• Title, Summary, Keyword: inhibitor binding

Search Result 455, Processing Time 0.047 seconds

Antioxidative Effect and Neuraminidase Inhibitory Activity of Polyphenols Isolated from a New Korean Red Waxy Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. cv. Hwanggeumchalsusu) (황금찰수수(Sorghum bicolor L. cv. Hwanggeumchalsusu) 유래 에탄올 추출물 및 폴리페놀계 화합물의 항산화 활성 및 뉴라미니데이즈 억제 효과)

  • Ra, Ji-Eun;Seo, Kyung Hye;Ko, Jee Yeon;Lee, Mi-Ja;Kang, Hyeon Jung;Kim, Sun Lim;Chung, Ill-Min;Seo, Woo Duck
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.25 no.7
    • /
    • pp.786-794
    • /
    • 2015
  • To identify nutritional and therapeutic properties of the new Korean red waxy sorghum cultivar ‘Hwanggeumchalsusu (HGC)’, we assayed the antioxidative effects and neuraminidase inhibitory activity. A methanol and 70% ethanol extract of HGC exhibited strong antioxidative effects (IC50 values of 83.2±2.7 for DPPH) and 85.6±2.4 μg/ml for ABTS) and neuraminidase (ND) inhibitory activity (IC50 values of 1.8±0.1 from extracted with methanol and 3.4±0.1 μg/ml from extracted with 70% ethanol) compared with that of the control, noncolored sorghum cultivar ‘Huinchalsusu (HC)’ (IC50> 200 μg/ml). We isolated nine polyphenols, Gallic acid (1), Protocatecuic acid (2), p-Hydroxy benzoic acid (3), Vanillic acid (4), Caffeic acid (5), Ferulic acid (6), Luteolinidin (7), Apigeninidin (8), Luteolin (9), from the HGC - methanol extract, to determine whether they were the active components Luteolinidin of one kind of polyphenols from the HGC, exhibited significant antioxidative effects (IC50 values of 10.9±0.5 μM for DPPH and 8.6 0.6 μM for ABTS) and neuraminidase (ND) inhibitory activity (IC50 values of 26.3±0.6) showed noncompetitive inhibition model. The binding affinity of the ND inhibitors in molecular docking experiments correlated with their ND inhibitory activities. These results suggest that HGC may be utilized to serve as a potential effective antioxidant and inhibitor of ND.

Analysis of Amino Acid Residues Affecting the Activity of QscR, a Quorum Sensing Receptor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (녹농균(Pseudomonas aeruginosa)의 쿼럼 센싱 수용체인 QscR의 활성에 영향을 미치는 아미노산 잔기 분석)

  • Park, Su-Jin;Kim, Soo-Kyoung;Lee, Joon-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
    • /
    • v.48 no.3
    • /
    • pp.180-186
    • /
    • 2012
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium, is an ubiquitous and opportunistic human pathogen, which expresses many virulence factors through quorum sensing (QS) regulation. QscR, one of the QS signal receptors of P. aeruginosa, has unique features that make it possible to distinguish QscR from other QS receptors. In the present study, we focused on amino acid residues responsible for such a broad signal specificity of QscR. Thus we constructed mutant QscRs: $QscR_{T72I}$, $QscR_{R132M}$, and $QscR_{T140I}$ by substituting $72^{nd}$ threonine, $132^{nd}$ arginine, and $140^{th}$ threonine residues with isoleucine, methionine, and isoleucine, respectively by site-directed mutagenesis. When we examined the activity of these mutant QscRs, $QscR_{R132M}$ failed to respond to N-3-oxododecanoyl homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL), but $QscR_{T72I}$ and $QscR_{T140I}$ remained the ability to respond to 3OC12-HSL despite much reduction of the sensitivity. When we treated a variety of acyl-HSLs with different structure, $QscR_{T72I}$ and $QscR_{T140I}$ showed better responsiveness to N-decanoyl HSL (C10-HSL) or N-dodecanoyl HSL (C12-HSL) that has no oxo-moiety at $3^{rd}$ carbon of acyl group than to 3OC12-HSL, and $QscR_{R132M}$ showed no responsiveness to any acyl-HSLs tested here. In addition, $QscR_{T72I}$ and $QscR_{T140I}$ were inhibited by 5f, a QscR inhibitor as similarly as wild type QscR was. These results suggest that while the $130^{th}$ arginine is crucial in both activity and acyl-HSL binding of QscR, the $72^{nd}$ and $140^{th}$ threonines are important in the activity, but they are little responsible for the discrimination of acyl-HSLs or competitive inhibitor.

