume encompassed by 60% isodose (30 Gy) reduced by average 42% (4% versus 7% with 3D-CRT), mean heart dose by average 35% (495cGy versus 1400 cGy with 3D-CRT). In IMRT minimal heart dose average is 356 cGy versus 90cGy in 3D-CRT. Conclusions: IMRT reduces irradiated volumes of heart and ipsilateral lung in high-dose areas but increases irradiated volumes in low-dose areas in breast cancer patients treated on the left side.

Planning Aspects of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy and Intensity Modulated Radio therapy in Carcinoma Left Breast - A Comparative Study

  • Ekambaram, Varadharajan;Velayudham, Ramasubramanian;Swaminathan, Shiyama;Loganathan, Padmanabhan;Swaminathan, Vijaya
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.1633-1636
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    • 2015
  • Background: The advantages of Rapid Arc plans versus Intensity modulated radiotherapy plans for Carcinoma left breast were analyzed. Materials and Methods: In this study 20 Post mastectomy carcinoma left breast patients were analyzed. Both Intensity modulated Radiotherapy and Rapid Arc plans were generated for these patients. IMRT plans with 7 beams in an arc fashion and VMAT plans with two semi arcs were made to achieve 95% dose coverage to 100% volume. The plans were evaluated using Dose volume Histograms. Results: The mean Conformity and Homogeneity index in VMAT is found to be 1.05 and 0.065 respectively whereas in IMRT it was 1.07 and 0.069. The 20% volume of Heart received a mean dose of 960cGy in VMAT and 1300cGy in IMRT. The mean dose was 1236cGy in VMAT and 1870cGy in IMRT. The ipsilateral Lung received 3395cGy to 5% volume and 1840cGy to 20% volume on an average and the mean dose was 1205cGy in VMAT, while the same were found to be 3525cGy, 2012cGy and 1435cGy respectively in IMRT. The Contralateral Lung received a mean dose of 505cGy in VMAT and 553cGy in IMRT. The mean Monitor units in VMAT were 512MU and 1170MU in IMRT. The NTID in VMAT is $108.8{\times}10^5Gycm^3$ and $110.1{\times}10^5Gycm^3$ in IMRT. Conclusions: The target coverage, homogeneity and Conformity index were better in VMAT plans. The Ipsilateral Lung and heart dose were very less in VMAT plans. The Contralateral Lung dose and the Normal Tissue Integral Dose were also lesser in VMAT plans however the difference is not very appreciable. The MU in VMAT plans is almost 50% that of the IMRT plans which results in the reduction of treatment time. On the whole VMAT proves to be a better modality for treating Ca. Left Breast Patients.

Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma treated with surgery followed by volumetric modulated radiotherapy: a case report with review of literature

  • Tandon, Sarthak;Gairola, Munish;Ahlawat, Parveen;Sharma, Kanika;Barik, Soumitra;Sachdeva, Nishtha;Pasricha, Sunil;Shenoy, Apeksha
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.341-347
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    • 2018
  • Surgical excision along with use of postoperative radiotherapy forms an integral management of sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma (SNTCS). However, given the rarity of the tumor, no standardised guidelines, dose, technique and target delineation exist especially in the era of modern radiation delivery techniques. This is a case of 55-year-old male diagnosed as SNTCS treated with radical ethmoidectomy followed by volumetric modulated radiotherapy, showing good local control and acceptable toxicity profile.

Neck Node Bolus Technique in the Treatment of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma with Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy

  • Phua, Chee Ee;Ung, Ngie Min;Tan, Boon Seang;Tan, Ai Lian;Eng, Kae Yann;Ng, Bong Seng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.6133-6137
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: To study the effect of bolus versus no bolus in the coverage of the nodal tumour volume with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: This retrospective study used data from 5 consecutive patients with NPC who were treated with bolus for large neck nodes using IMRT from November 2011-January 2012 in our institute. All these patients were treated radically with IMRT according to our institution's protocol. Re-planning with IMRT without bolus for these patients with exactly the same target volumes were done for comparison. Comparison of the plans was done by comparing the V70 of PTV70-N, V66.5 of PTV70-N, V65.1 of PTV70-N and the surface dose of the PTV70-N. Results: The mean size of the largest diameter of the enlarged lymph nodes for the 5 patients was 3.9 cm. The mean distance of the GTV-N to the skin surface was 0.6 cm. The mean V70 of PTV70-N for the 5 patients showed an absolute advantage of 10.8% (92.4% vs. 81.6%) for the plan with bolus while the V66.5 of PTV70-N had an advantage of 8.1% (97.0% vs. 88.9%). The mean V65.1 also had an advantage of 7.1% (97.6% vs. 90.5%). The mean surface dose for the PTV70-N was also much higher at 61.1 Gy for the plans with bolus compared to only 23.5 Gy for the plans without bolus. Conclusion: Neck node bolus technique should be strongly considered in the treatment of NPC with enlarged lymph nodes treated with IMRT. It yields a superior dosimetry compared t o non-bolus plans with acceptable skin toxicity.