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Reaction Mechanism and Curing Characteristics of Chicken Feather-Based Adhesives and Adhesive Properties of Medium-Density Fiberboard Bonded with the Adhesive Resins (닭털로 제조한 접착제의 반응기작 및 경화 특성과 이를 이용하여 제조한 중밀도섬유판의 접착 특성)

  • Yang, In;Park, Dae-Hak;Choi, Won-Sil;Oh, Sei Chang;Ahn, Dong-uk;Han, Gyu-Seong
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.55 no.3
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    • pp.385-394
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    • 2017
  • In this study, reaction mechanism and curing characteristics of adhesives formulated with NaOH- and $H_2SO_4$-hydrolyzed chicken feather (CF) and formaldehyde-based crosslinkers were investigated by FT-IR and DSC. In addition, adhesive properties and formaldehyde emission of medium-density fiberboards (MDF) applied with the adhesives were measured. CF-based adhesives having a solid content of 40% and over were very viscous at $25^{\circ}C$, but the viscosity reduced to $300{\sim}660m{\cdot}Pa{\cdot}s$ at $50^{\circ}C$. Consequently, the adhesives could be used as a sprayable resin. Through the FT-IR spectra of liquid and cured CF-based adhesives, addition reaction of methylol group and condensation reaction between the functional groups with the use of formaldehyde-based crosslinkers were identified. From the analysis of DSC, it was elucidated for CF-based adhesives to require a higher pressing temperature or longer pressing time comparing to commercial urea-formaldehyde (C-UF) resin. MDF bonded with CF-based adhesives, which was formulated with 5% NaOH-hydrolyzed CF (CF-AK-5%) and PF of formaldehyde to phenol mole ratio of 2.5 (PF-2.5), and pressed for 8 min had higher MOR and IB than those with other CF-based adhesives. MOR and IB of MDF bonded with the CF-based adhesives regardless of formulation type and pressing time were higher than those with C-UF resin. When the values compared with the minimum requirements of KS standard, IB exceeded the KS standard in all formulations and pressing time, but MOR of only MDF bonded with CF-AK-5% and PF-2.5 and pressed for 8 min satisfied the KS standard. What was worse, 24-TS of MDF bonded with all CF-based adhesives did not satisfied the KS standard. However, MOR and 24-TS can be improved by increasing the target density of MDF or the amount of wax emulsion, which is added to improve the water resistance of MDF. Importantly, the use of CF-based adhesives decreased greatly the formaldehyde emission. Based on the results, we reached the conclusion that CF-based adhesives formulated under proper conditions had a potential as a sprayable resin for the production of wood panels.

Comparison of Nutritional Compositions of Green Vegetables (나물의 영양성분 비교)

  • Jin, Yong-Xie;Kim, Hyeon-Young;Kim, Se-Na;Lee, Ji-Yoon;Seo, Dongwon;Choi, Youngmin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.592-599
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    • 2017
  • This study examined the nutritional compositions of seven raw and blanched green vegetables: Amaranthus mangostanus L. (AM), Aster scaber Thunberg, Taraxacum platycarpum H. Dahlstedt (TP), Oenanthe javanica (Blume) DC, Allium tuberosum Rottler, Ligularia fischeri (Ledeb.) Turcz (LF), and Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Siebold (EA). Proximate compositions (moisture, protein, ash, dietary fiber, and fat), minerals (calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, sodium, and magnesium), and vitamins (riboflavin and vitamin C) were analyzed in the study. In this study, moisture contents of raw and blanched green vegetables were 71.28~92.68 g/100 g and 76.90~92.09 g/100 g, respectively. The protein and fat contents of raw LF (33.38 g/100 g and 4.50 g/100 g dry weight basis, respectively) were higher than those of other cultivars. Ash contents of AM were significantly higher than those of their respective raw samples. Potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium contents of AM were 7,710.63 mg/100 g, 1,786.67 mg/100 g, 1,534.44 mg/100 g, and 743.18 mg/100 g, respectively. In the case of raw green vegetables, iron content of TP was 55.23 mg/100 g, which was the highest value among tested green vegetables. Total dietary fiber content of EA was 59.75 g/100 g, which was the highest value. Riboflavin content was highest in the raw and blanched LF (3.10 mg/100 g and 3.05 mg/100 g, respectively). Vitamin C contents of raw and blanched EA were 468.28 mg/100 g and 471.42 mg/100 g, respectively, which were higher than the other values. There were differences in nutritional ingredients according to different types of green vegetables. Therefore, it is advisable to evenly ingest various green vegetables.