Signal Transduction of MUC5AC Expression in Airway Mucus Hypersecretory Disease (기도의 점액 과분비 질환에서 MUC5AC의 발현의 신호 전달 경로에 관한 연구)

  • Shim, Jae Jeong
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
    • /
    • v.55 no.1
    • /
    • pp.21-30
    • /
    • 2003
  • Background : Mucin synthesis in airways has been reported to be regulated by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system. Epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation was identified as a critical element in G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)-induced mitogenic signaling. EGF receptor transactivation by G-protein-coupled receptors requires metalloproteinase cleavage of proHB-EGF. This study was hypothesized that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mucin production associates with epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation, and MUC5AC production associates with epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation by G-protein-coupled receptors that regulates by metalloproteinase. Method : MUC5AC mucin production was examined in NCI-H292 cells and MUC5AC protein synthesis was assessed using ELISA. For the evaluation of mechanism of LPS-induced MUC5AC production, $TNF{\alpha}$ was measured using ELISA with or without pretreatment of heterotrimeric G-protein inhibitor, mastoparan. MUC5AC protein was measure with pretreatment of polyclonal $TNF{\alpha}$ antibody or mastoparan on LPS-induced MUC5AC production. For the evaluation of relation of G-protein and MUC5AC production, G-protein stimulant, mastopara-7, or matrix metalloproteinase, ADAM10, was added to NCI-H292 cells. MUC5AC protein was measure with pretreatment of polyclonal EGF antibody on mastoparan-7-induced MUC5AC production. Results : LPS alone did not increase significantly MUC5AC production. LPS with $TNF{\alpha}$ induced dose-dependently MUC5AC production in NCI-H292 cells. LPS increased dose-dependently $TNF{\alpha}$ secretion, which was inhibited by mastoparan. LPS with $TNF{\alpha}$-induced MUC5AC production was inhibited by neutralizing polyclonal $TNF{\alpha}$ antibody, mastoparan or AG 1472. Mastoparan-7 or ADAM10 increased dose-dependently MUC5AC production, which was inhibited by polyclonal neutralizing EGF antibody. Conclusion : In LPS-induced MUC5AC synthesis, LPS causes $TNF{\alpha}$ secretion, which induces EGFR expression. EGFR tyrosine kinase phosphorylation result in MUC5AC production. EGF-R transactivation by G-protein-coupled receptors requires matrix metalloproteinase cleavage of proHB-EGF.

EXPRESSION OF PROTEIN KINASE C ISOFORMS IN CHEMICAL CARCINOGEN-INDUCED NEOPLASTIC TRANSFORMATION OF HUMAN EPITHELIAL CELLS (화학적 발암화에 따른 Protein Kinase C의 발현 변화)

