• Title, Summary, Keyword: insulin

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Effect of polymerization in inducing yolk antibodies (계란 항체의 생산에 있어서 polymerization의 효과)

  • Lee, Kyeong-Ae
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.17-24
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    • 1993
  • Insulin polymer was used as an immunogen to elicit homogeneous anti-insulin yolk antibodies in a large scale. Insulin polymer prepared was heterogeneous mixture (MW=6,000-70,000). Insulin polymer showed stronger immunogenecity than insulin monomer. The affinity of yolk antibodies elicited with insulin polymer was slightly lower than that of yolk antibodies elicited with insulin monomer. The specificity of yolk antibodies obtained with insulin monomer and insulin polymer was directed mostly to native insulin.

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Regulation of Preimplantation Development of Mouse Embryos by Insulin and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (생쥐 초기배아에서 Insulin과 Tumor Necrosis Factor $\alpha$에 의한 발생의 조절)

  • 계명찬;한현주;최진국
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.101-106
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    • 2001
  • Present study was aimed to verify the role of insulin and TNF-$\alpha$ in development of preimplantation embryos. Mouse morula were cultured for 40 hr in the presence or absence of insulin(400 ng/ml) and TNF-$\alpha$ (50 ng/ml). The morphological development, cell number of blastomeres per blastocyst, and mitogen activated protein kinase(MAPK) activity were examined. The developmental rate and cell number per embryo were the highest in insulin treatment group and the lowest in TNF-$\alpha$ treatment group. There was no significant difference in developmental rate between control and insulin plus TNF-$\alpha$ group. Taken together, it suggested that TNF-$\alpha$ impaired embryonic development and that insulin rescued developmental impairment imposed by TNF-$\alpha$. In blastocysts, insulin treatment significantly increased MAPK activity. TNF-$\alpha$ decreased the MAPK activity in a concentration-dependent manner. In the TNF-$\alpha$(50 ng/ml) -primed embryos, activation of MAPK by insulin was attenuated. In conclusion, these results suggest that there was a cross talk between insulin and TNF-$\alpha$ by means of activation of MAPK in preimplantation embryos and that insulin might rescue damage of embryos exposed to TNF-$\alpha$.

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Insulin induces nuclear translocation of insulin receptor and tyrosine phosphorylation of nuclear proteins in osteoblast (조골세포에서 인슐린 수용체의 세포핵으로의 이동과 타이로신 인산화)

  • Seol, Ki-Chun;Kim, Sung-Jin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.101-101
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    • 2001
  • In the present study, we explored to determine if insulin has any effect on the nuclear translocation of insulin receptor and tyrosine phosphoryaltion of nuclear proteins in the UMR-106 cells. Significant amount of insulin receptors and IRS-1 proteins were detected in the nucleus. IRS-1 and PI$_3$-Kinase appeared to translocate to the nucleus in a time dependent manner. Tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of proteins including 180 KDa, 85 KDa protein in the nucleus was significantly stimulated by insulin, suggesting IRS-1 and PI$_3$-Klnase was activated in the nucleus by insulin treatment. In addition, p70 S6 Kinase, a downstream target of PI3-Kinase was transiently appeared in the nucleus by insulin and its activity was stimulated by insulin. These results suggest that the insulin signaling system containing insulin receptor, IRS-1, PI$_3$-Kinase and p70 S6 Kinase operates in the nucleus of osteoblast cells. The nuclear insulin-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation may play an essential role in the gene expression, differentiation and growth of osteoblast cells.

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Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins and Diabetes

  • Lee Yong Hee;White Morris F.
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.361-370
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    • 2004
  • The discovery of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins and their role to link cell surface receptors to the intracellular signaling cascades is a key step to understanding insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) action. Moreover, IRS-proteins coordinate signals from the insulin and IGF receptor tyrosine kinases with those generated by proinflammatory cytokines and nutrients. The IRS2-branch of the insulin/IGF signaling cascade has an important role in both peripheral insulin response and pancreatic $\beta$-cell growth and function. Dysregulation of IRS2 signaling in mice causes the failure of compensatory hyperinsulinemia during peripheral insulin resistance. IRS protein signaling is down regulated by serine phosphorylation or protea-some-mediated degradation, which might be an important mechanism of insulin resistance during acute injury and infection, or chronic stress associated with aging or obesity. Under-standing the regulation and signaling by IRS1 and IRS2 in cell growth, metabolism and survival will reveal new strategies to prevent or cure diabetes and other metabolic diseases.

