• Title, Summary, Keyword: inflammatory mediators

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The effect of high concentration of glucose on the production of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide induced by lipopolysaccharides from periodontopathic bacteria (고농도의 글루코스가 치주질환 병인균주의 세균내독소에 의한 염증성 cytokine 및 nitric oxide의 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sung-Jo
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.511-520
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: Diabetes mellitus is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders manifested by abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood. Mounting evidence demonstrates that diabetes is a risk factor for gingivitis and periodontitis. The circulating mononuclear phagocytes in diabetic patients with hyperglycemia are chronically exposed to high level of serum glucose. Thus, this study attempted to determine the effect of pre-exposure of monocytes and macrophages to high concentration of glucose on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Material and Methods: For this purpose, cells were cultured in medium containing normal (5 mM) or high glucose (25 mM) for 4-5 weeks before treatment for 24 h with LPS. LPS was highly purified from Porphyromonas gingivalis or Prevotella intermedia by phenol extraction. Result: Results showed that prolonged pre-exposure of cells to high glucose markedly increased LPS-stimulated NO secretion when compared to normal glucose. In addition to NO, high glucose also augmented LPS-stimulated IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-$\alpha$ secretion after cells were exposed to high glucose for 4 weeks. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that pre-exposure of mononuclear phagocytes with high glucose augments LPS-stimulated production of pro-inflammatory mediators. These findings may explain why periodontal tissue destruction in diabetic patients is more severe than that in non-diabetic individuals.

The anti-inflammatory effect of Lithospermum Erythrorhizon on lipopolysaccharide - induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells (LPS로 유도한 RAW 264.7 세포의 염증반응에서 자초(紫草)의 항염증 효과)

  • Choi, Sun-Bok;Bae, Gi-Sang;Jo, Il-Joo;Park, Kyoung-Chel;Seo, Seung-Hee;Kim, Dong-Goo;Shin, Joon-Yeon;Gwak, Tae-Sin;Lee, Jung-Hyun;Lee, Guem-San;Park, Sung-Joo;Song, Ho-Joon
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.67-73
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    • 2013
  • Objective : Lithospermum Erythrorhizon (LE) has been used as an anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory agent. However, it is unclear that LE aqueous extract could show the anti-inflammatory effects in RAW 264.7cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract from LE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - induced inflammatory response. Methods : To measure out the cytotoxicity of LE, we performed the MTT assay. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of LE, we examined the inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 ($PGE_2$) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-${\alpha}$, interleukin, (IL)-$1{\beta}$ and (IL)-6) on RAW 264.7 cells. We also examined molecular mechanisms such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-B (NF-${\kappa}B$) activation by western blot. Results : Aqueous Extract from LE itself did not have any cytotoxic effect in RAW 264.7 cells. Aqueous extract from LE inhibited LPS-induced productions of inflammatory mediators such as NO, $PGE_2$, and pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$ and IL-6 in RAW 264.7cells. In addition, LE inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 kinases (p38), c-Jun $NH_2$-terminal kinase (JNK), and NF-${\kappa}B$ activation in RAW 264.7 cells. Conclusion : LE down-regulated LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediators through the inhibition of p38, JNK and NF-${\kappa}B$ activation. Taken together, these results could provide the evidence for the anti-inflammatory effects of LE. Therefore, LE may be a novel target in the management of inflammation and help to support a potential strategy for prevention and therapy of inflammatory diseases.

Ginsenoside Rg3 Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Learning and Memory Impairments by Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Rats

  • Lee, Bombi;Sur, Bongjun;Park, Jinhee;Kim, Sung-Hun;Kwon, Sunoh;Yeom, Mijung;Shim, Insop;Lee, Hyejung;Hahm, Dae-Hyun
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.381-390
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to examine whether ginsenoside Rg3 (GRg3) could improve learning and memory impairments and inflammatory reactions induced by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the brains of rats. The effects of GRg3 on proinflammatory mediators in the hippocampus and the underlying mechanisms of these effects were also investigated. Injection of LPS into the lateral ventricle caused chronic inflammation and produced deficits in learning in a memory-impairment animal model. Daily administration of GRg3 (10, 20, and 50 mg/kg, i.p.) for 21 consecutive days markedly improved the LPS-induced learning and memory disabilities demonstrated on the step-through passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test. GRg3 administration significantly decreased expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$, interleukin-1${\beta}$, and cyclooxygenase-2 in the hippocampus, as assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunohistochemistry. Together, these findings suggest that GRg3 significantly attenuated LPS-induced cognitive impairment by inhibiting the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in the rat brain. These results suggest that GRg3 may be effective for preventing or slowing the development of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, by improving cognitive and memory functions due to its anti-inflammatory activity in the brain.

