• Title, Summary, Keyword: inelastic structures

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Seismic structural demands and inelastic deformation ratios: Sensitivity analysis and simplified models

  • Chikh, Benazouz;Laouami, Nacer;Mebarki, Ahmed;Leblouba, Moussa;Mehani, Youcef;Kibboua, Abderrahmane;Hadid, Mohamed;Benouar, Djillali
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.59-66
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    • 2017
  • Modern seismic codes rely on performance-based seismic design methodology which requires that the structures withstand inelastic deformation. Many studies have focused on the inelastic deformation ratio evaluation (ratio between the inelastic and elastic maximum lateral displacement demands) for various inelastic spectra. This paper investigates the inelastic response spectra through the ductility demand ${\mu}$, the yield strength reduction factor $R_y$, and the inelastic deformation ratio. They depend on the vibration period T, the post-to-preyield stiffness ratio ${\alpha}$, the peak ground acceleration (PGA), and the normalized yield strength coefficient ${\eta}$ (ratio of yield strength coefficient divided by the PGA). A new inelastic deformation ratio $C_{\eta}$ is defined; it is related to the capacity curve (pushover curve) through the coefficient (${\eta}$) and the ratio (${\alpha}$) that are used as control parameters. A set of 140 real ground motions is selected. The structures are bilinear inelastic single degree of freedom systems (SDOF). The sensitivity of the resulting inelastic deformation ratio mean values is discussed for different levels of normalized yield strength coefficient. The influence of vibration period T, post-to-preyield stiffness ratio ${\alpha}$, normalized yield strength coefficient ${\eta}$, earthquake magnitude, ruptures distance (i.e., to fault rupture) and site conditions is also investigated. A regression analysis leads to simplified expressions of this inelastic deformation ratio. These simplified equations estimate the inelastic deformation ratio for structures, which is a key parameter for design or evaluation. The results show that, for a given level of normalized yield strength coefficient, these inelastic displacement ratios become non sensitive to none of the rupture distance, the earthquake magnitude or the site class. Furthermore, they show that the post-to-preyield stiffness has a negligible effect on the inelastic deformation ratio if the normalized yield strength coefficient is greater than unity.

Evaluation of Inelastic Displacement Response for Multi-Span Bridge Structures Subjected to Earthquakes (지진하중에 대한 다경간 교량의 비탄성 변위응답 평가)

  • Song, Jong-Keol;Nam, Wang-Hyun;Chung, Yeong-Hwa
    • Journal of Industrial Technology
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    • v.24 no.A
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    • pp.195-204
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    • 2004
  • To evaluate inelastic seismic responses of multi-span bridge structures, the capacity spectrum method(CSM) incorporating the equivalent single-degree-of freedom(ESDOF) method is presented. Application of the CSM incorporating the ESDOF method is illustrated by example analysis for symmetric and asymmetric bridge structures. To investigate an accuracy of the CSM, the maximum displacements estimated by the CSM are compared to those by inelastic time history analysis for several artificial earthquakes. The results show that the CSM provided conservative estimates of the maximum displacements for the symmetric and asymmetric bridge structures, and the trend of conservative estimates of the asymmetric bridge structures was significantly larger than that of the symmetric bridge structure.

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Ductility and inelastic deformation demands of structures

  • Benazouz, Cheikh;Moussa, Leblouba;Ali, Zerzour
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.631-644
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    • 2012
  • Current seismic codes require from the seismically designed structures to be capable to withstand inelastic deformation. Many studies dealt with the development of different inelastic spectra with the aim to simplify the evaluation of inelastic deformation and performance of structures. Recently, the concept of inelastic spectra has been adopted in the global scheme of the performance-based seismic design through capacity-spectrum methods. In this paper, the median of the ductility demand ratio for 80 ground motions are presented for different levels of normalized yield strength, defined as the yield strength coefficient divided by the peak ground acceleration (PGA). The influence of the post-to-preyield stiffness ratio on the ductility demand is investigated. For fixed levels of normalized yield strength, the median ductility versus period plots demonstrated that they are independent of the earthquake magnitude and epicentral distance. Determined by regression analysis of the data, two design equations have been developed; one for the ductility demand as function of period, post-to-preyield stiffness ratio, and normalized yield strength, and the other for the inelastic deformation as function of period and peak ground acceleration valid for periods longer than 0.6 seconds. The equations are useful in estimating the ductility and inelastic deformation demands for structures in the preliminary design. It was found that the post-to-preyield stiffness has a negligible effect on the ductility factor if the yield strength coefficient is greater than the PGA of the design ground motion normalized by gravity.

