• Title, Summary, Keyword: inflammatory mediators

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Role of PI3K/Akt Pathway in the Activation of IκB/NF-κB Pathway in Lung Epithelial Cells (폐 상피세포에서 PI3K/Akt 경로가 IκB/NF-κB 경로의 활성화에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang-Min;Kim, Yoon Kyung;Hwang, Yoon-Ha;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Lee, Hee-Seok;Lee, Choon-Taek;Kim, Young Whan;Han, Sung Koo;Shim, Young-Soo;Yoo, Chul-Gyu
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.54 no.5
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    • pp.551-562
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    • 2003
  • Background : NF-${\kappa}B$ is a characteristic transcriptional factor which has been shown to regulate production of acute inflammatory mediators and to be involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory lung diseases. There has been some evidence that PI3K/Akt pathway could activate NF-${\kappa}B$ in human cell lines. However, the effect of PI3K/Akt pathway on the activation of NF-${\kappa}B$ varied depending on the cell lines used in the experiments. In this study we evaluated the effect of PI3K/Akt pathway on the activation of NF-${\kappa}B$ in human respiratory epithelial cell lines. Methods : BEAS-2B, A549 and NCI-H157 cell lines were used in this experiment. To evaluate the activation of Akt activation and I${\kappa}B$ degradation, cells were analysed by western blot assay using phospho-specific Akt Ab and $I{\kappa}B$ Ab. To block PI3K/Akt pathway, cells were pretreated with wortmannin or LY294002 and transfected with dominant negative Akt (DN-Akt). For IKK activity, immune complex kinase assay was performed. To evaluate the DNA binding affinity and transcriptional activity of NF-${\kappa}B$, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and luciferase assay were performed, respectively. Results : In BEAS-2B, A549 and NCI-H157 cell lines, Akt was activated by TNF-$\alpha$ and insulin. Activation of Akt by insulin did not induce $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation. Blocking of PI3K/Akt pathway via wortmannin/LY294002 or DN-Akt did not inhibit TNF-$\alpha$-induced $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation or IKK activation. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt did not affect TNF-$\alpha$-induced NF-${\kappa}B$ activation. Overexpression of DN-Akt did not block TNF-$\alpha$-induced transcriptional activation of NF-${\kappa}B$, but wortmannin enhanced TNF-$\alpha$-induced in NF-${\kappa}B$ transcriptional activity. Conclusion : PI3K/Akt was not involved in TNF-$\alpha$-induced $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation or transcriptional activity of NF-${\kappa}B$ in human respiratory epithelial cell lines.

The Lung Expression of Proinflammatory Cytokines, TNF-$\alpha$ and Interleukin 6, in Early Periods of Endotoxemia (내독소혈증 유발 급성폐손상에서 폐장내 Proinflammatory Cytokines 발현에 관한 고찰)

  • Moon, Seung-Hyug;Kim, Yong-Hoon;Park, Choon-Sik;Lee, Shin-Je
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.553-564
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    • 1998
  • Background: The immediate hoot response to LPS is the production of proinflammatory cytokines that act as intercellular mediators in inflammatory reactions, including acute lung injury. These "early response" cytokines transmit signals from recognition cells to target or effector cells. This host response is further amplified by the expression of leukocyte chemoattractants, growth factors, and adhesion molecules, resulting in an array of proinflammatory events. This experiment was performed to define the lung origin of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-$\alpha$, IL 6 in early periods of endotoxin induced acute lung injury (ALI). Method: The healthy male Sprague-Dawley, weighted 150 - 250g, were divided into saline control (NC) and endotoxemia-induced ALI (ETX-), and leukopenic endotoxemia-induced ALI (CPA-ETX-Group) which was induced by cyclophosphamide, 70 mg/kg i.p. injection. Acute lung injury was evoked by LPS, 5 mg/kg, intravenously administered. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed at 0, 3, 6 h after LPS-treated to estimate the influx of phagocytes and concentration of total protein, and cytokines as TNF-$\alpha$ and IL 6 by a bioassy using MIT method. We also examined the localization of TNF-$\alpha$ and IL 6 protein in endotoxemia-challenged lung tissue by immunohistochemical stain (IH). Results: The total cell, macrophage and PMN count in BALF were elavated in ETX group compared to NC(p<0.05). In CPA-ETX group, total cell and macrophage count in BALF were not changed compared to NC. but PMN count was markedly reduced and it took part in less than 0.1 % of total BAL cells (p<0.01). The protein concentration in BALF were significantly increased in ETX and CPA-ETX group Compared to NC (p<0.05), but there was significant difference between ETX- and CPA-ETX group only at 6 h (p<0.05). This observation suggested that even if PMNs are involved in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury, their role cannot be viewed as essential The concentration of TNF-$\alpha$ and IL 6 in BALF was significantly increased in the ETX- and CPA-ETX group compared to NC. There was no difference between ETX- and CPA-ETX group. In IH, anti-TNF-$\alpha$- and anti-IL 6 antibody was strongly localized at interstitial monocytes and alveolar macrophages in endotoxemia-challenged lung tissue. From above point of view, activated alveolar macrophage/monocyte considered as a prominent source of proinflammatory cytokines in endotoxemia-challenged lung injury. Conclusion: The prominent source of proinflammatory cytokines in early periods of endotoxemia-induced lung injury will be the activated resident macrophages like an alveolar macrophage and interstitial monocytes. The pulmonary macrophage/monocyte will impact the initiation and continuance of lung injury without PMNs's certain inflammatory role, particularly in endotoxemia-induced acute lung injury.

