• Title/Summary/Keyword: inflammatory factors

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The Manufacturing and Physiological Evaluation of Mulberry Fruit Tea (오디 분말차 제조 및 생리활성 평가)

  • Cho, Mi-Za;Kim, Ae-Jung
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.173-178
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    • 2007
  • In this study we manufactured mulberry fruit tea(MFT) to be used as an anti-inflammatory agent. Here, MFT was consumed by thirty middle-aged women with symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis for 4 weeks. The anthropometric measurements and serum inflammatory factors were measured before and after consumption of the MFT. For the anthropometric measurements, BMI and body fat decreased after 4 weeks of tea consumption although there were no significant differences. The serum inflammatory factors(uric acid and homocysteine) as well as serum amino transferase activity(aspartate trans-aminase and alanine transaminase) showed a decreasing trend. In addition, serum carbon reactive protein(CRP) decreased significantly decreased after MFT consumption 4 weeks. It's concluded that this MFT is helpful to for rheumatyroid arthritis patients in order to decrease serum inflammatory factors such as CRP.

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Anemarrhenae Rhizoma 80% Ethanol Extract in RAW 264.7 cells (RAW 264.7 세포에서 지모(知母) 80% 에탄올 추출물의 항염증 효과)

  • LEE, Young Keun;KIM, Cheong Taek;CHOI, Hak Joo
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.97-103
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    • 2017
  • Objective : According to recent studies, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma has anti-inflammatory activities of DW extract, but it hasn't not yet conducted to evaluate inflammatory factors about 80% ethanol extract. Therefore, The aim of this study is to investigate the various effects of individual or combined 80% ethanol extract of Anemarrhenae Rhizoma on cell viability and various anti-inflammatory factors. Methods : Anemarrhenae Rhizoma extract was prepared with 80% ethanol. MTT assay, ELISA, and Luminex were performed in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cell line to measure cytotoxicity, Nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 ($PGE_2$), Leukotriene B4 ($LTB_4$), and cytokines ($IL-1{\beta}$, IL-6, and $TNF-{\alpha}$), respectively. Results : At concentration of $200{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ Anemarrhenae Rhizoma extract, cytotoxicity was observed in RAW 264.7 cells. However, at concentration less than $100{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, cytotoxicity was not observed in RAW 264.7 cells. All concentration of Anemarrhenae Rhizoma extract showed no difference of NO, and $IL-1{\beta}$level in RAW 264.7 cells compared with control group. In contrast, at concentration of $100{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ Anemarrhenae Rhizoma extract significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of COX-2, PGE2, and $LTB_4$ level in RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, the production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, $TNF-{\alpha}$) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells was significantly decreased at concentration of all or 10, and $100{\mu}g/m{\ell}$, respectively. Conclusion : These findings demonstrate that Anemarrhenae Rhizoma has inhibitory effect on inflammatory mediators in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells showing possible developed as a raw material for new therapeutics to ease the symptoms related with inflammatory.

Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Crude Extract and Solvent Fractions of Allium hookeri (삼채의 조추출물과 유기용매 분획물에 대한 항산화 및 항염증 효과)

  • Lee, Yong-Bum;Ham, Young-Min;Yoon, Seon-A;Oh, Dae-Ju;Song, Sang-Mok;Hong, In-Choel;Lee, Si Taek;Hyun, Ho Bong;Kim, Chang-Suk;Yoon, Weon-Jong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.18-25
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    • 2017
  • This study describes the preliminary evaluation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Allium hookeri. A. hookeri was extracted using crude extract and then fractionated sequentially with n-hexane, $CH_2Cl_2$, EtOAc, and n-BuOH. To screen for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents effectively, we first examined the inhibitory effect of A. hookeri extracts on production of oxidant stresses (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, xanthine oxidase, and superoxide). In addition, we examined the inhibitory effects of A. hookeri on production of pro-inflammatory factors (nitric oxide, prostaglandin $E_2$, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2) in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Of the sequential solvent fractions of A. hookeri, EtOAc fractions showed decreased production of oxidant stresses, and $CH_2Cl_2$ and EtOAc fractions of A. hookeri inhibited production of pro-inflammatory factors. EtOAc fraction inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and -$1{\beta}$). These results suggest that A. hookeri has significant effects on oxidant stresses and pro-inflammatory factors and is a possible antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapeutic and preventive material.

