• Title, Summary, Keyword: inflammatory mediators

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Role of Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Primary and Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation

  • Dagistan, Yasar;Cukur, Selma;Dagistan, Emine;Gezici, Ali Riza
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.60 no.1
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    • pp.40-46
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    • 2017
  • Objective: To assess role of some inflammatory mediators in patients with primary and recurrent lumbar disc herniation. Expression of IL-6, transforming growth factor (TGF)-1, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, and Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX) have been shown to be more intense in the primary group than the recurrent goup, but this mediators may be important aspects prognostic. Methods: 19 patients underwent primary and revision operations between June 1, 2009 and June 1, 2014, and they were included in this study. The 19 patients' intervertebral disc specimens obtained from the primary procedures and reoperations were evaluated. Expression of IL-6, TGF-1, IGF-1, and BAX were examined immunohistochemically in the 38 biopsy tissues obtained from the primary and recurrent herniated intervertebral discs during the operation. Results: For IL-6 expression in the intervertebral disc specimens, there was no difference between the groups. The immunohistochemical study showed that the intervertebral disc specimens in the primary group were stained intensely by TGF-1 compared with the recurrent group. Expression of IGF-1 in the primary group was found moderate. In contrast, in the recurrent group of patients was mild expression of IGF-1. The primary group intervertebral disc specimens were stained moderately by BAX compared with the recurrent group. Conclusion: The results of our prognostic evaluation of patients in the recurrent group who were operated due to disc herniation suggest that mediators may be important parameters.

Anti-inflammatroy Activity of YHJST in Activated Mast Cells (량혈제습탕(凉血除濕湯)의 비만세포 활성화 억제작용)

  • Kim, Sang-Hun;Koo, Young-Sun;Jin, Jin;Kim, Dong-Hee
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.1598-1603
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    • 2006
  • Activated mast cells play pivotal roles in allergic and non-allergic inflammatory responses through the release of inflammatory mediators such as histamin, cysteinyl leukotriens, pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as chemokine. We tested whether YHJST, which is clinically prescribed for the treatment of various inflammatory disease including allergic disease, modulate inflammatory reactions in activated mast cells. YHJST decreased the release of histamine and b-hexosamidase in pholbol-12-myristate 13-acetate and/or calcium ionophore A23187 stimulated HMC-1 and RBL-2H3 cells, respectively. Further, the gene expressions of tumor necrosis factor-a, IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly reduced by YHJST. YHJST suppressed powerful induction of NF-kB promoter-mediated luciferase activity. Taken together, these data suggested that YHJST showed it's anti-inflammatory effects through the down-regulation of mast cell activation.

Inhibitory Effects of β-Glycyrrhetinic Acid on Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Production in RAW 264.7 Cells

  • Park, Kyoung-Sik
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.147-153
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    • 2010
  • $\beta$-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), the active principle of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in different animal models. In this study, the effects of GA on the production of inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-$\alpha$, interleukin (IL)-6, nitric oxide (NO), and prostaglandin E (pGE)-2 were examined in RAW 264.7 cells in vitro. Furthermore, to elucidate a possible mechanism for the inhibitory effect of GA on the production of TNF-$\alpha$, it was investigated whether the treatment of GA affects the I-${\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation and subsequent nuclear translocation of NF-${\kappa}B$. Various inflammatory responses were induced in the culture system by treating with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS). GA showed anti-inflammatory activities in dose-dependant manner with $IC_{50}$ of $5.4{\mu}M$ by inhibiting the production of TNF-$\alpha$ in RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, the treatment of GA blocked both I-${\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation and the nuclear translocation of NF-${\kappa}B$ from cytosol to nucleus. However, it did not affect the production of IL-6, NO, and PGE-2, implying the direct blocking of the production of TNF-$\alpha$ resulting from both the I-${\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation and the nuclear translocation of NF-${\kappa}B$. This finding might provide the underlying mechanism to explain the reported anti-inflammatory activities of GA in animal models.

