• Title, Summary, Keyword: infinite elements

Search Result 171, Processing Time 0.047 seconds

Peak Analysis of Gamma-ray and X-ray (감마선 및 엑스선의 피이크 분석)

  • Kim, Seung-Kon;Herr, Young-Hoi;Park, Kwang-June
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
    • /
    • v.9 no.1
    • /
    • pp.33-42
    • /
    • 1984
  • A great variety of nuclear gamma rays emitted from fission and activation products of spent nuclear fuel contains much information that can be elicited without affecting the integrity of the fuel elements. But the extraction of such information from the complex spectrum is difficult and requires computer codes. In the present work, a versatile code 'CAERI' was developed which locates peaks and calculates their areas for X-rays as well as gamma rays using elegant features of some widely used programs for gamma-ray peak fitting. 'CAERI' coded in FORTRAN used infinite series approximation more accurate than other workers various, simple, piecewise series approximations for evaluations of the Voigt function which represents the X-ray peak with non-negligible natural line width. 'CAERI' can handle even a complex multiplet consisting of peaks from X-rays and gamma rays in arbitrary mixture, which one often encounters in the isotopic analysis of heavy elements such as U and Pu. The results of the fitting performed on the test spectra of $^{177m}\;Lu\;{\gamma}-ray\;and\;^{235}U\;K_{\alpha}$X-ray show good agreement with those by previous workers.

  • PDF

Evaluation of the stress distribution in the external hexagon implant system with different hexagon height by FEM-3D (임플란트 hexagon 높이에 따른 임플란트와 주위 조직의 응력분포 평가)

  • Park, Seong-Jae;Kim, Joo-Hyeun;Kim, So-Yeun;Yun, Mi-Jung;Ko, Sok-Min;Huh, Jung-Bo
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
    • /
    • v.50 no.1
    • /
    • pp.36-43
    • /
    • 2012
  • Purpose: To analyze the stress distribution of the implant and its supporting structures through 3D finite elements analysis for implants with different hexagon heights and to make the assessment of the mechanical stability and the effect of the elements. Materials and methods: Infinite elements modeling with CAD data was designed. The modeling was done as follows; an external connection type ${\phi}4.0mm{\times}11.5mm$ Osstem$^{(R)}$ USII (Osstem Co., Pusan, Korea) implant system was used, the implant was planted in the mandibular first molar region with appropriate prosthetic restoration, the hexagon (implant fixture's external connection) height of 0.0, 0.7, 1.2, and 1.5 mm were applied. ABAQUS 6.4 (ABAQUS, Inc., Providence, USA) was used to calculate the stress value. The force distribution via color distribution on each experimental group's implant fixture and titanium screw was studied based on the equivalent stress (von Mises stress). The maximum stress level of each element (crown, implant screw, implant fixture, cortical bone and cancellous bone) was compared. Results: The hexagonal height of the implant with external connection had an influence on the stress distribution of the fixture, screw and upper prosthesis and the surrounding supporting bone. As the hexagon height increased, the stress was well distributed and there was a decrease in the maximum stress value. If the height of the hexagon reached over 1.2mm, there was no significant influence on the stress distribution. Conclusion: For implants with external connections, a hexagon is vital for stress distribution. As the height of the hexagon increased, the more effective stress distribution was observed.

Various Possibilities of Dispositif Film (디스포지티프 영화의 다양한 가능성)