Effects of Combined Marine Treatment Program on Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome, and CRP in Elderly Musculoskeletal and Metabolic Patients (복합 해양치유 프로그램이 근골격계 및 대사성 질환자의 대사증후군 위험인자 및 CRP에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hyunjun;Shin, Jaesuk
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Integrative Medicine
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.37-45
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    • 2020
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study is to verify the effectiveness of combined marine healing programs by analyzing the physical composition of elderly musculoskeletal and metabolic patients, the risk factors of metabolic syndrome and the effects of the inflammatory factors, the C -reactive protein (CRP). Methods : Individuals with musculoskeletal and metabolic diseases were identified, and marine healing programs were conducted for f our hours each day for two weeks with 11 elderly participants. A one-way RM ANOVA was conducted to determine the differences due to treatment with composite marine healing systems. The results are as follows. Results : After a two-week ocean healing program, weight decreased the most, while BMI also decreased and muscle mass increased. Waist circumference, a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and CRP, decreased, and CRP demonstrated a decreasing trend. Conclusion : The above results show that the two-week marine healing program has a positive effect on the body composition and inflammatory factors of elderly musculoskeletal and metabolic patients.

Effects of combined exercise on the blood inflammatory factors, DHEA-s and arterial stiffness of elderly women (복합운동이 고령여성의 혈중 염증인자, DHEA-s 및 동맥경직도에 미치는 영향)

  • Ha, Soo-Min;Kim, Jung-Sook;Kim, Ji-Hyeon;Kim, Do-Yeon
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.1096-1107
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of combined exercise on blood inflammatory factors, DHEA-s and arterial stiffness in elderly women. The subjects were 42 elderly females volunteers, aged 70 to 85 years, composed of the combined exercise group (n=21) and control group (n=21). The 60 minute combined exercise program(aquarobics 1 time/week, strength exercise 2 times/week) was performed 3 times per week for 12 weeks, and the intensity was progressively increased every 4 weeks(1-4 weeks: RPE 12 to 13, 5-8 weeks: RPE 13 to 14, 9-12weeks: RPE 14 to 15). The test data were analyzed by two-way repeated measures ANOVA, paired t-test, independent t-test and the alpha level of .05 was set for all tests of significance. As a result, the combined exercise for 12 weeks reduced the inflammatory response of elderly women, and DHEA-s was found to have a positive effect on aging hormone. The arterial stiffness decreased the central arterial blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), prevented the increase of the pulse pressure and the wave increase index, and decreased the pulse wave velocity. These results suggest that regular and continuous combined exercise may be recommended for the healthy aging and longevity of elderly women by inducing anti-inflammation effect and improving the aging hormonal function and the vascular health.

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Castanopsis cuspidata Extracts in Murine Macrophage RAW 264.7 Cells (Murine Macrophage RAW 264.7 세포에서 구실잣밤나무 추출물의 항염증 효과)

  • Ko, Yeong-Jong;Song, Sang Mok;Hyun, Woo-Chol;Yang, Soo-Kyung;Song, Chang-Khil;Lee, Dong-Sun;Yoon, Weon-Jong
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.439-446
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    • 2014
  • This study describes a preliminary evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of Castanopsis cuspidata extracts. C. cuspidata was extracted using 80% ethanol and then fractionated sequentially with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethylacetate, and butanol. To screen for anti-inflammatory agents effectively, we first examined the inhibitory effect of the C. cuspidata extracts on the production of pro-inflammatory factors and cytokines stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. In addition, we examined the inhibitory effect of C. cuspidata extracts on pro-inflammatory mediators (NO, iNOS, COX-2) in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The amounts of protein levels were determined by immunoblotting. Of the sequential solvent fractions of C. cuspidata, the n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethylacetate fractions inhibited the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-$1{\beta}$ and IL-6), production of NO, and the protein level of iNOS and COX-2. These results suggest that C. cuspidata may have significant effects on inflammatory factors and may be provided as a possible anti-inflammatory therapeutic plant.

Comparative Effect on Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Phellinus linteus and Phellinus linteus Grown in Germinated Brown Rice Extracts in Murine Macrophage RAW 264.7 Cells (상황버섯과 발아현미상황버섯 열수추출물의 Murin Macrophage RAW 264.7 세포에서 항염증 반응 비교)

  • Jeoung, Young-Jun;Choi, Se-Young;An, Chi-Sun;Jeon, Yun-Hee;Park, Dong-Ki;Lim, Beoung-Ou
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.97-101
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    • 2009
  • The present study describes the preliminary evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activities of Phellinus linteus (PL) and Phellinus linteus Grow in Germinated Brown Rice (BRPL). In order to effectively screen for anti-inflammatory agents, we first examined the extracts' inhibitory effects on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines activated with lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, we examined the inhibitory effects of the PL and BRPL extracts on pro-inflammatory factors such as NO, iNOS, $TNF-{\alpha}$ and $IFN-{\gamma}$ in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. NO production and iNOS expression was significantly augmented in LPS treated cell, the production of NO and iNOS was greater in the BRPL than in the PL group. In addition, protein and mRNA levels of $TNF-{\alpha}$ and $IFN-{\gamma}$ in BRPL showed relatively more potent pro-inflammatory-activity inhibition compared to that of PL. These results suggest that BRPL may have significant effects on inflammatory factors, and may be a potential anti-inflammatory therapeutic materials.