A Computed Tomography-Based Anatomic Comparison of Three Different Types of C7 Posterior Fixation Techniques : Pedicle, Intralaminar, and Lateral Mass Screws

  • Jang, Woo-Young;Kim, Il-Sup;Lee, Ho-Jin;Sung, Jae-Hoon;Lee, Sang-Won;Hong, Jae-Taek
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.166-172
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    • 2011
  • Objective : The intralaminar screw (ILS) fixation technique offers an alternative to pedicle screw (PS) and lateral mass screw (LMS) fixation in the C7 spine. Although cadaveric studies have described the anatomy of the pedicles, laminae, and lateral masses at C7, 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT) imaging is the modality of choice for pre-surgical planning. In this study, the goal was to determine the anatomical parameter and optimal screw trajectory for ILS placement at C7, and to compare this information to PS and LMS placement in the C7 spine as determined by CT evaluation. Methods : A total of 120 patients (60 men and 60 women) with an average age of $51.7{\pm}13.6$ years were selected by retrospective review of a trauma registry database over a 2-year period. Patients were included in the study if they were older than 15 years of age, had standardized axial bone-window CT imaging at C7, and had no evidence of spinal trauma. For each lamina and pedicle, width (outer cortical and inner cancellous), maximal screw length, and optimal screw trajectory were measured, and the maximal screw length of the lateral mass were measured using m-view 5.4 software. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test. Results : At C7, the maximal PS length was significantly greater than the ILS and LMS length (PS, $33.9{\pm}3.1$ mm; ILS, $30.8{\pm}3.1$ mm; LMS, $10.6{\pm}1.3$; p<0.01). When the outer cortical and inner cancellous width was compared between the pedicle and lamina, the mean pedicle outer cortical width at C7 was wider than the lamina by an average of 0.6 mm (pedicle, $6.8{\pm}1.2$ mm; lamina, $6.2{\pm}1.2$ mm; p<0.01). At C7, 95.8% of the laminae measured accepted a 4.0-mm screw with a 1.0 mm of clearance, compared with 99.2% of pedicle. Of the laminae measured, 99.2% accepted a 3.5-mm screw with a 1.0 mm clearance, compared with 100% of the pedicle. When the outer cortical and inner cancellous height was compared between pedicle and lamina, the mean lamina outer cortical height at C7 was wider than the pedicle by an average of 9.9 mm (lamina, $18.6{\pm}2.0$ mm; pedicle, $8.7{\pm}1.3$ mm; p<0.01). The ideal screw trajectory at C7 was also measured ($47.8{\pm}4.8^{\circ}$ for ILS and $35.1{\pm}8.1^{\circ}$ for PS). Conclusion : Although pedicle screw fixation is the most ideal instrumentation method for C7 fixation with respect to length and cortical diameter, anatomical aspect of C7 lamina is affordable to place screw. Therefore, the C7 intralaminar screw could be an alternative fixation technique with few anatomic limitations in the cases when C7 pedicle screw fixation is not favorable. However, anatomical variations in the length and width must be considered when placing an intralaminar or pedicle screw at C7.

Dry Matter Yield and Nutrients Uptake of Sorghum${\times}$Sudangrass Hybrid Grown with Different Rates of Livestock Manure Compost (가축분퇴비 시용 수준에 따른 수수${\times}$수단그라스 교잡종의 건물생산 및 양분 흡수)

