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The Effect of Adequate Radiation Shield Production for Radiation Worker (방사선 차폐체 제작을 통한 작업종사자 피폭 감소 방안)

  • Kim, Ki;Hong, Gun-Chul;Kwak, In-Suk;Park, Sun-Myung;Choi, Choon-Ki;Seok, Jae-Dong
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.41-44
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: Along with recent advances in PET/CT instrumentation and imaging technology, the number of patients has also been steadily increasing. This resulted in the increased radiation exposure to radiation workers in PET/CT rooms. In this study, we installed a radiation shield and investigated whether it could reduce radiation exposure to the workers and thus enhance job satisfaction. Materials and Methods: A radiation shield is composed of 5 cm thick lead and has a structure in which a radiation worker sits and watches a patient through lead glass while injecting radiopharmaceutical to the patient. Quarterly absorbed dose of radiation workers was measured using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) and the results were compared for six months each before and after installation of the radiation shield. Exposure dose was also measured using a pocket dosimeter placed at the same location in the front and the back of the radiation shield. In addition, frequency of use of the shield and job satisfaction of radiation workers were investigated using a survey. Results: Quarterly absorbed dose of radiation workers was 2.70 mSv on average before installation of new radiation shield, whereas that dropped to 2.13 mSv after installation of radiation shield, reducing radiation exposure dose by 21%. Exposure dose on the front side of the shield was 61.2 R, whereas that on the back side of shield was 2.8 R. According to the survey, 85% of workers used the shield and were satisfied with the outcome: each radiation worker made injections to patients average of 6.5 times/day and preferred sitting to standing while injecting radiopharmaceutical to patients. Conclusion: Use of radiation shield reduced the exposure dose of radiation workers, which is the ultimate goal of radiation protection to minimize radiation exposure and is an appropriate method for the improvement of hospital working environment. Furthermore, we found that use of radiation shield not only relieves physical and psychological burden of radiation workers but also enhances job satisfaction. This result indicates that use of radiation shield is important for improvement of the radiation workers' job environment in terms of radiation protection.

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THE ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF HORSERADISH (ARMORACIA RUSTICANA) ROOT EXTRACTS AGAINST OBLIGATE ANAEROBES IN ROOT CANAL (치근관 내 편성 혐기성 세균에 대한 서양산 고추냉이 뿌리 추출물의 항균효과)

  • Lee, Won-Ju;Park, Ho-Won;Shin, Il-Sik;Lee, Ju-Hyun;Seo, Hyun-Woo
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.237-244
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    • 2009
  • When the symptom of periapical infection is not released by mechanical instrumentation. anti-microbial agents including antibiosis become necessary in order to remove microorganisms from the root canal. Since anti-microbial agents of natural origins are currently popular, more natural remedies are being sought out. As it turns out, it is well known isothiocyanates (ITCs) in horseradish root extract have anti-microbial activity from many studies. In this research, anti-microbial effects of horseradish root extract and chlorhexidine, a typical anti-microbial agent, were investigated and compared against two kinds of obligate anaerobes. Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella nigrescens, that are often discovered in infected root canal, and Clostridium perfringens, which is resistant to antibiotics and frequently used as a control strain for antibacterial studies 1. The MIC and MBC of horseradish root extract were ranged from 87 to 470 ppm and from 156 to 625 ppm against three kinds of obligate anaerobes, respectively. Horseradish root extract showed the strongest anti-bacterial activity (MBC, 156 ppm) against F. nucleatum and also showed anti-bacterial activity against antibiotic resistant obligate anaerobes. C. perfringens. 2. The MIC and MBC of chlorhexidine were ranged from 3.12 to 6.25 ppm and 10.94 ppm against three kinds of obligate anaerobes, respectively. 3. The MIC with 87-470 ppm of horseradish root exact has the same growth inhibiting effect as the one of 3.12-6.25 ppm of chlorhexidine. Likewise, the MBC with 156-625 ppm of horseradish has the similar bactericidal effect as 10.94 ppm of chlorhexidine.

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Influence of taper on the screw-in effect of nickel-titanium rotary files in simulated resin root canal (모형 레진근관에서 니켈-티타늄 전동 파일의 경사도가 screw-in effect에 미치는 영향)