Anti-inflammatory effect of chloroform fraction of Coptidis rhizoma on the production of inflammatory mediators from LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells (황련 클로로포름 분획물의 뇌신경소교세포로부터 염증매개물질 생성억제 효능 연구)

  • Park, Yong-Ki;Lee, Kyuong-Yeol
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 2007
  • Objectives : In the present study, we investigated anti-inflammatory effects of chloroform fraction of Coptidis rhizoma (CR-C) on the production of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-${\alpha}$) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1${\beta}$) in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Methods : Copriditis rhizoma was extracted with 80% methanol, and then extracted with chloroform. BV2 cells were pre-treated with CR-C, and stimulated with LPS. The cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay. The production of NO and cytokines was measured by Griess assay and ELISA. The mRNA expression of inducible nirtic oxide synthase (iNOS) and cytokines were determined by RT-PCR. Results : CR-C significantly inhibited the production of NO. TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-1${\beta}$ in a dose-dependent manner in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. In addition, CR-C suppressed the mRNA expressions of iNOS and inflammatory cytokines induced by LPS stimulation. These results indicate that CR-C was involved in anti-inflammatory effects in activated microglia. Conclusion : The present study suggests that chloroform extract of Coptidis rhizoma can be useful as a potential anti-inflammatory agent for treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases.

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Anti-oxidative and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Polysaccharide isolated from Korean-Style Soy Sauce

  • Kim, Hoon;Park, Jungeun;Jung, Jaemee;Hwang, Dahyun
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.51-56
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    • 2020
  • Soy sauce is one of the representatives of traditional fermented foods in Korea. However, studies on soy sauce are relatively insufficient in Korea compared to Japan. In this study, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of polysaccharides were measured by polysaccharides isolated from two different soy sauces, Korean and Japanese (KSS-0 and JSS-0). KSS-0 was purified into two fractions using gel chromatography and named them as KSS-I and KSS-II. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides, we measured the polyphenol content and radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of polysaccharides, we used RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and induced inflammation using lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Then, we measured levels of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Among the four polysaccharides, KSS-II showed the highest antioxidant activity and had good anti-inflammatory activity; KSS-II decreased inflammatory mediators in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the polysaccharide isolated from Korean soy sauce (KSS-II) showed better anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities than polysaccharides isolated from Japanese soy sauce, and may be useful as substances for functional foods.

Hepatic Vascular Stress Gene Expression in the Liver Response to Trauma

  • Lee, Sun-Mee
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.62-67
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    • 2004
  • Trauma remains one of the important sources leading to systemic inflammatory response anti sub-sequent multiple organ failure. Although hepatic microvascular dysfunction occurs during trauma, the mechanism responsible remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of trauma on hepatic vascular stress gene expression. Femur fracture (EFx) was induced by torsion to the femur at midshaft. Liver samples were taken for RT-PCR analysis of mRNA for gtenes of interest: endothelin-1 (ET-1), its receptors $ET_A$ and $ET_B$, nitric oxide synthases (iNOS and eNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and tumor necrosis tactor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$). The expression of ET-1 mRNA was significantly increased by FFx. Expression of mRNA in FFx group showed no change in $ET_A$, $ET_B$, iNOS and HO-1 and showed a slight increase of 2.2-fold and 2.7-fold for eNOS tll1d COX-2, respectively. The level of TNF-${\alpha}$ mRNA significantly increased in FFx group. In conclusion, mild trauma alone causes little change in expression of vasoactive mediators.

Effects of troxerutin on vascular inflammatory mediators and expression of microRNA-146a/NF-κB signaling pathway in aorta of healthy and diabetic rats

  • Che, Xing;Dai, Xiang;Li, Caiying
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.395-402
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    • 2020
  • This study has investigated the effect of a potent bioflavonoid, troxerutin, on diabetes-induced changes in pro-inflammatory mediators and expression of microRNA-146a and nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling pathway in aortic tissue of type-I diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6/each): healthy, healthy-troxerutin, diabetic, and diabetic-troxerutin. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection (60 mg/kg; intraperitoneally) and lasted 10 weeks. Troxerutin (150 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for last month of experiment. Inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, as well as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), cyclooxygenase-II (COX-II), and inducible-nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured on aortic samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gene expressions for transcription factor NF-κB, interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1), TNF receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF-6), and microRNA-146a were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Ten-week diabetes significantly increased mRNA levels of IRAK-1, TRAF-6, NF-κB, and protein levels of cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM, and iNOS, COX-II, and decreased expression of microRNA-146a as compared with healthy rats (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01). However, one month treatment of diabetic rats with troxerutin restored glucose and insulin levels, significantly decreased expression of inflammatory genes and pro-inflammatory mediators and increased microRNA level in comparison to diabetic group (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01). In healthy rats, troxerutin had significant reducing effect only on NF-κB, TNF-α and COX-II levels (p < 0.05). Beside slight improvement of hyperglycemia, troxerutin prevented the activation of NF-κB-dependent inflammatory signaling in the aorta of diabetic rats, and this response may be regulated by microRNA-146a.