Anti-oxidant Activities and Anti-inflammatory Effects on Artemisia scoparia (비쑥 추출물에 대한 항산화 활성 및 염증억제 효과)

  • Yoon, Weon-Jong;Lee, Jung-A;Kim, Ji-Young;Oh, Dae-Ju;Jung, Yong-Hwan;Lee, Wook-Jae;Park, Soo-Yeong
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.235-240
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    • 2006
  • We investigated the antioxidant activities such as DPPH radical scavenging capacity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, and superoxide radical scavenging capacity of the aqueous EtOH extract and its solvent fractions of Artemisia scoparia. The ethyl acetate fraction showed high antioxidant activity, compared to positive controls such as ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA), trolox, and allopurinol in these assay systems. Moreover, we examined the inhibitory effect of solvent fractions of A. scoparia on the production of pro-inflammatory factors that the nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 $(PGE_2)$ production activated with LPS $(1{\mu}g/ml)$ in murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. The amounts of protein levels were determined by immunoblottting. Tn the sequential fractions of hexane and dichloromethane inhibited the NO and $PGE_2$ production and the protein level of iNOS and COX-2. These results suggest that A. scoparia may have anti-inflammatory activity through the antioxidant activity and inhibition of pro-inflammatory factors.

Ursodeoxycholic Acid Inhibits Pro-Inflammatory Repertoires, $IL-1{\beta}$ and Nitric Oxide in Rat Microglia

  • Joo, Seong-Soo;Kang, Hee-Chul;Won, Tae-Joon;Lee, Do-ik
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.1067-1073
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    • 2003
  • Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a non-toxic, hydrophilic bile acid in widespread clinical use mainly for acute and chronic liver disease. Recently, treatment with UDCA in hepatic graft-versus-host disease has been given in immunosuppressive therapy for improvement of the biochemical markers of cholestasis. Moreover, it has been reported that UDCA possesses immunomodulatory effects by the suppression of cytokine production. In the present study, we hypothesized that UDCA may inhibit the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1$\beta$, and nitric oxide (NO) in microglia. In the study, we found that 100 $\mu$ g/mL UDCA effectively inhibited these two pro-inflammatory factors at 24 hand 48 h, compared to the $A\beta$42-pretreated groups. These results were compared with the LPS+UDCA group to confirm the UDCA effect. As microglia can be activated by several stimulants, such as $A\beta$42, in Alzheimers brain and can release those inflammatory factors, the ability to inhibit or at least decrease the production of IL-1$\beta$ and NO in Alzheimers disease (AD) is essential. Using RT-PCR, ELISA and the Griess Reagent System, we therefore found that UDCA in $A\beta$42 pre-treated cultures played a significant role in suppressing the expression or the production of IL-1$\beta$ and NO. Similarly, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) did not activate microglia in the presence of UDCA. Moreover, we found that UDCA exhibits a prolonged effect on microglial cells (up to 48 h), which suggests that UDCA may play an important role in chronic cell damage due to this long effect. These results further imply that UDCA could be an important cue in suppressing the microglial activation stimulated by massive AD peptides in the AD progressing brain.

Korean ginseng extract ameliorates abnormal immune response through the regulation of inflammatory constituents in Sprague Dawley rat subjected to environmental heat stress

  • Song, Ji-Hyeon;Kim, Kui-Jin;Choi, Seo-Yun;Koh, Eun-Jeong;Park, JongDae;Lee, Boo-Yong
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.252-260
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    • 2019
  • Background: Increases in the average global temperature cause heat stress-induced disorders by disrupting homeostasis. Excessive heat stress triggers an imbalance in the immune system; thus protection against heat stress is important to maintain immune homeostasis. Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) has been used as a herbal medicine and displays beneficial biological properties. Methods: We investigated the protective effects of Korean ginseng extracts (KGEs) against heat stress in a rat model. Following acclimatization for 1 week, rats were housed at room temperature for 2 weeks and then exposed to heat stress ($40^{\circ}C$/2 h/day) for 4 weeks. Rats were treated with three KGEs from the beginning of the second week to the end of the experiment. Results: Heat stress dramatically increased secretion of inflammatory factors, and this was significantly reduced in the KGE-treated groups. Levels of inflammatory factors such as heat shock protein 70, interleukin 6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were increased in the spleen and muscle upon heat stress. KGEs inhibited these increases by down-regulating heat shock protein 70 and the associated nuclear $factor-{\kappa}B$ and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Consequently, KGEs suppressed activation of T-cells and B-cells. Conclusion: KGEs suppress the immune response upon heat stress and decrease the production of inflammatory cytokines in muscle and spleen. We suggest that KGEs protect against heat stress by inhibiting inflammation and maintaining immune homeostasis.