  • Sung, Hye-Jin;Ha, Jung-Hong;Kim, Sung-Kyo
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.380-386
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    • 2010
  • Objectives: The introduction of nickel-titanium alloy endodontic instruments has greatly simplified shaping the root canal systems. However, these new instruments have several unexpected disadvantages. One of these is tendency to screw into the canal. In this study, the influence of taper on the screw-in effect of the Ni-Ti rotary instrument were evaluated. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 simulated root canals with an S-shaped curvature in clear resin blocks were divided into two groups. ProFile .02, .04, .06 (Dentsply-Maillefer) and GT rotary files .08, .10, .12 (Dentsply) were used in Profile group, and K3 .04, .06, .08, .10, and .12 (SybronEndo, Glendora) were used in K3 group. Files were used with a single pecking motion at a constant speed of 300 rpm. A special device was made to measure the force of screw-in effect. A dynamometer of the device recorded the screwin force during simulated canal preparation and the recorded data was stored in computer with designed software. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple range test for post-hoc test. p value of less than 0.05 was regarded significant. Results: The more tapered instruments generated more screw-in forces in Profile group (p < 0.05). In K3 group, 0.08, 0.10. and 0.12 tapered instruments showed more screw-in force than 0.04 tapered one, and 0.08 and 0.12 tapered instruments showed more screw-in force than 0.06 tapered one (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The more tapered instruments seems to produce more screw-in force. To avoid this screw-in force during instrumentation, more attention may be needed when using more tapered instruments.

Factors Affecting Sap Exudation of Juglans Mandshurica and Acer Mono : (III) Inje Region in Korea (가래나무 수액와 고로쇠나무의 출수량에 미치는 영향 인자 분석 : (III) 인제 지역)

  • Choi, Won-Sil;Choi, In-Gyu;Park, Mi-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.378-388
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to investigate the optimum condition for sap exudation of Juglans mandshurica in comparison with Acer mono Max. trees in a site of Inje-Gun, Gangwon-Do, Korea. Amount of sap exudation, air temperature, relative air humidity and tree diameter at breast height (DBH) were monitored for the period of February 1 through March 31, 2008, and correlation analysis of several factors affecting on sap exudation was carried out. Sap exudation from J. mandshurica initiated on Feb. 28 as the same time in case of A. mono and continued for a month, and enhanced in early March compared to around the middle of March for A. mono. The amount of sap of A. mono was linearly proportional to the diameter at breast height (DBH) but there was no apparent relationship for J. mandshurica. As the amount of sap exudation per tree increased then sap exudation per unit DBH was also linearly proportional in both J. mandshurica and A. mono. The amount of sap exudation per unit DBH of J. manshurica were $0.3{\pm}0.1{\ell}/cm$ on average, which was one third times of $0.9{\pm}0.1{\ell}/cm$ for A. mono. During the days of enhanced sap exudation, the atmospheric conditions such as air temperature and relative humidity around J. manshurica trees were very similar with those of A. mono. The minimum temperature was a significant factor affecting the amount of sap of J. mandshurica whereas the range of temperature was the principal factor for A. mono. In conclusion, the sap of J. mandshurica exudated in atmospheric conditions similar to A. mono, but the amount of sap was affected by different atmospheric factors compared to A. mono.

Transfer of Isolated Mitochondria to Bovine Oocytes by Microinjection (미세주입을 이용한 난자로의 분리된 미토콘드리아 전달)

  • Baek, Sang-Ki;Byun, June-Ho;Kim, Bo Gyu;Lee, A ram;Cho, Young-Soo;Kim, Ik-Sung;Seo, Gang-Mi;Chung, Se-Kyo;Lee, Joon-Hee;Woo, Dong Kyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.27 no.12
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    • pp.1445-1451
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    • 2017
  • Mitochondria play a central role in energy generation by using electron transport coupled with oxidative phosphorylation. They also participate in other important cellular functions including metabolism, apoptosis, signaling, and reactive oxygen species production. Therefore, mitochondrial dysfunction is known to contribute to a variety of human diseases. Furthermore, there are various inherited diseases of energy metabolism due to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Unfortunately, therapeutic options for these inherited mtDNA diseases are extremely limited. In this regard, mitochondrial replacement techniques are taking on increased importance in developing a clinical approach to inherited mtDNA diseases. In this study, green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged mitochondria were isolated by differential centrifugation from a mammalian cell line. Using microinjection technique, the isolated GFP-tagged mitochondria were then transferred to bovine oocytes that were triggered for early development. During the early developmental period from bovine oocytes to blastocysts, the transferred mitochondria were observed using fluorescent microscopy. The microinjected mitochondria were dispersed rapidly into the cytoplasm of oocytes and were passed down to subsequent cells of 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, morula, and blastocyst stages. Together, these results demonstrate a successful in vitro transfer of isolated mitochondria to oocytes and provide a model for mitochondrial replacement implicated in inherited mtDNA diseases and animal cloning.