  • Lim, Sang-Sun;Lee, Sang-Mo;Lee, Seung-Heon;Choi, Woo-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.458-465
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    • 2010
  • To investigate the growth and nutrient uptake response of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass ($S{\times}S$) hybrid to different rate of livestock manure compost, a field experiment was conducted in the experimental grassland of Chonnam National University. Six treatments were laid out in a randomized block design with triplicates; control (no input), synthetic fertilizer (20 g N $m^{-2}$ and 20 g $P_2O_5\;m^{-2}$), compost 1 (3.4 g N $m^{-2}$ and 3.6 g $P_2O_5\;m^{-2}$), compost 2 (6.8 g N $m^{-2}$ and 7.2 g $P_2O_5\;m^{-2}$), compost 4 (13.4 g N $m^{-2}$ and 14.4 g $P_2O_5\;m^{-2}$), and compost 6 (20.2 g N $m^{-2}$ and 21.6 g $P_2O_5\;m^{-2}$). Ninety days after treatment, above-ground parts of the plants were harvested and measured for dry matter yield (DMY) and amounts of nutrients (N and P) uptake. Synthetic fertilizer application achieved the greatest DMY (2.4 kg $m^{-2}$) and nutrient uptake (38.3 g N $m^{-2}$ and 15.3 g $P_2O_5\;m^{-2}$). Increasing compost application rate tended to enhance DMY accumulation and nutrient uptake (P<0.01), but DMYs of compost 4 (1.9 kg $m^{-2}$) and 6 (1.8 kg $m^{-2}$) treatments were not different. Therefore, it was suggested that application compost alone may not achieve DMY of $S{\times}S$ hybrid compatible to synthetic fertilizer application. As nutrient uptake efficiency data showed that availability of compost P could be better than SF, it might be a strategy to apply compost as P source with supplementary N application such as liquid manure, SF or green manure if necessary considering availability of N input and the yield goals.

A COMPARISON OF THE SHAPING ABILITY OF FOUR ROTARY NICKEL-TITANIUM FILES IN SIMULATED ROOT CANALS (엔진구동형 NiTi 파일의 근관성형효과 비교)

  • Kim, Bo-Hye;Choi, Kyoung-Kyu;Park, Sang-Hyuk;Choi, Gi-Woon
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.88-95
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the root canal shaping ability of 4 rotary NiTi instruments in simulated root canals. For the preparation of thirty two curved root canals, Mtwo instruments using "single length"technique, and Profile, ProTaper Universal, and K3 using crown-down technique (N = 8) were used. All canal samples were prepared by reaching an apical canal size of #30. Pre- and post-instrumentation digital images were recorded and an assessment of canal shape was determined using a computer image analysis program SigmaScan Pro (Systat Software Inc., San Jose, CA, USA). The changes of the dimension of inner walls of canals, (2) the changes of the dimension of outer walls of canals, and (3) the centering ratio were measured at 7 measuring points, and then data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan's test. The results were as below; 1. The root canal shaping ability of Profile was significantly faster than that of other rotary NiTi instruments (p < 0.05). 2. The deformation and fracture of all instruments used for this study were not experienced. 3. In the degree of changes of the dimension of inner walls of canals, Profile demonstrated the lowest changes of the dimension of inner walls of canals except at the measuring points of the 1 and 2 mm (p < 0.05). However, the ProTaper Universal showed the highest changes of the dimension of inner walls of canals at all measuring points (p < 0.05). 4. In the degree of changes of the dimension of outer walls of canals, Mtwo demonstrated the lowest changse of the dimension of outer walls of canals except at the measuring point of the 1 mm (p < 0.05). However, Profile exhibited the highest changes of the dimension of outer walls of canals at the measuring points of 3 and 4 mm and ProTaper Universal and K3 showed the largest changes of the dimension of outer walls of canals at the measuring points of 1, 2, 6, and 7 mm (p < 0.05). 5. In degree of centering ratio, Profile demonstrated the least centering ratio comparing with the centering ratio shown by other NiTi instruments at the measuring points of 1, 4, 5, and 6 mm. Results suggest that in the coronal part of canal preparation, active cutting files such as ProTaper Universal may efficiently flare the canal orifice and form a better taper, and in the apical part of the canal, files which have a better centering ability such as Profile may maintain the original canal curvature and reduce the shaping time.