  • KIM, Chaehee
    • Trans-
    • /
    • v.3
    • /
    • pp.55-86
    • /
    • 2017
  • This study begins with the necessity of the concept of reincarnation of film media and the inclusion of specific tendencies of contemporary films as post - cinema comes. Variable movements around recent films Challenging and experimental films show aesthetics that are difficult to approach with the analysis of classical mise en scene and montage. In this way, I review the dispositif proposed by Martin in films that are puzzling to criticize with the classical conceptual framework. This is because the concept of dispositive is a conceptual pile that extends more than a mise en scene and a montage. Dispositif films tend to be non-reproducible and non-narrative, but not all non-narrativef tendencies are dispositif films. Only the dispositif film is included in the flow. Dispositif movement has increased dramatically in the modern environment on which digital technology is based, but it is not a tendency to be found in any particular age. The movement has been detected in classical films, and the dispositif tendency has continued to exist in avant-garde films in the 1920s and some modernist films. First, for clear conceptualization of cinematic dispositif, this study examines the sources of dispositif debates that are being introduced into film theory today. In this process, the theory of Jean Louis Baudry, Michel Foucault, Agamben, Flusser, and Deleuze will help. The concept of dispositif was discussed by several scholars, including Baudry and Foucault, and today the notion of dispositif is defined across all these definitions. However, these various discussions are distinctly different from the cinematic dispositif or dispositif films that Martin advocates. Martin's proposed concept reminds us of the fundamentals of cinematic aesthetics that have distinguished between the mise-en-scene and the montage. And it will be able to reconsider those concepts and make it possible to view a thing a new light or create new films. The basic implications of dispositif are apparatus as devices, disposition and arrangement, the combination of heterogeneity. Thus, if you define a dispositif film in a word, it is a new 'constraint' consisting of rearrangement and arrangement of the heterogeneous elements that make up the conditions of the classical film. In order for something to become a new design, changes must be made in the arrangement and arrangement of the elements, forces, and forces that make up it. Naturally, the elements encompass both internal and external factors. These dispositif films have a variety of possibilities, such as reflection on the archival possibilities and the role of supervision, the reestablishment of active and creative audience, the reason for the film medium, and the ideological reflection. films can also 'network' quickly and easily with other media faster than any medium and create a new 'devised' aesthetic style. And the dispositif film that makes use of this will be a key keyword in reading the films that present the new trend of modern film. Because dispositif are so comprehensive and have a broad implication, there are certainly areas that are difficult to sophisticate. However this will have a positive effect on the future activation of dispositif studies end for end. Dispositif is difficult to elaborate the concept clearly, so it can be accessed from a wide range of dimensions and has theoretically infinite extensibility. At the beginning and end of the 21st century film, the concept of cinematic dispositif will become a decisive factor to dismantle old film aesthetics.

  • PDF

A Hermenutic Study of Material Language in Contemporary Metal-craft - Centerd on June Schwarcz′s Color works - (현대금속공예에 있어서 물질언어의 해석학적 분석연구 -June Schwarcz′s 색채 구조물을 중심으로 -)

  • 임옥수
    • Archives of design research
    • /
    • v.14 no.3
    • /
    • pp.197-210
    • /
    • 2001
  • There are symbolicity and special meaning in the materials which are supposed to be used metalcraft from ancient to present. These are basical resources of hermeneutics and play a role as moaning elements. Generally, the precious Cold and Silver are mainly to be used with precious stone. But recently, ordinary materials like glass iron aluminum has begun to be used with them. Several artists are intentionally using them, and special skills which could be revealed by only the matherials are developing by them. In these skill, there are original material's texture and character of matter are looking like other matter. Well, special skills are adapted in these matters to magnify the possibility of expression, the originally codified meaning resources are disturbed. For example, The metal craft artist June Schwarcz is using the skills of electroforming, copper foiling, enameling, wire brush patina, fine wires fusing, etc. He is doing abstract forming and making various textures. And his works are very big size, and done by the skills of painting and sculpture. The outer form is very structural, special touches of the artists are heterogeneously mixed with the symbolic abstract expressionism color field. Further, there are mixed with Primitive original life atmosphere, Medieval ornamental aspect, Minimal, and Chaotic aspects. The meaning particles of these aspects are directly/indirectly joined but special skills and basic material languages are mixed together, the originally codified material language are disturbed. These disturbed material languages are becoming optically special effect and be illusion. It is making expressing way of tile metalcraft more fertile and be infinite.

