• Title, Summary, Keyword: insulin resistance

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Insulin resistance and Alzheimer's disease

  • De La Monte, Suzanne M.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.42 no.8
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    • pp.475-481
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    • 2009
  • Emerging data demonstrate pivotal roles for brain insulin resistance and insulin deficiency as mediators of cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD). Insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) regulate neuronal survival, energy metabolism, and plasticity, which are required for learning and memory. Hence, endogenous brain-specific impairments in insulin and IGF signaling account for the majority of AD-associated abnormalities. However, a second major mechanism of cognitive impairment has been linked to obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Human and experimental animal studies revealed that neurodegeneration associated with peripheral insulin resistance is likely effectuated via a liver-brain axis whereby toxic lipids, including ceramides, cross the blood brain barrier and cause brain insulin resistance, oxidative stress, neuro-inflammation, and cell death. In essence, there are dual mechanisms of brain insulin resistance leading to AD-type neurodegeneration: one mediated by endogenous, CNS factors; and the other, peripheral insulin resistance with excess cytotoxic ceramide production.

Relationship of Physical Impairment, function and Insulin Resistance in stroke patients

  • Choi, Young-Eun;Kim, Ji-Hye;Yun, Young-Dae
    • International Journal of Contents
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.62-66
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    • 2013
  • Insulin resistance is a risk factor for stroke or recurrent stroke. Sedentary behavior increases insulin resistance. This study aimed to identify the relationship between physical impairments and functions and insulin resistance, examining which physical impairments specifically influence insulin resistance the most. The subjects of this study were 63 stroke patients. The subject's insulin resistance and physical impairments and functions were measured using the Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment (CMSA) and Stroke Impairment Assessment Set (SIAS). The study results exhibited that insulin resistance is statistically significantly related to the variable of foot according to the CMSA(r=.95, p<.05) and to the variable of lower extremity sensory function (touch) in relation to the SIAS(r=.91, p<.05). This study also revealed close correlations between insulin resistance and the variables of ankle control(${\beta}=-1.05$, p<.05) and low extremity tactile sensations(${\beta}=-1.82$, p<.05).

The relationship between muscle mitochondrial nutritional overloading and insulin resistance

  • Jeon, Jae-Han;Moon, Jun-Sung;Won, Kyu-Chang;Lee, In-Kyu
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.19-28
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    • 2017
  • The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance is growing rapidly. Multiple organs including the liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue control insulin sensitivity coordinately, but the mechanism of skeletal muscle insulin resistance has not yet been fully elucidated. However, there is a growing body of evidence that lipotoxicity induced by mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle is an important mediator of insulin resistance. However, some recent findings suggest that skeletal mitochondrial dysfunction generated by genetic manipulation is not always correlated with insulin resistance in animal models. A high fat diet can provoke insulin resistance despite a coordinate increase in skeletal muscle mitochondria, which implies that mitochondrial dysfunction is not mandatory in insulin resistance. Furthermore, incomplete fatty acid oxidation by excessive nutrition supply compared to mitochondrial demand can induce insulin resistance without preceding impairment of mitochondrial function. Taken together we suggested that skeletal muscle mitochondrial overloading, not mitochondrial dysfunction, plays a pivotal role in insulin resistance.

An association of urinary sodium-potassium ratio with insulin resistance among Korean adults

  • Park, Yeong Mi;Kwock, Chang Keun;Park, Seyeon;Eicher-Miller, Heather A.;Yang, Yoon Jung
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.443-448
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of sodium-potassium ratio on insulin resistance and sensitivity in Korean adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Subjects were 3,722 adults (1,632 men and 2,090 women) aged 40-69 years participating in the Korean genome and epidemiology study_Ansan and Ansung study. Insulin resistance was assessed using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HoMA-IR) and fasting insulin, and insulin sensitivity was assessed by using the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). The 24-h urinary sodium and potassium excretion were estimated from spot urinary samples using the Tanaka formula. The generalized linear model was applied to determine the association between urinary sodium-potassium ratio and insulin resistance. RESULTS: HoMA-IR (P-value = 0.029, P-trend = 0.008) and fasting insulin (P-value = 0.017, P-trend = 0.005) levels were positively associated with 24-h estimated urinary sodium-potassium ratio in the multivariable model. QUICKI was inversely associated with 24-h estimated urinary sodium-potassium ratio in all models (P-value = 0.0002, P-trend < 0.0001 in the multivariate model). CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that high sodium-potassium ratio is related to high insulin resistance and low insulin sensitivity. Decreasing sodium intake and increasing potassium intake are important for maintaining insulin sensitivity. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings in longitudinal studies.

β-Adrenergic Receptor and Insulin Resistance in the Heart

  • Mangmool, Supachoke;Denkaew, Tananat;Parichatikanond, Warisara;Kurose, Hitoshi
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.44-56
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    • 2017
  • Insulin resistance is characterized by the reduced ability of insulin to stimulate tissue uptake and disposal of glucose including cardiac muscle. These conditions accelerate the progression of heart failure and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases. It is noteworthy that some conditions of insulin resistance are characterized by up-regulation of the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in enhanced stimulation of ${\beta}$-adrenergic receptor (${\beta}$AR). Overstimulation of ${\beta}$ARs leads to the development of heart failure and is associated with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in the heart. However, pathological consequences of the cross-talk between the ${\beta}$AR and the insulin sensitivity and the mechanism by which ${\beta}$AR overstimulation promotes insulin resistance remain unclear. This review article examines the hypothesis that ${\beta}$ARs overstimulation leads to induction of insulin resistance in the heart.