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The Levels of Interferon-gamma, Interleukin-2 Receptor, Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-10 in the Patients with Malignant Pleural Effusion, Tuberculosis Effusion, Parapneumonic Effusion, and Lung Emphysema? (악성 흉수, 결핵성 흉수 및 부폐렴 삼출액과 농흉에서 Interferon-gamma, Interleukin-2 Receptor, Interleukin-6, Interleukin-10 농도의 비교)

  • Kim, Myung-Hoon;Kim, Seung-Joon;Park, Yong-Keun;Kim, Seok-Chan;Lee, Sook-Young;Kim, Young-Kyoon;Kim, Kwan-Hyoung;Moon, Hwa-Sik;Song, Jeong-Sup;Park, Sung-Hak
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.568-575
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    • 2000
  • Background : Cytokines are chemical mediators that control and modulate many inflammatory processes. They work in different fashions in a variety of diseases. Discriminating between malignant effusion, tuberculous effusion, and parapneumonic effusion are crucial from the clinical view-point in Korea. In the current study, interferon-gamma (IFN-${\gamma}$), soluble interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured for this purpose. Methods : Pleural fluids from patients with malignant disease, tuberculosis, parapneumonic effusion and lung empysema were collected and gauged using commercial ELISA kits. Results : 34 patients were enrolled in this study. Among these 15 cases were malignant effusions, 12 were tuberculosis pleurisy and 7 were parapneumonic effusion and lung empyema. The levels of cytokines measured in this study were as follows, in order of frequency, malignant effusion, tuberculous effusion, parapneumonic effusion and lung empyema. The levels of INF-${\gamma}$ were higher in tuberculous effusion than in malignant or parapneumonic effusion ($295.5{\pm}585.5$ vs. $16.7{\pm}50$ vs. $10.0{\pm}0$ pg/ml, p>0.05). The levels of IL-2R were higher in tuberculous effusion than in malignant or parapneumoruc effusion ($7423.5{\pm}3752.8$ vs. $3247.4{\pm}1713.3$ vs. $3790.2{\pm}3201.1$ pg/ml, p<0.05). No significant differences were found in the levels of IL-6 between the groups ($600{\pm}12.8$ pg/ml in malignant effusion, $556.4{\pm}161.7$ pg/ml in tuberculous effusion, $514.4{\pm}224.8$ pg/ml in parapneumoruc effusion). IL-10 levels were higher in parapneumoruc effusion than in malignant or tuberculous effusions ($98.4{\pm}141.7$ vs. $28.2{\pm}55.5$ vs. $11.3{\pm}11.7$ pg/ml, p<0.05). Conclusion : These results suggest that the measurement of IL-2R levels in pleural fluids may be a useful means of differentiating between tuberculous effusion and pleural effusions of other origins, and that the measurement of IL-10 levels in pleural fluids may be useful to differentiate between parapneumonic effusion and pleural effusions of other origins.

