• Title, Summary, Keyword: inflammatory mediators

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Sesquiterpene Derivatives Isolated from Cyperus rotundus L. Inhibit Inflammatory Signaling Mediated by NF-${\kappa}B$

  • Khan, Salman;Choi, Ran-Joo;Lee, Dong-Ung;Kim, Yeong-Shik
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.250-255
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    • 2011
  • The immune system is finely balanced by the activities of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators or cytokines. Unregulated activities of these mediators can lead to the development of various inflammatory diseases. A variety of safe and effective anti-inflammatory agents are available with many more drugs under development. Of the natural compounds, the sesquiterpenes (nootkatone, ${\alpha}$-cyperone, valencene and ${\alpha}$-selinene) isolated from C. rotundus L. have received much attention because of their potential antiinflammatory effects. However, limited studies have been reported regarding the influence of sesquiterpene structure on anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory potential of four structurally divergent sesquiterpenes was evaluated in lipopolysaccaride (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, murine macrophages. Among the four sesquiterpenes, ${\alpha}$-cyperone and nootkatone, showed stronger anti-inflammatory and a potent NF-${\kappa}B$ inhibitory effect on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Molecular analysis revealed that various inflammatory enzymes (iNOS and COX-2) were reduced significantly and this correlated with downregulation of the NF-${\kappa}B$ signaling pathway. Additionally, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) elucidated that nootkatone and ${\alpha}$-cyperone dramatically suppressed LPS-induced NF-${\kappa}B$-DNA binding activity using 32Plabeled NF-${\kappa}B$ probe. Hence, our data suggest that ${\alpha}$-cyperone and nootkatone are potential therapeutic agents for inflammatory diseases.

Anti-allergic and Anti-inflammatory Actions of Cimicifuga heracleifolia: Partial Purification of Active Components

  • Kim, Young-Ran;Park, Soo-Hyung;Kim, Kyeong-Man
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.149-154
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    • 1994
  • Anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory actions of the water extract from Cimicifuga heracleifolia were evaluated in mice and rats. Several criteria were employed to assess the anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory actions of Cimicifuga heracleifolia, such as hyaluronidase activity, mediators-induced vascular permeability changes, 48 hour homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) histamine release from mast cells, and the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. To further characterize the active components, the water extract was either extracted with organic solvent or fractionated according to molecular weight, and each fraction was tested for some of anti-allergic parameters. Hyaluronidase activities, both in activating and in activated states, were significantly inhibited by the water extract of Cimicifuga heracleifolia and by some of its subfractions, molecular weight less than 1,000. The water extracts (50~400 mg/kg) significantly inhibited 48 hr homologous PCA and vascular permeability changes induced by chemical mediators (histamine, serotonin, and leukotriene $C_4$) in mice. In the case of histamine-induced vascular permeability changes, more extensive studies were conducted; water extract was either fractionated according to molecular weight or extracted with butanol. Anti-histamine actions were observed only from the water layer, and these active components were of the molecular weight less than 1,000. These anti-allergic actions were observed mainly from mice than from rats. On the other hand, anti-inflammatory actions of the water extract from Cimicifuga heracleifolia were significant in rats.

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20(S)-Protopanaxatriol inhibits release of inflammatory mediators in immunoglobulin E-mediated mast cell activation

  • Kim, Dae Yong;Ro, Jai Youl;Lee, Chang Ho
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.189-198
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    • 2015
  • Background: Antiallergic effect of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT), an intestinal metabolite of ginseng saponins, was investigated in guinea pig lung mast cells and mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells activated by a specific antigen/antibody reaction. Methods: Increasing concentrations of PPT were pretreated 5 min prior to antigen stimulation, and various inflammatory mediator releases and their relevant cellular signaling events were measured in those cells. Results: PPT dose-dependently reduced the release of histamine and leukotrienes in both types of mast cells. Especially, in activated bone marrow-derived mast cells, PPT inhibited the expression of Syk protein, cytokine mRNA, cyclooxygenase-1/2, and phospholipase $A_2$ ($PLA_2$), as well as the activities of various protein kinase C isoforms, mitogen-activated protein kinases, $PLA_2$, and transcription factors (nuclear factor-${\kappa}B$ and activator protein-1). Conclusion: PPT reduces the release of inflammatory mediators via inhibiting multiple cellular signaling pathways comprising the $Ca^{2+}$ influx, protein kinase C, and $PLA_2$, which are propagated by Syk activation upon allergic stimulation of mast cells.