The Qualities of Northern and Southern Ecotype Garlic Bulbs at Different Storage Temperature (한지형' 및 '난지형' 마늘의 저장온도에 따른 품질 특성)

  • Bae, Ro-Na;Choi, Sun-Young;Hong, Yoon-Pyo
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.635-641
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to investigate the optimal sub-zero temperature for storage of two garlic cultivars, the northern ecotype 'Jaerae' and the southern ecotype 'Daeseo'. These cultivars of garlic bulbs were stored at different temperature (room temperature, $0^{\circ}C$, and $-4^{\circ}C$) conditions after predrying. Southern ecotype garlic showed higher weight loss than northern ecotype garlic. Northern ecotype garlic at $-4^{\circ}C$ exhibited less than 5% of weight loss during 10 month storage. Sprouting rate was higher in southern than in northern ecotype at room temperature storage. The value of injury by disease and insect was similar between southern ecotype and northern ecotype for 5 month storage, and then northern ecotype showed higher value of injury by disease and insect than southern ecotype. Hunter 'b' value of northern ecotype garlic was the lowest at $-4^{\circ}C$ storage. Northern ecotype garlic showed no cold injury at freezing point temperature storage. However, southern ecotype garlic had $0{\sim}5.3%$ cold injury occurrence at $-4^{\circ}C$ storage. Respiration and ethylene production exhibited the highest at room temperature storage, those had the slight increase at $0^{\circ}C$ and $-4^{\circ}C$ storages. Northern ecotype showed higher enzymatic pyruvic acid and fructan contents than those of southern ecotype. Enzymatic pyruvic acid content increased and fructan contents decreased during storage time.

Settlement Instrumentation of Greenhouse Foundation in Reclaimed Land (간척지 온실 기초의 침하량 검토)

  • Choi, Man Kwon;Yun, Sung Wook;Yu, In Ho;Lee, Jong-Won;Lee, Si Young;Yoon, Yong Cheol
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2015
  • This study examined the settlement of a 1-2W type greenhouse using a timber pile, which was recently established on Gyehwa-do reclaimed land, in order to obtain base data for the construction of a greenhouse on reclaimed land. The results of this study are as follows. foundation and timber pile increased over time, irrespective of the interior and exterior of the upon investigation of the ground, it was confirmed that there was no soft rock stratum (bedrock), and that a sedimentary stratum existed under the fill deposit, which is estimated to have been reclaimed during the site renovation. It was also found that a weathered zone was located under the fill deposit and sedimentary stratum, and that the soil texture of the entire ground floor consisted of clay mixed with sand, silty clay, and granite gneiss, in that order, regardless of boreholes. In addition, the underground water level was 0.3m below ground, regardless of boreholes. Despite a slight difference, the settlement of the greenhouse or measurement sites (channels). With regard to the pillar inside the greenhouse, except in the case of CH-2, the data at a site located on the side wall of the greenhouse (wind barrier side) indicated vibrations of relatively larger amplitude. Moreover, the settlement showed a significant increase during a certain period, which was subsequently somewhat reversed. Based on these phenomena, it was verified that the settlement range of each site in the interior and exterior of the greenhouse was between 1.0 and 7.5mm at this time, except in the case of CH-1. The results of the regression analysis indicated good correlation, with the coefficient of determination by site ranging between 0.6362 and 0.9340. Furthermore, the coefficient of determination ranged between 0.6046 and 0.8822 on the exterior of the greenhouse, which is lower than inside the greenhouse, but still indicates significant correlation.

Modified QuEChERS Multi-Residue Analysis Method for 61 pesticides in Fruits using with HPLC and GC-ECD/NPD (HPLC 및 GC-ECD/NPD를 이용한 과일 중 61종 농약의 QuEChERS 전처리 다성분 분석법 개발)

  • Lee, Ju-Young;Hong, Su-Myeong;Kim, Taek-Kyum;Min, Zaw Win;Kim, Yang-Hyeon;Song, Kyung-Ae;Kwon, Hye-Yong;Lee, Hee-Dong;Im, Geon-Jae;Kim, Doo-Ho;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.242-256
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    • 2012
  • QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method has been a lot of research for pesticide analysis, because it is very simple and fast. However, this method requires high sensitivity instrument such as LC-MS/MS because of the use of small sample volume and many impurities compared to the conventional method. So, QuEChERS method needs to be modified for using with HPLC and GC-ECD/NPD. The aim of this work was to study the application of the QuEChERS method as well as its modification for the extraction and preconcentration of 5 groups of 61 pesticides from 4 fruits prior to their determination by HPLC-PDA, GC-ECD/NPD, and LC-MS/MS. The method was validated using spiking levels at 0.1 mg/kg (or 0.01 mg/kg) in apple, grapes, pear and persimmon. The average recovery by QuEChERS AOAC Official 2007. 01 version using the LC-MS/MS varied from 71.1127.4% for 61 pesticides. The average recovery rates using modified QuEChERS varied from 70.9~126% for 61 pesticides by HPLC-PDA and GC-ECD/NPD. The results satisfied the criteria of multiple pesticide residue analysis, setting 70~130% for recovery rates and below 30% for CV.