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A Clinical Study of Hypersensitive rhinitis including Allergic rhinitis (알레르기성 비염을 포함하는 과민성 비염 환자에 관한 임상적 연구)

  • Choi, In-Hwa
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.169-182
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    • 2002
  • Background: Allergic rhinitis(AR) is a heterogeneous disorder that despite its high prevalence is often undiagnosed. It is characterized by one or more symptoms including sneezing, itching, nasal congestion, and rhinorrhea. And it is frequently accompanied by symptoms involving the eyes, ears, and throat, including postnasal drainage. There are many different causes of rhinitis in children and adults. Approximately 50$\%$ of all cases of rhinitis are caused by allergy. In the case of rhinitis caused by allergens, symptoms arise as a result of inflammation induced by a gamma globulin E-mediated immune response to specific allergens such as pollens, molds, animal dander, and dust mites. The immune response involves the release of inflammatory mediators and the activation and recruitment of cells to the nasal mucosa. AR is similar to 鼻?, hypersensitive rhinitis in Oriental Medicine. I think hypersensitive rhinitis is including of AR, vasomotor rhinitis and non-allergic rhinitis related with eosinophil increased and so on. Purpose: To perform a clinical analysis of hypersensitive rhinitis including allergic rhinitis and estimate the efficacy of Oriental Medical treatment. Objective: We studied 96 patients who had visited our hospital with complaints of nasal symptoms from March 2000 to February 2002; they had the signs more than 2 - nasal obstruction, watery discharge, sneezing and eye or nasal itching. Parameters Observed & Methods: We treated them with acupuncture & herb-medication. Sometime they used aroma oil or external medicine. 1) the distribution of sex & age groups 2) the clinical type based on duration & the severity of symptom 3) the breakdown of complication & pasl history of Otolaryngologic or allergic disease 4) the clinical assessment and classification of rhinitis(sneezers and runners & blockers) 5) the associated symptoms and signs 6) the classification of Byeonjeung 7) the classification of prescriptions and 8) the efficacy of treatment. Result: 1. In the clinical type of based on duration, the intermittent type was 42.7$\%$ and the persistent was 57.3$\%$. 2. We observed the severity of symptoms based on the quality of life. The mild type was 24.0$\%$ and the moderate-severe was 76.0$\%$. 3. In the clinical assessment and classification of rhinitis, the sneezers and runners type was 69.8$\%$ and the blockers was 30.2$\%$. 4. The most common family history with otolaryngologic or allergic disease were allergic rhinitis(17.7$\%$), urticaria, paranasal sinusitis and T.B.(3.1$\%$). 5. The most common past history with otolaryngologic or allergic disease were paranasal sinusitis(14.6$\%$), atopic dermatitis and asthma(8.3$\%$). It was 31.3$\%$ they had a family history and 44.8$\%$, past history. 6. The most common complication was paranasal sinusitis(15.6$\%$). In decreasing order the others were otitis media with effusion(9.4$\%$), GERD and headache(6.3$\%$), asthma, bronchitis, nasal bleeding and allergic dermatitis(5.2$\%$). 7. Classification through Byeonjeung : ⅰ) 39 cases(34.9$\%$) were classified as showing Deficiency syndrome. The insuffficiency of Qi was 17.7$\%$, deficiency of Kidney-Yang, 12.5$\%$ and Lung-Cold, 10.4$\%$. ⅱ) 57 cases(59.4$\%$) were classified as showing Excess syndrome. The Fever of YangMing-meridian was 35.4$\%$, Lung-Fever, 24.0$\%$. 8. The efficacy of treatments showed: an improvement in 22cases(22.9$\%$); an improvement partly in 24 cases(25.0$\%$); no real improvement or changes in 16 cases(16.7$\%$); and couldn't check the results 18cases(18.6$\%$). Conclusion: We suggest that this study could be utilized as a standard of clinical Oriental Medical treatment when we treat hypersensitive rhinitis including allergic rhinitis.