  • PDF

Optimal Payment Contracts in Agent-Owner Relationship (대리인-선주간의 최적보상계약에 관한 연구)

  • 육근효
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
    • /
    • v.18 no.1
    • /
    • pp.37-57
    • /
    • 1987
  • This article discussed the characteristics of several Pareto-optimal incentive contracts between owner and labor, more specifically, four situations: reporting output jointly observable by labor ana owner; reporting both output and effort; incorporating other endogenous elements (like capital) that affect the production process and Pareto-optimal fee schedules; and ascertaining the effects of private pre-decision information private- decision information, and per-contact informational asymmetries. Also presented were several extensions of the basic contractual model, and the different components of agency costs associated with labor-owner contractual relations. In a single-period model, the agency problem exists because the uncertainty prevents the owner from using the cash flow to determine unambiguously the labor's action. Holmstrom(1979) suggests that "when the same situation repeats itself over time, the effects of uncertainty tend to be reduced and dystunctional behavior is more accurately revealed, thus alleviating the problem of moral hazard. " Under these conditions, if the labor selects the first-best level of effect in each period, the cash flow will be independent and identically distributed over time. As the number of periods increases, the variance of the labows average output, if he selects the first-best level of effort in each period, gets smaller. Note that for this diversification effect to occur, it is necessary that the owner evaluate the labor's effort over the entire history of his employment, rather than evaluate each period's performance separately. Radner(1980) and Rubinstein and Yaari(1980) consider the extreme case in which there are an infinite number of observations. They show that the owner can eventually detect and systematic shirking on the part of the labor by comparing the labor's average output with what would be expected if the labor had been selecting the first-best level of effort in each period. In a dynamic model with incentive problems we have demonstrated that the labor's second-period compensation will depend on his first-period performance. This allows the owner to diversify away some of the uncertainty surrounding the labor's actions. In addition, this allows the owner to smooth the labor's income over time by spreading the risk of the first-period outcome over both periods. At least some unexplored avenves in this area invite future accounting research: situations where owner has different incompatible objectives and negotiates a contract with labor; circumstances in which owner deals with multiple objectives and negotiates contracts with several labors simultaneously; the value of costly accounting information systems and communication in establishing, Pareto-optimal incentive contracts, and the value and effects of inside information, Thorough theoretical or empirical research on each of these topics not only would increase our knowledge about the role and significance of accounting information but could also provide explanations of the inherent differences among various organizations and in their economic behavior. behavior.

  • PDF

Scan Blindness Analysis of 1D and 2D Ka-Band Printed Dipole Array Antenna (일차원과 이차원 Ka-대역 프린티드 다이폴 배열 안테나의 스캔 블라인드니스 분석)

  • Koo, Hanni;Song, Sungchan;Nam, Sangwook
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
    • /
    • v.30 no.3
    • /
    • pp.202-208
    • /
    • 2019
  • In this study, an active element pattern (AEP) of a printed dipole was analyzed in 1D and 2D arrays. First, an AEP of the printed dipole was obtained using the simulation in the 2D infinite array. The scan blindness in the 2D array occurred in the E-plane direction at around ${\pm}36^{\circ}$; however, it was barely observed in the 1D array. To analyze the cause of the scan blindness in the 2D array, the dispersion properties of a unit cell was obtained and compared with the scan blindness by frequency change. The difference between the scan blindness of the 1D and 2D arrays was clarified using the comparison of the Q value in the unit cell in the 1D and 2D arrays. Then, the coupling of the electric field in the E-plane direction was observed when nine elements were separated between the two ports in a linearly arranged dipole structure. Finally, the printed dipole array was fabricated, and an AEP was measured for the $11{\times}1$ and $11{\times}3$ sub arrays. The proposed theory was verified using these observations and by comparison with the simulation results.

Direct Time Domain Method for Nonlinear Earthquake Response Analysis of Dam-Reservoir Systems (댐-호소계 비선형 지진응답의 직접시간영역 해석기법)

  • Lee, Jin-Ho;Kim, Jae-Kwan
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
    • /
    • v.14 no.3
    • /
    • pp.11-22
    • /
    • 2010
  • An analysis method is proposed for the transient linear or nonlinear analysis of dynamic interactions between a flexible dam body and reservoir impounding compressible water under earthquake loadings. The coupled dam-reservoir system consists of three substructures: (1) a dam body with linear or nonlinear behavior; (2) a semi-infinite fluid region with constant depth; and (3) an irregular fluid region between the dam body and far field. The dam body is modeled with linear and/or nonlinear finite elements. The far field is formulated as a displacement-based transmitting boundary in the frequency domain that can radiate energy into infinity. Then the transmitting boundary is transformed for the direct coupling in the time domain. The near field region is modeled as a compressible fluid contained between two substructures. The developed method is verified and applied to various earthquake response analyses of dam-reservoir systems. Also, the method is applied to a nonlinear analysis of a concrete gravity dam. The results show the location and severity of damage demonstrating the applicability to the seismic evaluation of existing and new dams.