Effect of Corticosterone Pretreatment on the Production of LPS-Induced Inflammatory Mediators in Hepa1c1c-7 Cells (Hepa1c1c-7 Cell에서 리포폴리사카라이드로 유도된 염증성 매개인자 생산에 있어서 코르티코스테론 전처리 효과)

  • Chae, Byeong Suk
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.60 no.1
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    • pp.8-14
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    • 2016
  • Endotoxemia induces production of inflammatory mediators and acute phase proteins, leading to multiorgan injury and systemic inflammation. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation and glucocorticoids (GCs) release modify endotoxemia-induced inflammatory responses. In the present study, we investigated whether pre-exposure of GCs influences endotoxin-induced production of inflammatory mediators in hepatocytes. Hepa1c1c-7 cells were pretreated with low concentrations of corticosterone for 24 h and then cultured without corticosterone in the presence or absence of LPS. Our results demonstrated that LPS alone significantly enhanced production of IL-6 and CRP but reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) compared to controls. Combination of corticosterone pretreatment and LPS significantly upregulated production of IL-6, IL-$1{\beta}$, and VEGF but downregulated CRP compared to those in LPS alone. These findings suggest that in low concentration of corticosterone-preexposed hepatocytes, endotoxemia may induce upregulation of IL-6, IL-$1{\beta}$, VEGF and but downregulation of CRP.

Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) ethanol extract elicits anti-inflammatory effects via the nuclear factor kappa B pathway and rescues mice from septic shock

  • Saba, Evelyn;Oh, Mi-Ju;Kwak, Dongmi;Roh, Seong-Soo;Kwon, Hyuk-Woo;Kim, Sung-Dae;Rhee, Man Hee
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.57 no.2
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    • pp.97-104
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    • 2017
  • Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as tomato, is widely used in raw, cooked, or liquid forms because it contains nutritional compounds that are beneficial for human health, including carotenoids, lycopene, ascorbic acid, vitamins, and minerals. The tomato is perhaps the most widely studied fruit, especially with respect to its cardioprotective effects. In this study, we aimed to identify the anti-inflammatory mechanisms by which the tomato elicits its anti-inflammatory properties. We treated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells with a tomato ethanol extract and performed various biochemical assays including nitric oxide inhibition, cell viability, RNA extraction, expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines, and immunoblotting, as well we assessed cell survival rates. Our results have shown for the first time that a tomato ethanol extract treatment can suppress nitric oxide production in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. Moreover, it inhibits the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines and elicits its anti-inflammatory effects via the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells ($NF-{\kappa}B$) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. In addition, administration of tomato syrup potently rescued mice from septic shock induced by lipopolysaccharide injection. Collectively, our results elucidate details regarding the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of tomato.

Coptis chinensis Extract Inhibits the Production of Inflammatory Mediators and Delayed Type Hypersensitivity in Mice

  • Lee, Yeon-Ah;Hong, Seung-Jae;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Kim, Kyoung-Soo;Park, Eun-Kyung;Jung, Ki-Won;Han, Chung-Soo;Yoo, Myung-Chul;Yang, Hyung-In
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.13-20
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    • 2008
  • Background: Coptis chinensis rhizome has been used as a medicinal herb in traditional Oriental medicine. We investigated the effects of Coptis chinensis extract on inflammatory mediators and delayed type hypersensitivity in mice. Methods: The inhibitory effect of ethanolic extract of Coptis chinensis (CCE) on cell proliferation was evaluated using MTS assay. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the Con A-activated mouse splenocytes were cultured with various concentrations of CCE. Total nitric oxide (NO) production was determined by Griess reaction. The amounts of secreted prostaglandine E2 ($PGE_2$), interleukin (IL)-2 and IFN-${\gamma}$ were measured by ELISA. To investigate the in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of CCE, oxazolone-induced delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) model was used. Results: The CCE at $100{\mu}g/ml$ significantly blocked the LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators (NO and PGE) in RAW264.7 macrophages. Also, it significantly inhibited cell proliferation and cytokine (IL-2 and IFN-${\gamma}$) production in splenocytes. Furthermore, when splenocytes from CCE fed mice (200 mg/kg for 2 weeks) were activated with Con A, cell proliferation and cytokine production were significantly inhibited. In addition, CCE decreased in vivo inflammation in oxazolone-induced DTH model mice. Conclusion: We suggest that Coptis chinensis can be used as an anti-inflammatory drug by exerting an inhibitory effect in inflammatory mediator- and cell-mediated inflammation.

Analysis of chemical mediators and cytokines in allergic inflammation models in rats and their advantages for the screening of anti-allergic inflammatory drugs

  • Ohuchi, Kazuo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.11-18
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    • 1996
  • We have established an air pouch-type allergic inflammation model in rats [1,2] and a peritoneal eosinophilia model in rats [3]. Employing the two models, chemical mediators and cytokines responsible for the development of inflammation induced by at allergic mechanisms are investigated to clarify the usefulness of the two models for the screening of anti-allergic inflammatory drugs.