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The Role of Pulmonary Capillary Pressure in the Oxygen Free Radical-Induced Acute Lung Injury (산소기에 의한 급성 폐손상에서 폐모세혈관압의 역할에 관한 연구)

  • Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Kim, Young-Whan;Han, Sung-Koo;Shim, Young-Soo;Kim, Keun-Youl;Han, Yong-Chol
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.474-483
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    • 1992
  • Background: Regardless of its causes, acute lung injury is characterized pathophysiologically by increased pulmonary arterial pressure and the protein-rich edema. Many inflammatory mediators are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury, including oxygen free radicals (OFR). But the changes in pulmonary capillary pressure in the OFR-induced acute lung injury is not clear. While the pulmonary edema characterized by the movement of fluid and solutes is dependent on the pressure gradient and the alveolar-capillary permeability, the role of pulmonary capillary pressure in the development of pulmonary edema is also not well understood. Method: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: normal control (n=5), xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO)-treated group (n=7), catalase-pretreated group (n=5), papaverine-pretreated group (n=7), and indomethacin-pretreated group (n=5). In isolated perfused rat lungs, the sequential changes in pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary capillary pressure by double occlusion method, and lung weight as a parameter of pulmonary edema were determined. Results: Pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary capillary pressure were increased by X/XO. This increase was significantly attenuated by catalase and papaverine, but indomethacin did not prevent the X/XO-induced increase. Lung weight gain was also observed by X/XO perfusion. It was prevented by catalase. Papaverine did not completely block the increase, but significantly delayed the onset. Indomethacin had no effect on the increase in lung weight. Conclusion: These data suggest that increased pulmonary capillary pressure by OFR may aggravate pulmonary edema in the presence of increased alveolar-capillary permeability and this may not be mediated by cyclooxygenase metabolites.

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Inhibitory Effects of Anthocyanins Isolated from Black Soybean (Glycine max L.) Seed Coat on Degranulation and Cytokine Generation in RBL-2H3 Cells (검정콩 껍질 유래 안토시아닌의 RBL-2H3 세포에서 탈과립화와 사이토카인 생성 저해 효과)

  • Chung, Mi-Ja;Ha, Tae-Joung;Choi, Ha-Na;Lee, Ji-Sun;Park, Yong-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.12
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    • pp.1662-1667
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    • 2011
  • Anthocyanins belong to a group of flavonoid compounds and are well known for their various health beneficial effects, which include antioxidative activities. Among them, the major anthocyanins isolated from seed coat of black soybean (Glycine max L.) were previously characterized as glycosides containing glucopyranose. Asthma is an allergic disease that is strongly associated with various immune cells, including basophils and mast cells. Eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells play important roles in allergic asthma through the release of inflammatory mediators such as asthma-specific T-helper 2 (Th2) cytokines and subsequent amplification of asthma symptoms via degranulation. Rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells are the most common in vitro models for evaluating allergic reactions. In this study, we examined the effects of anthocyanin from seed coat of black soybean on antigen-stimulated degranulation and Th2 cytokine production in RBL-2H3 cells. Cell degranulation was evaluated by measuring the release of ${\beta}$-hexosaminidase. ${\beta}$-Hexosaminidase release and Th2 cytokine production in RBL-2H3 cells was much higher upon stimulation with IgE-antigen complex than those in untreated control cells. Anthocyanins significantly suppressed IgE-antigen complex-induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and inhibited IgE-antigen complex-mediated interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor ${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$) production in RBL-2H3 cells. These findings suggest that anthocyanins from seed coat of black soybean effectively inhibit allergic reactions and may have beneficial effects against allergic asthma.

Dysfunction of Autonomic Nervous System in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (만성 폐쇄성 폐질환 환자의 자율신경 장애)