  • Byeon, Ki-Jeong;Hong, Lak-Won;Kim, Chin-Soo
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
    • /
    • v.23 no.4
    • /
    • pp.295-305
    • /
    • 2001
  • Protein kinase C (PKC) is known to play a pivotal role in neoplastic transformation cells and its high expression is often found in a variety of types of tumors including oral cancer. While PKC is associated with the altered signal transduction pathway of the tumor cells, it is still unclear which isoform is involved in the carcinogenesis process. Since the cellular distributions and the roles of PKC are isoform-specific, it is very important to identify the specific target molecules to improve our understanding of the carcinogenesis processes. Thus, the present study attempted to perform chemical carcinogen-induced neoplastic transformation of human epithelial cells and analyze the specific isoform of PKCs involved in the cellular transformation. The study analyzed overall PKC responses upon MNNG(N-Methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitroso guanidine) exposure with [$^3H$] PDBu binding assay. PKC translocation was observed at high doses of MNNG treatment in the presence of extracellular calcium. Such effects were not observed in the absence of extracellular calcium. Translocational effects with exposure of MNNG was further enhanced in the presence of hydrocortisone. The result suggests that the type of PKC involved may be $Ca^{2+}$-dependent classical isoform and steroid hormone enhances PKC activation. Among cPKC isoforms examined, only $PKC-{\alpha}$ and r showed significant translocation of protein levels from cytosolic fraction to membrane fraction, as analyzed by immunoblot. $PKC-{\varepsilon}$ in nPKC class showed an inch·eased translocation, but other forms in this class did not show the effect. None of isoforms in aPKC class was affected by MNNG treatment. The study demonstrated that there was a certain specificity in the patterns of isoform induction follwong chemical carcinogen exposure and helped identify all the types of PKC isoforms expressed in human epithelial cells. It was revealed that PKC isoforms were activated in an early resonse to chemical carcinogen, suggesting that PKC be associated with carcinogenesis process from an early stage in this particular cell system. The study will contribute to improving our understanding of chemical-induced carcinogenesis in human cells and may provide a scientific basis to introduce the specific PKC inhibitors as an anticancer drug of epithelial cell-origin cancers including oral cancer.

  • PDF

Trans-10, cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Modulates Nuclear Factor-${\kappa}B$ p65 Activity on the Production of Tumor Necrosis Factor-${\alpha}$ in Porcine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (돼지 말초혈액 단핵구세포에서 trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid의 TNF-${\alpha}$ 생산에 대한 nuclear factor-${\kappa}B$ p65 활성 조절 효과)

  • Kim, Young-Beum;Lee, Ill-Woo;Kang, Ji-Houn;Yang, Mban-Pyo
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
    • /
    • v.28 no.2
    • /
    • pp.190-195
    • /
    • 2011
  • Nuclear factor ${\kappa}B$ (NF-${\kappa}B$) is a nuclear transcription factor that modulates the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-${\alpha}$. trans-10, cis-12 (t10c12)-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) participates in the inhibition of TNF-${\alpha}$ production upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulation. However, in our previous study, t10c12-CLA enhanced the production of TNF-${\alpha}$ by LPS-unstimulated porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro. To resolve this apparent contradiction, we hypothesized that the effect of t10c12-CLA on TNF-${\alpha}$ production depends on NF-${\kappa}B$ activation induced by LPS stimulation. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the in vitro effect of t10c12-CLA on TNF-${\alpha}$ production and NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 activity in LPS-stimulated and LPS-unstimulated porcine PBMCs. t10c12-CLA treatment resulted in increased TNF-${\alpha}$ production by LPS-unstimulated PBMCs but decreased TNF-${\alpha}$ production by LPS-stimulated PBMCs. t10c12-CLA increased the degradation of inhibitory ${\kappa}B$ ($I{\kappa}B$)-${\alpha}$ protein and activated NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 in LPS-unstimulated PBMCs, but had the opposite effect in LPS-stimulated PBMCs. Notably, t10c12-CLA enhanced NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 binding activity in LPS-unstimulated PBMCs exposed to caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a NF-${\kappa}B$ inhibitor. Conversely, it inhibited NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 binding activity in LPS-stimulated PBMCs exposed to CAPE. These results suggest that t10c12-CLA may have different actions under different physiological conditions, and that its effect may be associated with a change in NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 activity.