Celastrol ameliorates cytokine toxicity and pro-inflammatory immune responses by suppressing NF-κB activation in RINm5F beta cells

  • Ju, Sung Mi;Youn, Gi Soo;Cho, Yoon Shin;Choi, Soo Young;Park, Jinseu
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.172-177
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    • 2015
  • Upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators contributes to ${\beta}$-cell destruction and enhanced infiltration of immune cells into pancreatic islets during development of type 1 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we examined the regulatory effects and the mechanisms of action of celastrol against cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory immune responses in the RINm5F rat pancreatic ${\beta}$-cell line stimulated with a combination of interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-${\gamma}$. Celastrol significantly restored cytokine-induced cell death and significantly inhibited cytokine-induced nitric oxide production. In addition, the protective effect of celastrol was correlated with a reduction in pro-inflammatory mediators, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and CC chemokine ligand 2. Furthermore, celastrol significantly suppressed cytokine-induced signaling cascades leading to nuclear factor kappa B (NF-${\kappa}B$) activation, including $I{\kappa}B$-kinase (IKK) activation, $I{\kappa}B$ degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 DNA binding activity. These results suggest that celastrol may exert its cytoprotective activity by suppressing cytokine-induced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators by inhibiting activation of NF-${\kappa}B$ in RINm5F cells.

Red Ginseng Ethanol Extract Suppressed Ag I/II-induced Up-expression of Inflammatory Mediators in RAW 264.7 Macrophages (홍삼에탄올추출물의 염증유발인자에 대한 억제효과)

  • Choi, Kyung-Min;Hwang, Seung-Mi;Lim, Ji-Ye;Ko, Eun-Sil;Park, Jong-Hyuk;Moon, Jung-Hye;Lee, Min-Jung;Jang, Ji-Eun;Cha, Jeong-Dan
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.158-163
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    • 2015
  • In this study, we investigated the effects of 40% ethanol extract of Red Ginseng (RGE) on the productions of inflammatory proteins in Antigen I/II (Ag I/II)-N, a recombinant protein isolated from Streptococcus mutans -stimulated in RAW 264.7 cells. RGE inhibited the expression of Ag I/II-N-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, both mRNA and protein synthesis levels, without any cytotoxic effects. Moreover, RGE significantly inhibited Ag I/II-N induced NF-κB translocation into the nucleus by preventing the degradation of inhibitor κB-α. In conclusion, RGE down regulates the expression of pro-inflammatory genes involved in the synthesis of NO and iNOS in Ag I/II-N-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells by suppressing NF-κB activity.

Eryngium foetidum Suppresses Inflammatory Mediators Produced by Macrophages

  • Mekhora, Chusana;Muangnoi, Channarong;Chingsuwanrote, Pimjai;Dawilai, Suwitcha;Svasti, Saovaros;Chasri, Kaimuk;Tuntipopipat, Siriporn
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.653-664
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    • 2012
  • Objective: This study assessed anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of $E.$ $foetidum$ leaf extract on LPS-activated murine macrophages. Methods: RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with or without $E.$ $foetidum$ extract for 1 h prior to incubation with LPS for 24 h. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated with reference to iNOS, COX-2, TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-6 gene expression. In addition, NO and intracellular ROS generation were determined by Griess method and fluorescence intensity and activation of MAPKs and $I{\kappa}B$ by Western blotting. Results: Prior treatment with $E.$ $foetidum$ leaf extract inhibited elevation of IL-6, TNF-${\alpha}$, iNOS and COX-2, together with their cognate mRNAs in a dose-dependent manner. NO and intracellular ROS contents were similarly reduced. These effects were due to inhibition of LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK and p38 as well as $I{\kappa}B$. $E.$ $foetidum$ ethanol extract were shown to contain lutein, ${\beta}$-carotene, chlorogenic acid, kaempferol and caffeic acid, compounds known to exert these bioactive properties. Conclusions: $E.$ $foetidum$ leaf extract possesses suppressive effects against pro-inflammatory mediators. Thus, $E.$ $foetidum$ has a high potential to be used as a food supplement to reduce risk of cancer associated with inflammation.

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Gagam-GongJin-dan in mouse peritoneal macrophages (마우스 복강대식세포에서 가감공진단(加減拱辰丹)의 항염증 효과)

  • Kim, Hong-Jun;Kim, Young-Sik;Mok, Ji-Ye;Jeong, Seung-Il;Hwang, Sung-Yeoun;Cho, Jung-Keun;Jang, Seon-Il
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.207-217
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    • 2011
  • Objectives : In a previous study, we have shown that Gagam-Gongjin-Dan(GGD) has an inhibitory effect on the ovalbumin-induced immune responses and a hepatoprotective effect on actaminophen-induced liver injury in Balb/c Mice. However, the possible anti-inflammatory effect of GGD extract for inflammatory mediators was not reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate an inhibitory effects of GGD extract against lipopolysaccharides(LPS) induced inflammatory mediators in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Methods : GGD extract was prepared by extracting with methanol for 7 days. The extract was freeze-dried following filtration through vacuum distillation system. Accumulated nitrite, an oxidative product of nitric oxide(NO), was measured in the culture medium by the Griess reaction. The levels of prostaglandin $E_2(PGE_2)$, interleukin-$1{\beta}$(IL-$1{\beta}$), tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$(TNF-${\alpha}$) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) were measured by Western blot analysis. Results : GGD extract (50-$400\;{\mu}g$/ml) per se had no cytotoxic effect in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. GGD extract dose-dependently reduced NO, $PGE_2$, IL-$1{\beta}$ and TNF-${\alpha}$ production and COX-2 activity caused by stimulation of LPS. The levels of iNOS and COX-2 protein expressions were markedly suppressed by the treatment with GGD extract in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions : These results suggest that GGD extract has an anti-inflammatory effect against LPS-induced inflammatory mediators in peritoneal macrophages, these properties may contribute to inflammation disease care.