Concept Analysis for Psychological Insulin Resistance in Korean People with Diabetes (심리적 인슐린저항성 개념분석)

  • Song, Youngshin
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.443-453
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to define the concept for psychological insulin resistance in the Korean population with diabetes. Methods: The Hybrid model was used to perform the concept analysis of psychological insulin resistance. Results from both the theoretical review with 26 studies and a field study including 19 participants with diabetes were included in final process. Results: The preceding factors of psychological insulin resistance were uncontrolled blood glucose and change in daily life. The concept of psychological insulin resistance was found to have three categories with 8 attributes such as emotional factors (negative feeling), cognitive factors (low awareness and knowledge, low confidence for self-injection) and supportive factors (economic burden, dependency life, embarrassing, feeling about supporters, feeling of trust in, vs mistrust of health care providers). The 8 attributes included 30 indicators. Conclusion: The psychological insulin resistance of population with diabetes in Korea was defined as a complex phenomenon associated with insulin therapy that can be affected by emotional factors, cognitive factors, and supportive relational factors. Based on the results, a tool for measuring psychological insulin resistance of Koreans with diabetes and effective programs for enhancing insulin adherence should be developed in future studies.

Blood glucose levels, insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance in healthy women and women with premenstrual syndrome: a comparative study

  • Zarei, Safar;Mosalanejad, Leili;Ghobadifar, Mohamed Amin
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.76-82
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    • 2013
  • Objective: To compare the blood glucose levels, insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance during the two phases of the menstrual cycle between healthy women and patients with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Methods: From January of 2011 to the August of 2012, a descriptive cross-sectional study was performed among students in the School of Medicine of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. We included 30 students with the most severe symptoms of PMS and 30 age frequency-matched healthy controls. We analyzed the serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance by using the glucose oxidase method, radioimmunometric assay, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance equation, respectively. Results: No significant differences between the demographic data of the control and PMS groups were observed. The mean concentrations of glucose of the two study groups were significantly different during the follicular and luteal phases (p=0.011 vs. p<0.0001, respectively). The amounts of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance of the two study groups were significantly different in the luteal phase (p=0.0005). Conclusion: The level of blood glucose and insulin resistance was lower during the two phases of the menstrual cycle of the PMS group than that of the controls.

The Relationship between Physical Activity and Insulin Resistance in the Middle-Aged Adults (중년기 성인의 신체활동과 인슐린 저항성의 관계)

  • Park, Jee-Yeon;Kim, Na-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.245-252
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: This study was designed to find the correlations between physical activity and insulin resistance of the middle-aged adults. Methods: One hundred thirty one subjects participated in this study were age 40-60 from Y university's center for physical exercise in W city. The data were collected from August 5 to October 5, 2009. To measure physical activity, the contracted Korean version of the Self-Report of Physical Activity Questionnaires of IPAQ was used. Insulin resistance was measured using fasting glucose levels, serum insulin levels, and HOMA method (serum insulin${\times}$fasting glucose/22.5). Results: The continuous physical activity overall in this study was on average $1,792.30{\pm}2,216.81$ MET (min/week), and as a result of categorical classification: no activity was 66 subjects (50.4%); minimum activity, 41 (31.3%); and health-improving activity, 24 (18.3%), respectively. The overall degree of insulin resistance in these subjects was $2.20{\pm}2.62$(0.28-12.74). There was negative correlation between moderate intensity activity and insulin resistance (r= -.189, p<.05). Conclusion: These results revealed that promoting moderate-intensity physical activity is important in preventing and improving insulin resistance and possibly other metabolic risk factors in the middle-aged adults.

Merit of Ginseng in the Improvement of Insulin Resistance

  • Cheng, Juei-Tang
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.155-159
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    • 2010
  • In the present review, the merit of ginseng in the improvement of insulin resistance has been introduced. Using the results in previous studies, we found that ginseng or ginsenoside Rh2 has the ability to reduce glucose-insulin index in rats with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was induced by feeding of fructose-rich chow in rats. Insulin resistance was characterized by regular methods. Effectiveness of ginseng powder or extract Rh2 was identified in this animal model. Also, the application of ginseng for handling of diabetic disorders in China has been discussed. According to Chinese traditional medicine, ginseng is merit in the treatment of diabetic disorders named as Shiaw-Ker in Chinese. Therefore, it is no doubt that ginseng is helpful in the control of diabetic disorders either prevention or the treatment. Otherwise, the potential effect of ginseng on nervous functions shall be investigated in the future.

Time Course Changes in Hepatic Fat Accumulation in High Fat Diet-fed C57BL/6 Mice: Comparison Analysis to the Markers of Systemic Insulin Resistance (고지방식이 섭취 마우스에서 간 중성지방 축적의 시간에 따른 변화: 인슐린저항성 지표들과의 상관관계 분석)

  • Bae, Eun Ju
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.56 no.6
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    • pp.364-365
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    • 2012
  • Liver is the major organ to regulate the systemic glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance. Excess energy intake leads to triglyceride accumulation in adipose tissue first and subsequent accumulation in liver, resulting in obesity and type 2 diabetes. The representative pathological animal model for obesity associated insulin resistance is a high fat diet (HFD) fed mice model. Given the essential role of liver fat accumulation in developing systemic insulin resistance in obesity, I measured the liver triglyceride contents in HFD fed mice as a function of time. As such, in this report, I show the cause and effect relationship with regard to time during a HFD feeding between a variety of factors that are related to systemic insulin resistance including glucose intolerance, plasma insulin level and inflammatory gene expression in liver and adipose tissue.