Transcriptome Analyses for the Anti-Adipogenic Mechanism of an Herbal Composition (생약복합물의 지방세포형성억제 기전규명을 위한 전사체 분석)

  • Lee, Hae-Yong;Kang, Ryun-Hwa;Bae, Sung-Min;Chae, Soo-Ahn;Lee, Jung-Ju;Oh, Dong-Jin;Park, Suk-Won;Cho, Soo-Hyun;Shim, Yae-Jie;Yoon, Yoo-Sik
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.20 no.7
    • /
    • pp.1054-1065
    • /
    • 2010
  • SH21B is a natural composition composed of seven herbs: Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Prunus armeniaca Maxim, Ephedra sinica Stapf, Acorus gramineus Soland, Typha orientalis Presl, Polygala tenuifolia Willd and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner (Ratio 3:3:3:3:3:2:2). In our previous study, we reported that SH21B inhibited adipogenesis and fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells through modulation of various regulators in the adipogenesis pathway. The aim of this study was to analyze the transcriptome profiles for the anti-adipogenic effects of SH21B in 3T3-L1 cells. Total RNAs from SH21B-treated 3T3-L1 cells were reverse-transcribed into cDNAs and hybridized to Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.0 ST array. From microarray analyses, we identified 2,568 genes of which expressions were changed more than two-fold by SH21B, and the clustering analyses of these genes resulted in 9 clusters. Three clusters among the 9 showed down-regulation by SH21B (cluster 4, cluster 6 and cluster 9), and two clusters showed up-regulation by SH21B (cluster 7 and cluster 8) during the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. It was found that many genes related to cell proliferation and adipogenesis were included in these clusters. Clusters 4, 6 and 9 included genes which were related with adipogenesis induction and cell cycle arrest. Clusters 7 and 8 included genes related to cell proliferation as well as adipogenesis inhibition. These results suggest that the mechanisms of the anti-adipogenic effects of SH21B may be the modulation of genes involved in cell proliferation and adipogenesis.

A study of the lipoprotein lipase inhibitory mechanism of Poncirus trifoliata water extracts (탱자 (Poncirus trifoliata)의 lipoprotein lipase 억제메커니즘)

  • Lee, Sung Mee;Kang, Yun Hwan;Kim, Kyoung Kon;Kim, Tae Woo;Choe, Myeon
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.48 no.1
    • /
    • pp.9-18
    • /
    • 2015
  • Purpose: Poncirus trifoliata has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune activities. However, its anti-obesity activity and the mechanism by which the water extract of dried, immature fruit of Poncirus trifoliata (PF-W) acts are not clear. This study suggests a potential mechanism associated with the anti-obesity activity of PF-W. Methods: We measured the effect of PF-W on lipoprotein lipase (LPL) regulation using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an activity assay. The LPL regulation mechanism was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to measure the mRNA expression of biomarkers related to protein transport and by western blot for analysis of the protein expression of the transcription factor CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein ($C/EBP{\beta}$). Results: The total polyphenol and flavonoid content of PF-W was $52.15{\pm}4.02$ and $6.56{\pm}0.47mg/g$, respectively. PF-W treatment decreased LPL content in media to $58{\pm}5%$ of that in control adipocyte media, and increased LPL content to $117{\pm}3.5%$ of that in control adipocytes, but did not affect the mRNA expression of LPL. PF-W also increased the mRNA expression of sortilin-related receptor (SorLA), a receptor that induces endocytosis and intracellular trafficking of LPL, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Finally, cell fractionation revealed that PF-W treatment induced the expression of $C/EBP{\beta}$, a SorLA transcription factor, in the nuclei of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Conclusion: The LPL secretion and activity assay showed PF-W to be an LPL secretion inhibitor, and these results suggest the potential mechanism of PF-W involving inhibition of LPL secretion through $C/EBP{\beta}$-mediated induction of SorLA expression.