Inhibitory effects of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxymethylphenol on asthmatic responses to ovalbumin challenge in conscious guinea pigs

  • Jeong, Seul-Yong;Lee, Ji-Yun
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.81-89
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    • 2018
  • This study evaluated the anti-asthmatic activities of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxymethylphenol (DBHP) that is a potent phenolic antioxidant in edible vegetable oil. The effects of DBHP on bronchial asthma were evaluated by determining the specific airway resistance (sRaw) and tidal volume (TV) during the immediate asthmatic response (IAR) and the late-phase asthmatic response (LAR) in guinea pigs with aerosolized ovalbumin-induced asthma. Recruitment of leukocytes and the levels of biochemical inflammatory mediators were determined in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs), and histopathological surveys performed in lung tissues. DBHP significantly inhibited the increased sRaw and improved the decreased TV on IAR and LAR, and also inhibited recruitment of eosinophils and neutrophils into the lung, and release of biochemical inflammatory mediators such as histamine and phospholipase $A_2$ from these infiltrated leukocytes, and improved pathological changes. However, anti-asthmatic activities of DBHP at oral doses of 12.5 to 50 mg/kg was less than those of dexamethasone (5 mg/kg, p.o.) and cromoglycate (10 mg/kg, p.o.), but more potent or similar to that of salbutamol (5 mg/kg, p.o.). These results in the present study suggest that anti-asthmatic effects of DBHP in the guinea pigs model of OVA-induced asthmatic responses principally are mediated by inhibiting the recruitments of the leukocytes and the release of biochemical inflammatory mediators from these infiltrated leukocytes.

Aqueous Extract of Schizandra chinensis Suppresses Dextran Sulfate Sodiuminduced Generation of IL-8 and ROS in the Colonic Epithelial Cell Line HT-29

  • Lee, Young-Mi;Lee, Kang-Soo;Kim, Dae-Ki
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.185-191
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    • 2009
  • Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) play an important role in the mucosal immune system. IEC-derived mediators of inflammatory cascades play a principal role in the development of colon inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts of Schizandra chinensis fruits (SC-Ex) on the production of inflammatory mediators by the human colonic epithelial cells. HT-29 cells were stimulated with dextran sulfate sodium in the presence or absence of SC-Ex to examine the cytoprotection and production of IL-8 and reactive oxygen species (ROS). It was shown that dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) caused the reduction of cell viability and production of IL-8 and ROS in DSS-treated HT-29 cells. We observed that the treatment of SC-Ex protected significantly cell proliferation from DSS-induced damage in dose-dependent manner. SC-Ex (10 and 100 ${\mu}g$/ml) also suppressed DSS-induced production of IL-8 mRNA and protein. Moreover, DSS-induced ROS production was inhibited markedly by the treatment of 100 ${\mu}g$/ml SC-Ex. These results suggest that SC-Ex has the protective effects on DSS-induced cell damage and the release of inflammatory mediators in the intestinal epithelial cells.

Production of nitric oxide, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor α from mouse peritoneal macrophages in response to Bacillus anthracis antigens

  • Yoo, Han-sang;Kim, Jae-wook;Cho, Yun-sang
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.301-310
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    • 1999
  • Anthrax caused by Bacillus anthracis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases. The bacterium produces several virulence factors. Of the factors, protective antigen (PA) of tripatite toxin has been identified as a central component in the pathogenesis of anthrax. However, precise roles of PA and other cellular components in the reaction with the target cells remain to be elucidated, especially in the initial stage of the disease. Three B anthracis antigens were prepared for investigation; PA, sonicated cellular antigens (S-Ag) and formalin-inactivaed whole cell antigens (W-Ag). PA was purified from culture supernatant of the bacterium using FPLC system with MonoQ. S-Ag and W-Ag were prepared by sonication and formalin inactivation of the cultured cells, respectively. Purity of the antigens was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. The roles of these antigens in the production of inflammatory mediators such as NO, IL-6 and $TNF{\alpha}$ from mouse peritoneal macrophages were investigated. PA alone did not induce the production of the inflammatory mediators while the other antigens, S-Ag and W-Ag, did in a dose and time dependent manner. These results suggested that in addition to major virulence factors, other cellular antigens are also involved in the initial stage of the disease by the induction of inflammatory mediators.

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