An association of urinary sodium-potassium ratio with insulin resistance among Korean adults

  • Park, Yeong Mi;Kwock, Chang Keun;Park, Seyeon;Eicher-Miller, Heather A.;Yang, Yoon Jung
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.443-448
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of sodium-potassium ratio on insulin resistance and sensitivity in Korean adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Subjects were 3,722 adults (1,632 men and 2,090 women) aged 40-69 years participating in the Korean genome and epidemiology study_Ansan and Ansung study. Insulin resistance was assessed using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HoMA-IR) and fasting insulin, and insulin sensitivity was assessed by using the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). The 24-h urinary sodium and potassium excretion were estimated from spot urinary samples using the Tanaka formula. The generalized linear model was applied to determine the association between urinary sodium-potassium ratio and insulin resistance. RESULTS: HoMA-IR (P-value = 0.029, P-trend = 0.008) and fasting insulin (P-value = 0.017, P-trend = 0.005) levels were positively associated with 24-h estimated urinary sodium-potassium ratio in the multivariable model. QUICKI was inversely associated with 24-h estimated urinary sodium-potassium ratio in all models (P-value = 0.0002, P-trend < 0.0001 in the multivariate model). CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that high sodium-potassium ratio is related to high insulin resistance and low insulin sensitivity. Decreasing sodium intake and increasing potassium intake are important for maintaining insulin sensitivity. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings in longitudinal studies.

Putrescine and Cadaverine Enhance Insulin Secretion of Mouse Pancreatic ${\beta}$-cell Line

  • Park, Hyo-Eun;Kim, Jae-Young
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.193-200
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    • 2012
  • We examined the effects of polyamines such as putrescine and cadaverine on the biosynthesis and secretion of insulin in the mouse pancreatic ${\beta}$-cell line, MIN-6. Basal insulin secretion (BIS) and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from the MIN-6 cells were significantly increased by 20 min- or 24 h-treatment with micromolar concentrations of polyamines. To determine whether the enhancement was due to increase of insulin production by polyamines, we investigated the insulin mRNA and protein production. Both insulin mRNA and protein production were found to be not significantly affected by the polyamine treatment. Next, we examined the expression of several transcription factors (TFs) related to insulin synthesis and secretion in order to identify upstream events responsible for the promotion of insulin secretion of MIN6 cells by polyamines. Of the 6 TFs tested, MafA was induced by treatment of polyamines. MafA mRNA and protein expressions increased with treatment of polyamines. Overall results suggest that cadaverine and putrescine promote the insulin secretion process rather than the insulin biosynthesis from MIN6 cells. Also MafA may be involved in the enhanced insulin secretion process. Further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms for promotion of insulin secretion by polyamines.

Insulin resistance and Alzheimer's disease

  • De La Monte, Suzanne M.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.42 no.8
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    • pp.475-481
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    • 2009
  • Emerging data demonstrate pivotal roles for brain insulin resistance and insulin deficiency as mediators of cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD). Insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) regulate neuronal survival, energy metabolism, and plasticity, which are required for learning and memory. Hence, endogenous brain-specific impairments in insulin and IGF signaling account for the majority of AD-associated abnormalities. However, a second major mechanism of cognitive impairment has been linked to obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Human and experimental animal studies revealed that neurodegeneration associated with peripheral insulin resistance is likely effectuated via a liver-brain axis whereby toxic lipids, including ceramides, cross the blood brain barrier and cause brain insulin resistance, oxidative stress, neuro-inflammation, and cell death. In essence, there are dual mechanisms of brain insulin resistance leading to AD-type neurodegeneration: one mediated by endogenous, CNS factors; and the other, peripheral insulin resistance with excess cytotoxic ceramide production.