  • Shin, Kyeong-Cheol;Lee, Kwan-Ho;Park, Hye-Jung;Shin, Chang-Jin;Lee, Choong-Ki;Chung, Jin-Hong;Lee, Hyun-Woo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.317-326
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    • 1999
  • Background: Neural control of airway function is through parasympathetic, sympathetic and non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic mechanisms. The autonomic nervous system controls the airway smooth muscle tone, mucociliary system, permeability and blood flow in the bronchial circulation and release of mediators from the mast cells and other inflammatory cells. The cardiovascular and respiratory autonomic efferent fibers have a common central origin, so altered cardiovascular autonomic reflexes could reflect the altered respiratory autonomic status. Therefore, we performed this study to assess the autonomic abnormality and determine the correlating factors of severity of autonomic neuropathy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) using easily reproducible cardiovascular autonomic reflex function test. Method: The study included 20 patients with COPD and 20 healthy persons obtained on Health Promotion Center in Yeungnam university hospital. All the patients had history and clinical features of COPD as defined by the American Thoracic Society. Any patients with myocardial ischemia, cardiac arrythmia, hypertension, central or peripheral nervous system disease, diabetes mellitus, or any other diseases known to produce autonomic neuropathy, has excluded. The autonomic nervous system function tests included three tests evaluating the parasympathetic system and two tests evaluating the sympathetic system. And also all subjects were subjected to pulmonary function test and arterial blood gas analysis. Results: Autonomic dysfunction was more commonly associated with patients with COPD than healthy person The parasympathetic dysfunction was frequent in patient with COPD, but sympathetic dysfunction seemed preserved. The severity of parasympathetic dysfunction in patients with COPD was correlated with the degree of duration of disease, smoking, reductions in the value of $FEV_1$ and FVC, and arterial hypoxemia but no such correlation existed for age, type of COPD, $FEV_1$/FVC, or $PaCO_s$. Conclusion: There is high frequency of parasympathetic dysfunction associated with COPD and the parasympathetic abnormality in COPD is increased in proportion to severity of airway disease. In COPD, parasympathetic dysfunction probably does not the cause of disease, but it may be an effect of disease progression.

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The Effects of Bee Venom and Melittin Solution on PGE2, COX-2, and NF-kB Dependent Luciferase Activity in RAW 264.7 Cells (봉약침액(蜂藥鍼液)과 Melittin 약침액(藥鍼液)이 RAW 264.7 세포의 PGE2, COX-2 및 NF-kB에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Jeong, Il-kook;Song, Ho-sueb
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.19-36
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    • 2004
  • Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Bee Venom and Melittin Solution on the lipopolysaccharide(LPS) and sodium nitroprusside(SNP)-induced expression of prostaglandin $E_2(PGE_2)$, cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2), nuclear factor kappa B($NF-{\kappa}B$) and nuclear factor kappa B($NF-{\kappa}B$) dependent luciferase activity in RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line. Methods : The expression of PGE2 was determined by determination of $PEG_2$, COX-2 was by western blotting with corresponding antibodies, $NF-{\kappa}B$ was by gel mobility shift assay method and $NF-{\kappa}B$ dependent luciferase activity was investigated by luciferase assay in RAW 264.7 cells. Results : 1. LPS and SNP-induced expression of $PEG_2$ was significant after 24hour. 2. The 0.5, 1 and $5{\mu}g/mL$ of bee venom and the 5 and $10{\mu}g/mL$ of melittin solution inhibited significantly LPS-induced expression of $PEG_2$ and, the $5{\mu}g/mL$ of bee venom and the 5 and $10{\mu}g/mL$ of melittin solution inhibited significantly SNP-induced expression of $PEG_2$ compared with control, respectively. The 0.5 and $1{\mu}g/mL$ of bee venom could not significantly inhibit SNP-induced expression of $PEG_2$ compared with control. 3. The $5{\mu}g/mL$ of bee venom and the 5 and $10{\mu}g/mL$ of melittin solution inhibited significantly LPS and SNP-induced expression of COX-2 compared with control, respectively. The 0.5 and $1{\mu}g/mL$ of bee venom inclined to decrease LPS and SNP-induced expression of COX-2 compared with control. 4. The 0.5, 1 and $5{\mu}g/mL$ of bee venom and the 5 and $10{\mu}g/mL$ of melittin solution inhibited significantly LPS and SNP-induced expression of $NF-{\kappa}B$ compared with control, respectively. 5. The 0.5, 1 and $5{\mu}g/mL$ of bee venom and the 5 and $10{\mu}g/mL$ of melittin solution inhibited significantly LPS-induced expression of $NF-{\kappa}B$ dependent luciferase activity and the 1 and $5{\mu}g/mL$ of bee venom and the 5 and $10{\mu}g/mL$ of melittin solution inhibited significantly SNP-induced expression of $NF-{\kappa}B$ dependent luciferase activity compared with control, respectively. The $NF-{\kappa}B$ inhibitor also inhibited significantly LPS and SNP-induced expression of $NF-{\kappa}B$ dependent luciferase activity compared with control. 6. The 0.5, 1 and $5{\mu}g/mL$ of bee venom and the 5 and $10{\mu}g/mL$ of melittin solution inhibited significantly LPS + IFN-${\gamma}$, TNF-${\alpha}$ and LPS + TNF-${\alpha}$-induced expression of $NF-{\kappa}B$ dependent luciferase activity compared with control, respectively. The $NF-{\kappa}B$ inhibitor also inhibited significantly LPS and SNP-induced expression of $NF-{\kappa}B$ dependent luciferase activity compared with control. Conclusions : These results suggest the inhibitory action of bee venom and melittin solution on the inflammatory mediators such as $PEG_2$, COX-2 and $NF-{\kappa}B$.