Finite Element Simulation of Laser-Generated Ultrasound and Interaction with Surface Breaking Cracks (유한요소법을 이용한 레이저 유도 초음파와 표면 균열과의 상호작용 모델링)

  • Jeong, Hyun-Jo;Park, Moon-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing
    • /
    • v.24 no.3
    • /
    • pp.259-267
    • /
    • 2004
  • A finite element method is used to simulate interaction of laser-based ultrasounds with surface breaking tracks in elastic media. The laser line source focused on the surface of semi-infinite medium is modeled as a shear dipole in 2-D plane strain finite elements. The shear dipole-finite clement model is found to give correct directivity patterns for generated longitudinal and shear waves. The interaction of surface waves with surface breaking cracks (2-D machined slot) is considered in two ways. Both the source and receiver are fixed with respect to the cracks in the first case, while the source is moving in another case. It is shown that the crack depth tested in the range of 0.3-5.0mm $({\lambda}_R/d=0.21{\sim}3.45)$ can be measured using the corner reflected waves produced by the fixed laser source. The moving laser source is found to cause a large amplitude change of reflected waves near crack, and the crack whose depth is one order lower than the wavelength ran be detected from this change.

Researching Possible Uses of the Zen in the Process of Training Actors (배우의 연기훈련 과정에서 선(禪)의 활용 가능성)

  • Cho, Joon-Hui
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
    • /
    • v.13 no.11
    • /
    • pp.106-118
    • /
    • 2013
  • I discussed how the Zen training could be used to previous acting training methods focused on the way draw efficiently subconsciousness in the process of the training of actors. It is believed that the practice of the Zen would contribute to the development of training subconsciousness of actors. I examined the validities of the Zen practices which could be helpful to young students and existing actors' training processes and started from the existing proven analyses of mental and psychological effects of it. It is certain that the practices of Zen is a new continent which has infinite possibilities of analyzing and studying in terms of thinking highly of the Zen and brain science together. If we would utilize the Zen efficiently in the course of training actors, we could achieve four elements: the first, a trigger to operate actors' subconsciousness, the second, establishing the presence of actors through the reinforcement of concentration, the third, overcoming any mental and psychological obstacles, and the fourth, the establishment of transformation skills through the combined use of left and right brains. Additionally, actors could have mental and psychological stability through the Zen practice in their daily lives. I believe that we could also find a unique Eastern actor training way through vigorous and practical following analyses and practices which are based on the Zen tradition for training actors' subconsciousness and unconsciousness.

Nonlinear Earthquake Response Analysis of a Soil-Structure Interaction System Subjected to a Three-Directional Ground Motion (3축 방향 지반운동이 작용하는 지반-구조물 상호작용계의 비선형 지진응답 해석)

  • Lee, Jin Ho;Kim, Jae Kwan;Kim, Jung Han
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
    • /
    • v.29 no.4
    • /
    • pp.317-325
    • /
    • 2016
  • In this study, nonlinear earthquake responses of a soil-structure interaction(SSI) system which is subjected to a three-directional ground motion are examined. The structure and the near-field region of soil, where the geometry is irregular, the material properties are heterogeneous, and nonlinear dynamic responses are expected, are modeled by nonlinear finite elements. On the other hand, the infinite far-field region of soil, which has a regular geometry and homogeneous material properties and dynamic responses is assumed linearly elastic, is represented by three-dimensional perfectly matched discrete layers which can radiate elastic waves into infinity efficiently. Nonlinear earthquake responses of the system subjected to a three-directional ground motion are calculated with the numerical model. It is observed that the dynamic responses of a SSI system to a three-directional motion have a predominant direction according to the characteristics of the ground motion. The responses must be evaluated using precise analysis methods which can consider nonlinear behaviors of the system accurately. The the method employed in this study can be applied easily to boundary nonlinear problems as well as material nonlinear problems.