Immunogenecity of Low Molecular Weight Immunogens in Laying Hens (닭에서 저급 분자량 항원의 면역원성)

  • Lee, Kyong-Ae
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.75-80
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    • 1996
  • The immunogenecity of low molecular weight ($MW{\le}30,000$) immunogens in laying hens was investigated. Immunogens were insulin derivatives and ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin(${\beta}-Lg$). Insulin derivatives were reduced- carboxymethylated(RCM) insulin, and RCM-A and RCM-B chain of insulin. The yolk antibodies against RCM-A chain of insulin appeared after the first immunization. The yolk antibodies against RCM-B chain of insulin were elicited 5 weeks after the third booster injection. Although the anti-RCM-B chain yolk antibodies recognized native insulin, the anti-RCM-A chain yolk antibodies didn't native insulin. The anti-RCM insulin yolk antibodies were induced after the second booster injection and showed cross-reactivities with native insulin. On the other hand, ${\beta}-Lg$ showed stronger immunogenecity than insulin derivatives. The $anti-{\beta}-Lg$ yolk antibodies were produced after the second booster injection and the peak titer was reached 3 weeks after the third booster injection.

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The Protective Effects of Insulin on Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress in C6 Glial Cells

  • Mahesh, Ramalingam;Kim, Sung-Jin
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.395-402
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    • 2009
  • Insulin appears to play a role in brain physiology, and disturbances of cerebral insulin signalling and glucose homeostasis are implicated in brain pathology. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of insulin under conditions of oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide ($H_2O_2$) in C6 glial cells. Insulin at concentration of $10^{-7}$ M could prevent 12 h $H_2O_2$-induced cell death. The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly scavenged by insulin pre-treatment in C6 glial cells after $H_2O_2$-induced oxidative stress. Insulin significantly stimulated the phosphorylation of Akt in the cells and the activation of Akt was maintained in response to insulin under $H_2O_2$ incubation for 12 h. In conclusion, these results provide evidence that insulin acts as a free radical scavenger and stimulating Akt activity. These data suggest that insulin may be effective in degenerative diseases with oxidative stress.

Comparision of Body Image between DM patients who used Insulin Pump and didn't use Insulin Pump (인슐린 펌프 착용 유무에 따른 당뇨병환자의 신체상 비교)

  • Lee, Myung-Hwa;Woo, Kyung-Mi;Kim, Kyung-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Rehabilitation Nursing
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.105-118
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of study was to compare body image between diabetes mellitus patients who used insulin pump therapy and didn't use insulin pump therapy. The study design was comparative survey study the subjects were 60 diabetes mellitus patients who used insulin pump therapy and 60 diabetes mellitus patients who didn't use insulin pump therapy at B hospital in Busan The data were collected from 15th April to 20th August, 1998. The instrument used for this study were Osgood's body image scale. The collected data were analyzed frequency, percentage, $X^2$-test, mean, standard deviation, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe test. The results were as follows 1. Demographical characteristics between diabetes mellitus patients who used insulin pump therapy and didn't use insulin pump therapy were no significant difference. 2. Characteristics related disease between diabetes mellitus patients who used insulin pump therapy and didn't use insulin pump therapy were significant difference in paticipation of D.M. meeting, no of paticipation of D.M. meeting. 3. Body inmage score of diabetes mellitus patients was $69.08{\pm}18.13$. In body image, diabetes mellitus patients who used insulin pump therapy were higher than that didn't use insulin pump therapy(t=1.964, P<.05) 4. In body image's each item, common-strange item, noble-humble item, competent-incompetent item, light-heavy item, diabetes mellitus patients who used insulin pump therapy were higher than diabetes mellitus patients who didn't use insulin pump therapy(P<.05) 5. In body image according to economic status, marital status, occupational status were significantly difference. 6. In body image according to causes of regular hospital visiting, paticipation of diabetes mellitus class were significantly difference. In conclusion, diabetes mellitus patients who used insulin pump therapy were more positive than diabetes mellitus patients who didn't use insulin pump therapy.

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