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Association of Leukotriene C4 Synthase Gene Polymorphism with Clinical Response to Montelukast in Childhood Asthma (소아 천식환자에서 Leukotriene C4 Synthase 유전자 다형태와 Montelukast의 임상적 효과와의 연관성)

  • Shin, Kyung Sue;Kim, Youn Woo
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.7
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    • pp.766-771
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : Cysteinyl leukotrienes are important inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of asthma; therefore interruption of cysteinyl leukotrienes by leukotriene receptor antagonists improves clinical symptoms in the management of patients with mild to moderate asthma. We evaluated whether clinical response to montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, in childhood asthma was predicted by genotypes of leukotriene $C_4$ synthase($LTC_4S$) promoter gene polymorphism. Methods : An 8-week prospective, open trial of montelukast was carried out in 161 children with mild to moderate asthma. Genotyping of $LTC_4S$ gene polymorphism was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results : The distribution of the $LTC_4S$ genotypes AA, AC, and CC was 70.8 percent, 23.6 percent, and 5.6 percent, respectively in asthma group and 74.0 percent, 22.6 percent, and 3.4 percent, respectively in control group. A statistically significant difference in the distribution of $LTC_4S$ genotype was not observed between the asthma and the control groups, and there was no significant difference between the $LTC_4S$ genotype and asthma severity. The responders to montelukast were significantly prevalent in the mild asthma group(P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the distribution of the responders compared to non-responders within genotype in the total asthma group or the moderate asthma group. However, the responsiveness for montelukast was significant difference within genotype for both AA and AC/CC in the mild asthma group : The AA genotype was more included in the responder group(P<0.05). Conclusion : In the mild persistent asthma group, the A allele of $LTC_4S$ polymorphism may be regarded as a predictable factor for clinical response to montelukast. However, LTC4S polymorphism was not significantly associated with the clinical response to montelukast in asthmatic children.

Allergy Prevention Effect of Oral Administration of Quercetin on Picryl Chloride-induced Contact Dermatitis in BALB/c Mice (BALB/c mice에서 quercetin의 경구투여가 picryl chloride로 유발된 접촉성 피부 알레르기의 예방에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hyeong-Jin;Jung, Ji-Youn
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.1444-1450
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    • 2009
  • The number of patients with immune- mediated dermatitis such as contact dermatitis is increasing year by year. Allergic contact dermatitis is a complex phenomenon that involves resident epidermal cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, as well as invading leukocytes that interact with each other under the control of a network of cytokines and lipid mediators. It is a cell-mediated immune reaction, which occurs after susceptible individuals are exposed to sensitizing chemicals, and characteristic eczematous reaction is seen at the point of contact with an allergen. In this study, we investigated the allergy prevention effects of quercetin on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation in BALB/c mice. BALB/c mice were sensitized with 40 ${\mu}l$ of 1.5% picryl choloride (PCL) to the left and right ear each. Total serum IgE levels and histamine levels were measured by the sandwich ELISA method using mouse IgE, histamine measuring kit. For histopathological examination, paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin(HE) or toluidine blue(TB). Ear swelling responses were much weaker in the high-dose group (100 mg/kg) than the control group (0 mg/kg). The number of mast cells showed a significant decrease in the high-dose group (100 mg/kg) compared to the control group (0 mg/kg). Degranulation of mast cells was also confirmed by Toluidine Blue (TB) staining method. Both total serum IgE and histamine levels were significantly decreased in the high-dose group (100 mg/kg) compared to other groups. These findings suggest a certain relationship between the elevation of IgE, histamine levels and the degranulation of mast cells. These results show that the pharmacological actions of quercetin indicate its potential activity for prevention of allergic inflammatory diseases through the down-regulation of mast cell activation.