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Methanolic Extract of Asterina pectinifera inhibits LPS-Induced Inflammatory Mediators in Murine Macrophage

  • Jo, Wol-Soon;Choi, Yoo-Jin;Kim, Hyoun-Ji;Nam, Byung-Hyouk;Lee, Gye-An;Seo, Su-Yeong;Lee, Sang-Wha;Jeong, Min-Ho
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.37-46
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    • 2010
  • This study aimed to elucidate anti-inflammatory activities from extracts of Asterina pectinifera on nitric oxide (NO) production, TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-6 release in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophage cell, RAW264.7. We prepared the methanolic extracts (60-MAP, 70-MAP, 80-MAP and 90-MAP), aqueous extract (W-AP) and functional bioactive compound fraction (He-AP and EA-AP) from Asterina pectinifera according to extract method. The 60-MAP, 70-MAP, 80-MAP, 90-MAP and W-AP were significantly suppressed LPS-induced production NO, TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-6 secretion in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Especially, 80-MAP by extracted 80% methanol had the strongest activity in reduction of inflammatory mediators among these extracts. Indeed, to identify active fraction, which contained potential bioactive compounds, from 80-MAP of Asterina pectinifera, we tested anti-inflammatory activity of the He-AP or the EA-AP. The He-AP was next extracted from 80-MAP and the EA-AP were extracted from the other methanol layer except the He-AP. The EA-AP demonstrated a strong anti-inflammatory effect through its ability to reduce NO production and it also inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-${\alpha}$ at low concentration. These results suggested that the methanolic extract from Asterina pectinifera had the potential inhibitory effects on the production of these inflammatory mediators.

Airway Remodelling in Asthma (기관지 천식에서의 기도 개형)

  • Lim, Dae Hyun
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.10
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    • pp.1038-1049
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    • 2005
  • Asthma is characterized by a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that leads to tissue injury and subsequent structural changes collectively called airway remodelling. Characteristic changes of airway remodelling in asthma include goblet cell hyperplasia, deposition of collagens in the basement membrane, increased number and size of microvessels, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of airway smooth muscle, and hypertrophy of submucosal glands. Apart from inflammatory cells, such as eosinophils, activated T cells, mast cells and macrophages, structural tissue cells such as epithelial cells, fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells can also play an important effector role through the release of a variety of mediators, cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Through a variety of inflammatory mediators, epithelial and mesenchymal cells cause persistence of the inflammatory infiltrate and induce airway structural remodelling. The end result of chronic airway inflammation and remodelling is an increased thickness of the airway wall, leading to a increased the bronchial hyperresponsiveness and fixed declined lung function.

Notochordal Cells Influence Gene Expression of Inflammatory Mediators of Annulus Fibrosus Cells in Proinflammatory Cytokines Stimulation

  • Moon, Hong-Joo;Joe, Hoon;Kwon, Taek-Hyun;Choi, Hye-Kyoung;Park, Youn-Kwan;Kim, Joo-Han
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2010
  • Objective : Notochordal cells in the intervertebral disc interact with nucleus pulposus (NP) cells and support the maintenance of disc homeostasis by regulation of matrix production. However, the influence of notochordal cells has not been evaluated in the annulus fibrosus (AF), which is the primary pain generator in the disc. We hypothesized that the notochordal cell has the capacity to modulate inflammatory mediators secreted by AF cells secondary to stimulation. Methods : Notochordal and AF cells were isolated from adult New Zealand white rabbits. AF pellets were cultured with notochordal cell clusters or in notochordal cell-conditioned media (NCCM) for 24 or 48 hours with proinflammatory cytokines at varying concentrations. Gene expression in AF pellets were assayed for nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2, and interleukin (IL)-6 by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results : AF pellet in NCCM significantly decreased the iNOS and COX-2 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels compared to AF pellets alone and AF pellets with notochordal cells (p < 0.05). AF pellet resulted in dose-dependent iNOS and COX-2 expression in response to IL-$1{\beta}$, stimulation, demonstrating that 1 ng/ml for 24 hours yielded a maximal response. AF pellet in NCCM significantly decreased the expression of iNOS and COX-2 in response to 1ng/ml IL-$1{\beta}$, stimulation at 24 hours (p < 0.05). There was no difference in IL-6 expression compared to AF pellets alone or AF pellets with notochordal cell clusters. Conclusion : We conclude that soluble factors from notochordal cells mitigate the gene expression of inflammatory mediators in stimulated AF, as expected after annular injury, suggesting that notochordal cells could serve as a novel therapeutic approach in symptomatic disc development.