The Effect of Adequate Radiation Shield Production for Radiation Worker (방사선 차폐체 제작을 통한 작업종사자 피폭 감소 방안)

  • Kim, Ki;Hong, Gun-Chul;Kwak, In-Suk;Park, Sun-Myung;Choi, Choon-Ki;Seok, Jae-Dong
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.41-44
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: Along with recent advances in PET/CT instrumentation and imaging technology, the number of patients has also been steadily increasing. This resulted in the increased radiation exposure to radiation workers in PET/CT rooms. In this study, we installed a radiation shield and investigated whether it could reduce radiation exposure to the workers and thus enhance job satisfaction. Materials and Methods: A radiation shield is composed of 5 cm thick lead and has a structure in which a radiation worker sits and watches a patient through lead glass while injecting radiopharmaceutical to the patient. Quarterly absorbed dose of radiation workers was measured using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) and the results were compared for six months each before and after installation of the radiation shield. Exposure dose was also measured using a pocket dosimeter placed at the same location in the front and the back of the radiation shield. In addition, frequency of use of the shield and job satisfaction of radiation workers were investigated using a survey. Results: Quarterly absorbed dose of radiation workers was 2.70 mSv on average before installation of new radiation shield, whereas that dropped to 2.13 mSv after installation of radiation shield, reducing radiation exposure dose by 21%. Exposure dose on the front side of the shield was 61.2 R, whereas that on the back side of shield was 2.8 R. According to the survey, 85% of workers used the shield and were satisfied with the outcome: each radiation worker made injections to patients average of 6.5 times/day and preferred sitting to standing while injecting radiopharmaceutical to patients. Conclusion: Use of radiation shield reduced the exposure dose of radiation workers, which is the ultimate goal of radiation protection to minimize radiation exposure and is an appropriate method for the improvement of hospital working environment. Furthermore, we found that use of radiation shield not only relieves physical and psychological burden of radiation workers but also enhances job satisfaction. This result indicates that use of radiation shield is important for improvement of the radiation workers' job environment in terms of radiation protection.

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THE ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF HORSERADISH (ARMORACIA RUSTICANA) ROOT EXTRACTS AGAINST OBLIGATE ANAEROBES IN ROOT CANAL (치근관 내 편성 혐기성 세균에 대한 서양산 고추냉이 뿌리 추출물의 항균효과)

  • Lee, Won-Ju;Park, Ho-Won;Shin, Il-Sik;Lee, Ju-Hyun;Seo, Hyun-Woo
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.237-244
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    • 2009
  • When the symptom of periapical infection is not released by mechanical instrumentation. anti-microbial agents including antibiosis become necessary in order to remove microorganisms from the root canal. Since anti-microbial agents of natural origins are currently popular, more natural remedies are being sought out. As it turns out, it is well known isothiocyanates (ITCs) in horseradish root extract have anti-microbial activity from many studies. In this research, anti-microbial effects of horseradish root extract and chlorhexidine, a typical anti-microbial agent, were investigated and compared against two kinds of obligate anaerobes. Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella nigrescens, that are often discovered in infected root canal, and Clostridium perfringens, which is resistant to antibiotics and frequently used as a control strain for antibacterial studies 1. The MIC and MBC of horseradish root extract were ranged from 87 to 470 ppm and from 156 to 625 ppm against three kinds of obligate anaerobes, respectively. Horseradish root extract showed the strongest anti-bacterial activity (MBC, 156 ppm) against F. nucleatum and also showed anti-bacterial activity against antibiotic resistant obligate anaerobes. C. perfringens. 2. The MIC and MBC of chlorhexidine were ranged from 3.12 to 6.25 ppm and 10.94 ppm against three kinds of obligate anaerobes, respectively. 3. The MIC with 87-470 ppm of horseradish root exact has the same growth inhibiting effect as the one of 3.12-6.25 ppm of chlorhexidine. Likewise, the MBC with 156-625 ppm of horseradish has the similar bactericidal effect as 10.94 ppm of chlorhexidine.

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Influence of taper on the screw-in effect of nickel-titanium rotary files in simulated resin root canal (모형 레진근관에서 니켈-티타늄 전동 파일의 경사도가 screw-in effect에 미치는 영향)