Expression of TIMP1, TIMP2 Genes by Ionizing Radiation (이온화 방사선에 의한 TIMP1, TIMP2 유전자 발현 측정)

  • Park Kun-Koo;Jin Jung Sun;Park Ki Yong;Lee Yun Hee;Kim Sang Yoon;Noh Young Ju;Ahn Seung Do;Kim Jong Hoon;Choi Eun Kyung;Chang Hyesook
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
    • /
    • v.19 no.2
    • /
    • pp.171-180
    • /
    • 2001
  • Purpose : Expression of TIMP, intrinsic inhibitor of MMP, is regulated by signal transduction in response to genotoxins and is likely to be an important step in metastasis, angiogenesis and wound healing after ionizing radiation. Therefore, we studied radiation mediated TIMP expression and its mechanism in head and neck cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods : Human head and neck cancer cell lines established at Asan Medical Center were used and radiosensitivity $(D_0)$, radiation cytotoxicity and metastatic potential were measured by clonogenic assay, n assay and invasion assay, respectively. The conditioned medium was prepared at 24 hours and 48 hours after 2 Gy and 10 Gy irradiation and expression of TIMP protein was measured by Elisa assay with specific antibodies against human TIMP. hTIMP1 promoter region was cloned and TIMP1 luciferase reporter vector was constructed. The reporter vector was transfected to AMC-HN-1 and -HN-9 cells with or without expression vector Ras, then the cells were exposed to radiation or PMA, PKC activator. EMSA was peformed with oligonucleotide (-59/-53 element and SP1) of TIMP1 promoter. Results : $D_0$ of HN-1, -2, -3, -5 and -9 cell lines were 1.55 Gy, 1.8 Gy, 1.5 Gt, 1.55 Gy and 2.45 Gy respectively. n assay confirmed cell viability, over $94\%$ at 24hrs, 48hrs after 2 Gy irradiation and over 73% after 10 Gy irradiation. Elisa assay confirmed that cells secreted TIMP1, 2 proteins continuously. After 2 Gy irradiation, TIMP2 secretion was decreased at 24hrs in HN-1 and HN-9 cell lines but after 10 Gy irradiation, it was increased in all cell lines. At 48hrs after irradiation, it was increased in HN-1 but decreased in HN-9 cells. But the change in TIMP secretion by RT was mild. The transcription of TIMP1 gene in HN-1 was induced by PMA but in HN-9 cell lines, it was suppressed. Wild type Ras induced the TIMP-1 transcription by 20 fold and 4 fold in HN-1 and HN-9 respectively. The binding activity to -59/-53, AP1 motif was increased by RT, but not to SP1 motif in both cell lines. Conclusions : We observed the difference of expression and activity of TIMPs between radiosensitive and radioresistant cell line and the different signal transduction pathway between in these cell lines may contribute the different radiosensitivity. Further research to investigate the radiation response and its signal pathway of TIMPs is needed.

  • PDF

NF-${\kappa}B$ Activation and cIAP Expression in Radiation-induced Cell Death of A549 Lung Cancer Cells (A549 폐암세포주의 방사선-유도성 세포사에서 NF-${\kappa}B$ 활성화 및 cIAP 발현)

  • Lee, Kye Young;Kwak, Shang-June
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
    • /
    • v.55 no.5
    • /
    • pp.488-498
    • /
    • 2003
  • Background : Activation of the transcription factor NF-${\kappa}B$ has been shown to protect cells from tumor necrosis factor-alpha, chemotherapy, and radiation-induced apoptosis. NF-${\kappa}B$-dependent cIAP expression is a major antiapoptotic mechanism for that. NF-${\kappa}B$ activation and cIAP expression in A549 lung cancer cells which is relatively resistant to radiation-induced cell death were investigated for the mechanism of radioresistance. Materials and methods : We used A549 lung cancer cells and Clinac 1800C linear accelerator for radiation. Cell viability test was done by MTT assay. NF-${\kappa}B$ activation was tested by luciferase reporter gene assay, Western blot for $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation, and electromobility shift assay. For blocking ${\kappa}B$, MG132 and transfection of $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$-superrepressor plasmid construct were used. cIAP expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and cIAP2 promoter activity was performed using luciferase assay system. Results : MTT assay showed that cytotoxicity even 48 hr after radiation in A549 cells were less than 20%. Luciferas assay demonstrated weak NF-${\kappa}B$ activation of $1.6{\pm}0.2$ fold compared to PMA-induced $3.4{\pm}0.9$ fold. Radiation-induced $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation was observed in Western blot and NF-${\kappa}B$ DNA binding was confirmed by EMSA. However, blocking NF-${\kappa}B$ using MG132 and $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$-superrepressor transfection did not show any sensitizing effect for radiation-induced cell death. The result of RT-PCR for cIAP1 & 2 expression was negative induction while TNF-${\alpha}$ showed strong expression for cIAP1 & 2. The cIAP2 promoter activity also did not show any change compared to positive control with TNF-${\alpha}$. Conclusion : We conclude that activation of NF-${\kappa}B$ does not determine the intrinsic radiosensitivity of cancer cells, at least for the cell lines tested in this study.