Effect of Water Extract of Peonia Suffruticosa and Prunus Percica on Anti-inflammation (목단피((牧丹皮).도인(桃仁) 배합(配合)이 항염증(抗炎症) 작용(作用)에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Young-Il;Lee, Sung-Jun;Huh, Jin;Lee, Tae-Hyung;Shin, Dong-Gean;Lee, Jae-Cheol;Shin, Yong-Seo;Yun, Young-Gab
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.105-120
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    • 2010
  • Paeonia Suffruticosa and Prunus Persica have been used as oriental medicine for removal of fever, alleviation of pain, an anti-phlogistic effect and removal of extravasated blood. However, it has been never shown the effects of these herbal medicines on anti-inflammatory processes. This experiment was performed to show how these herbs could act as anti-inflammatory medicines at cellular level. Anti-inflammation effects of water extracts from Paeonia Suffruticosa and Prunus Persica as well as their mixture have been investigated, and the results were follows; 1) each extract slightly suppressed the expression and production of inflammatory mediators and enzymes such as NO, iNOS, IL-$1{\beta}$, and TNF-$\alpha$ in lipopolysaccharid(LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and mouse primary peritoneal macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. These suppressive effects, however, were synergistically increased by their mixture. 2) Each extract of Paeonia Suffruticosa and Prunus Persica insignificantly suppressed the activation and activity of NF-${\kappa}B$ in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, which controls the expression of inflammatory mediators such as NO, iNOS, IL-$1{\beta}$, and TNF-$\alpha$. However, extract mixture of Paeonia Suffruticosa and Prunus Persica suppressed effectively the activation and activity of NF-${\kappa}B$. 3) Each of Paeonia Suffruticosa and Prunus Persica induced translocation of NF-${\kappa}B$ to the nucleus from the cytosol and DNA-binding activity of nuclear NF-${\kappa}B$ in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. The extract mixture of Paeonia Suffruticosa and Prunus Persica showed more significant suppression of the NF-${\kappa}B$ translocation and its DNA-binding activity, as compared to those of the each extract. These results suggest that the extract mixture of Paeonia Suffruticosa and Prunus Persica may affect different control mechanisms for NF-${\kappa}B$ activation and the expression and production of NF-${\kappa}B$-dependent inflammatory mediators, indicating that this extract mixture may be useful for treatment of inflammatory diseases.

Anti-inflammatory Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Stem of Coriandrum Sativum in RAW 264.7 Cells

  • Jung, Ji Yun;Park, Chung A
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.73-79
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    • 2018
  • Objectives : Coriandrum sativum is a medicinal herb that is used to enhance organoleptic quality and food flavor and as source of natural antioxidants. This research investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Coriandrum sativum stem methanol extract (CSSE) using RAW 264.7 cells. Methods : Production of tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$(TNF-${\alpha}$), interleukin (IL)-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, and nitric oxide (NO) in the culture supernatant, protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-${\kappa}B$) in the extract were assayed. Results : Treatment with CSSE ($100{\mu}g/m{\ell}$) resulted in inhibited levels of protein expression of lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced iNOS, COX-2, and NF-${\kappa}B$ as well as production of TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, and NO induced by LPS. Conclusions : These results demonstrate that CSSE exhibits anti-inflammatory activities via decreasing production of pro-inflammatory mediators through suppression of the pathways of NF-${\kappa}B$ in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Thus, CSSE may have therapeutic potential for a variety of inflammation-mediated diseases.

Inhibitory effect of epigallocatechin from Camellia sinensis leaves against pro-inflammatory mediator release in macrophages

  • Cho, Jun-Hyo;Hong, Eun-Jin;Cho, Young-Je
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.60 no.3
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    • pp.199-205
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    • 2017
  • To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of natural products, we determined the anti-inflammatory activity of purified epigallocatechin (EGC) from Camellia sinensis leaves. In the present study, we found that EGC inhibited the production of proinflammatory mediators (IL-6, TNF-${\alpha}$, NO, and $PGE_2$) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. Suppression of IL-6 seems to be at least partly attributable to the inhibitory effect of EGC. TNF-${\alpha}$ is a major cytokine produced by LPS-induced macrophages, and they have a wide variety of biological functions including regulation of inflammation. The inhibition of IL-6 and TNF-${\alpha}$ production by EGC may downregulate the acute-phase response to LPS, thereby reducing LPS-induced inflammation. In addition to IL-6 and TNF-${\alpha}$, EGC effectively reduced the production of other key inflammatory mediators, including NO and $PGE_2$. The inhibitory effect of EGC on NO and $PGE_2$ production was supported by the suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and COX-2 at protein levels. These results support the traditional use of EGC in the alleviation of various inflammation-associated diseases and suggest that EGC might be useful in the development of new functional foods for inflammatory diseases.