  • Sung, Hye-Jin;Ha, Jung-Hong;Kim, Sung-Kyo
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.380-386
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    • 2010
  • Objectives: The introduction of nickel-titanium alloy endodontic instruments has greatly simplified shaping the root canal systems. However, these new instruments have several unexpected disadvantages. One of these is tendency to screw into the canal. In this study, the influence of taper on the screw-in effect of the Ni-Ti rotary instrument were evaluated. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 simulated root canals with an S-shaped curvature in clear resin blocks were divided into two groups. ProFile .02, .04, .06 (Dentsply-Maillefer) and GT rotary files .08, .10, .12 (Dentsply) were used in Profile group, and K3 .04, .06, .08, .10, and .12 (SybronEndo, Glendora) were used in K3 group. Files were used with a single pecking motion at a constant speed of 300 rpm. A special device was made to measure the force of screw-in effect. A dynamometer of the device recorded the screwin force during simulated canal preparation and the recorded data was stored in computer with designed software. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple range test for post-hoc test. p value of less than 0.05 was regarded significant. Results: The more tapered instruments generated more screw-in forces in Profile group (p < 0.05). In K3 group, 0.08, 0.10. and 0.12 tapered instruments showed more screw-in force than 0.04 tapered one, and 0.08 and 0.12 tapered instruments showed more screw-in force than 0.06 tapered one (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The more tapered instruments seems to produce more screw-in force. To avoid this screw-in force during instrumentation, more attention may be needed when using more tapered instruments.

Factors Affecting Sap Exudation of Juglans Mandshurica and Acer Mono : (III) Inje Region in Korea (가래나무 수액와 고로쇠나무의 출수량에 미치는 영향 인자 분석 : (III) 인제 지역)

  • Choi, Won-Sil;Choi, In-Gyu;Park, Mi-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.378-388
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to investigate the optimum condition for sap exudation of Juglans mandshurica in comparison with Acer mono Max. trees in a site of Inje-Gun, Gangwon-Do, Korea. Amount of sap exudation, air temperature, relative air humidity and tree diameter at breast height (DBH) were monitored for the period of February 1 through March 31, 2008, and correlation analysis of several factors affecting on sap exudation was carried out. Sap exudation from J. mandshurica initiated on Feb. 28 as the same time in case of A. mono and continued for a month, and enhanced in early March compared to around the middle of March for A. mono. The amount of sap of A. mono was linearly proportional to the diameter at breast height (DBH) but there was no apparent relationship for J. mandshurica. As the amount of sap exudation per tree increased then sap exudation per unit DBH was also linearly proportional in both J. mandshurica and A. mono. The amount of sap exudation per unit DBH of J. manshurica were $0.3{\pm}0.1{\ell}/cm$ on average, which was one third times of $0.9{\pm}0.1{\ell}/cm$ for A. mono. During the days of enhanced sap exudation, the atmospheric conditions such as air temperature and relative humidity around J. manshurica trees were very similar with those of A. mono. The minimum temperature was a significant factor affecting the amount of sap of J. mandshurica whereas the range of temperature was the principal factor for A. mono. In conclusion, the sap of J. mandshurica exudated in atmospheric conditions similar to A. mono, but the amount of sap was affected by different atmospheric factors compared to A. mono.

Transfer of Isolated Mitochondria to Bovine Oocytes by Microinjection (미세주입을 이용한 난자로의 분리된 미토콘드리아 전달)

  • Baek, Sang-Ki;Byun, June-Ho;Kim, Bo Gyu;Lee, A ram;Cho, Young-Soo;Kim, Ik-Sung;Seo, Gang-Mi;Chung, Se-Kyo;Lee, Joon-Hee;Woo, Dong Kyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.27 no.12
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    • pp.1445-1451
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    • 2017
  • Mitochondria play a central role in energy generation by using electron transport coupled with oxidative phosphorylation. They also participate in other important cellular functions including metabolism, apoptosis, signaling, and reactive oxygen species production. Therefore, mitochondrial dysfunction is known to contribute to a variety of human diseases. Furthermore, there are various inherited diseases of energy metabolism due to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Unfortunately, therapeutic options for these inherited mtDNA diseases are extremely limited. In this regard, mitochondrial replacement techniques are taking on increased importance in developing a clinical approach to inherited mtDNA diseases. In this study, green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged mitochondria were isolated by differential centrifugation from a mammalian cell line. Using microinjection technique, the isolated GFP-tagged mitochondria were then transferred to bovine oocytes that were triggered for early development. During the early developmental period from bovine oocytes to blastocysts, the transferred mitochondria were observed using fluorescent microscopy. The microinjected mitochondria were dispersed rapidly into the cytoplasm of oocytes and were passed down to subsequent cells of 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, morula, and blastocyst stages. Together, these results demonstrate a successful in vitro transfer of isolated mitochondria to oocytes and provide a model for mitochondrial replacement implicated in inherited mtDNA diseases and animal cloning.