Crop Injury (Growth Inhibition) Induced by Herbicides and Remedy to Reduce It (제초제(除草劑) 약해발생(藥害發生) 양상(樣相)과 경감대책(輕減對策))

  • Kim, K.U.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
    • /
    • v.12 no.3
    • /
    • pp.261-270
    • /
    • 1992
  • Many herbicides that are applied at the soil before weed emergence inhibit plant growth soon after weed germination occurs. Plant growth has been known as an irreversible increase in size as a result of the processes of cell divison and cell enlargement. Herbicides can influence primary growth in which most new plant tissues emerges from meristmatic region by affecting either or both of these processes. Herbicides which have sites of action during interphase($G_1$, S, $G_2$) of cell cycle and cause a subsequent reduction in the observed frequency of mitotic figures can be classified as an inhibitor of mitotic entry. Those herbicides that affect the mitotic sequence(mitosis) by influencing the development of the spindle apparatus or by influencing new cell plate formation should be classified as causing disruption of the mitotic sequence. Sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, chloroacetamides and some others inhibit plant growth by inhibiting the entry of cell into mitosis. The carbamate herbicides asulam, carbetamide, chlorpropham and propham etc. reported to disrupt the mitotic sequence, especially affecting on spindle function, and the dinitroaniline herbicides trifluralin, nitralin, pendimethalin, dinitramine and oryzalin etc. reported to disrupt the mitotic sequence, particularly causing disappearence of microtubles from treated cells due to inhibition of polymerization process. An inhibition of cell enlargement can be made by membrane demage, metabolic changes within cells, or changes in processes necessary for cell yielding. Several herbicides such as diallate, triallate, alachlor, metolachlor and EPTC etc. reported to inhibit cell enlargement, while 2, 4-D has been known to disrupt cell enlargement. One potential danger inherent in the use of soil acting herbicides is that build-up of residues could occur from year to year. In practice, the sort of build-up that would be disastrous is unikely to occur for substances applied at the correct soil concentration. Crop injury caused by soil applied herbicides can be minimized by (1) following the guidance of safe use of herbicides, particularly correct dose at correct time in right crop, (2) by use of safeners which protect crops against injury without protecting any weed ; interactions between herbicides and safeners(antagonists) at target sites do occur probably from the following mechanisms (1) competition for binding site, (2) circumvention of the target site, and (3) compensation of target site, and another mechanism of safener action can be explained by enhancement of glutathione and glutathione related enzyme activity as shown in the protection of rice from pretilachlor injury by safener fenclorim, (3) development of herbicide resistant crops ; development of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes can be explained by either gene pool theory or selection theory which are two most accepted explanations, and on this basis it is likely to develop herbicide-resistant crops of commercial use. Carry-over problems do occur following repeated use of the same herbicide in an extended period of monocropping, and by errors in initial application which lead to accidental and irregular overdosing, and by climatic influence on rates of loss. These problems are usually related to the marked sensitivity of the particular crops to the specific herbicide residues, e.g. wheat/pronamide, barley/napropamid, sugarbeet/ chlorsulfuron, quinclorac/tomato. Relatively-short-residual product, succeeding culture of insensitive crop to specific herbicide, and greater reliance on postemergence herbicide treatments should be alternatives for farmer practices to prevent these problems.

  • PDF