Compression Sensing Technique for Efficient Structural Health Monitoring - Focusing on Optimization of CAFB and Shaking Table Test Using Kobe Seismic Waveforms (효율적인 SHM을 위한 압축센싱 기술 - Kobe 지진파형을 이용한 CAFB의 최적화 및 지진응답실험 중심으로)

  • Heo, Gwang-Hee;Lee, Chin-Ok;Seo, Sang-Gu;Jeong, Yu-Seung;Jeon, Joon-Ryong
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.23-32
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    • 2020
  • The compression sensing technology, CAFB, was developed to obtain the raw signal of the target structure by compressing it into a signal of the intended frequency range. At this point, for compression sensing, the CAFB can be optimized for various reference signals depending on the desired frequency range of the target structure. In addition, optimized CAFB should be able to efficiently compress the effective structural answers of the target structure even in sudden/dangerous conditions such as earthquakes. In this paper, the targeted frequency range for efficient structural integrity monitoring of relatively flexible structures was set below 10Hz, and the optimization method of CAFB for this purpose and the seismic response performance of CAFB in seismic conditions were evaluated experimentally. To this end, in this paper, CAFB was first optimized using Kobe seismic waveform, and embedded it in its own wireless IDAQ system. In addition, seismic response tests were conducted on two span bridges using Kobe seismic waveform. Finally, using an IDAQ system with built-in CAFB, the seismic response of the two-span bridge was wirelessly obtained, and the compression signal obtained was cross-referenced with the raw signal. From the results of the experiment, the compression signal showed excellent response performance and data compression effects in relation to the raw signal, and CAFB was able to effectively compress and sensitize the effective structural response of the structure even in seismic situations. Finally, in this paper, the optimization method of CAFB was presented to suit the intended frequency range (less than 10Hz), and CAFB proved to be an economical and efficient data compression sensing technology for instrumentation-monitoring of seismic conditions.

Isotope Ratio of Mineral N in Pinus Densiflora Forest Soils in Rural and Industrial Areas: Potential Indicator of Atmospheric N Deposition and Soil N Loss (질소공급, 고추의 생육 및 수량에 대한 녹비작물 환원 효과)

  • Kwak, Jin-Hyeob;Lim, Sang-Sun;Park, Hyun-Jung;Lee, Sun-Il;Lee, Dong-Suk;Lee, Kye-Han;Han, Gwang-Hyun;Ro, Hee-Myong;Lee, Sang-Mo;Choi, Woo-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.46-52
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    • 2009
  • Deposition of atmospheric N that is depleted in $^{15}N$ has shown to decrease N isotope ratio ($^{15}N/^{14}N$,expressed as ${\delta}^{15}N$) of forest samples such as tree rings, foliage, and total soil-N. However, its effect on ${\delta}^{15}N$ of mineral soil-N which is biologically active N pool has never been tested. In this study, ${\delta}^{15}N$ of mineral N($NH{_4}^+$ and $NO_3{^-}$) in forest soils from organic and two depths of mineral soil layers (0 to 20 cm and 20 to 40cm depth) of Pinus densiflora stands located at two distinct areas (rural and industrial areas) in southern Korea was analyzed to investigate if there is any difference in ${\delta}^{15}N$ of mineral N between these areas. We also evaluated potential N loss of the study sites using ${\delta}^{15}N$ of mineral N. Across the soil layers, the ${\delta}^{15}N$ of $NH{_4}^+$ ranged from +8.9 to +24.8‰ in the rural area and from +4.4 to +13.8‰ in the industrial area. Soils from organic layer (+4.4‰) and mineral layer between 0 and 20 cm (+13.8‰) of industrial area showed significantly lower ${\delta}^{15}N$ of $NH{_4}^+$ than those of rural area (+8.9 and +24.3‰, respectively), probably indicating the greater contribution of $^{15}N$-depleted $NH{_4}^+$ from atmospheric deposition to forest in the industrial area than in the rural area. Meanwhile, ${\delta}^{15}N$ of $NO_3{^-}$ was not different between the rural and industrial areas, probably because ${\delta}^{15}N$ of $NO_3{^-}$ is more likely to be altered by the N loss that causes $^{15}N$ enrichment of the remaining soil N pool. Compared with the ${\delta}^{15}N$ of soil mineral N reported by other studies (from -10.9 to +15.6‰ for $NH{_4}^+$ and -14.8 to +5.6‰ for $NO_3{^-}$), the ${\delta}^{15}N$ observed in our study was substantially high, suggesting that the study sites are more subject to the N loss. It was concluded that $NH{_4}^+$ rather than $NO_3{^-}$ can conserve the ${\delta}^{15}N$ signature of atmospheric N deposition in forest ecosystems.