Characterization of earthquake ground motion of multiple sequences

  • Moustafa, Abbas;Takewaki, Izuru
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.3 no.5
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    • pp.629-647
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    • 2012
  • Multiple acceleration sequences of earthquake ground motions have been observed in many regions of the world. Such ground motions can cause large damage to the structures due to accumulation of inelastic deformation from the repeated sequences. The dynamic analysis of inelastic structures under repeated acceleration sequences generated from simulated and recorded accelerograms without sequences has been recently studied. However, the characteristics of recorded earthquake ground motions of multiple sequences have not been studied yet. This paper investigates the gross characteristics of earthquake records of multiple sequences from an engineering perspective. The definition of the effective number of acceleration sequences of the ground shaking is introduced. The implication of the acceleration sequences on the structural response and damage of inelastic structures is also studied. A set of sixty accelerograms is used to demonstrate the general properties of repeated acceleration sequences and to investigate the associated structural inelastic response.

Inelastic displacement ratios for evaluation of stiffness degrading structures with soil structure interaction built on soft soil sites

  • Aydemir, Muberra Eser
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.741-758
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    • 2013
  • In this study, inelastic displacement ratios are investigated for existing systems with known lateral strength considering soil structure interaction. For this purpose, SDOF systems for period range of 0.1-3.0 s with different hysteretic behaviors are considered for a number of 18 earthquake motions recorded on soft soil. The effect of stiffness degradation on inelastic displacement ratios is investigated. The Modified Clough model is used to represent structures that exhibit significant stiffness degradation when subjected to reverse cyclic loading and the elastoplastic model is used to represent non-degrading structures. Soil structure interaction analyses are conducted by means of equivalent fixed base model effective period, effective damping and effective ductility values differing from fixed-base case. For inelastic time history analyses, Newmark method for step by step time integration was adapted in an in-house computer program. A new equation is proposed for inelastic displacement ratio of system with SSI with elastoplastic or degrading behavior as a function of structural period ($\tilde{T}$), strength reduction factor (R) and period lengthening ratio ($\tilde{T}$/T). The proposed equation for $\tilde{C}_R$ which takes the soil-structure interaction into account should be useful in estimating the inelastic deformation of existing structures with known lateral strength.

Energy based procedure to obtain target displacement of reinforced concrete structures

  • Massumi, A.;Monavari, B.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.681-695
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    • 2013
  • Performance-based seismic design allows a structure to develop inelastic response during earthquakes. This modern seismic design requires more clearly defined levels of inelastic response. The ultimate deformation of a structure without total collapse (target displacement) is used to obtain the inelastic deformation capacity (inelastic performance). The inelastic performance of a structure indicates its performance under excitation. In this study, a new energy-based method to obtain the target displacement for reinforced concrete frames under cyclic loading is proposed. Concrete structures were analyzed using nonlinear static (pushover) analysis and cyclic loading. Failure of structures under cyclic loading was controlled and the new method was tested to obtain target displacement. In this method, the capacity energy absorption of the structures for both pushover and cyclic analyses were considered to be equal. The results were compared with FEMA-356, which confirmed the accuracy of the proposed method.

Soil structure interaction effects on structural parameters for stiffness degrading systems built on soft soil sites

  • Aydemir, Muberra Eser
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.655-676
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    • 2013
  • In this study, strength reduction factors and inelastic displacement ratios are investigated for SDOF systems with period range of 0.1-3.0 s considering soil structure interaction for earthquake motions recorded on soft soil. The effect of stiffness degradation on strength reduction factors and inelastic displacement ratios is investigated. The modified-Clough model is used to represent structures that exhibit significant stiffness degradation when subjected to reverse cyclic loading and the elastoplastic model is used to represent non-degrading structures. The effect of negative strain - hardening on the inelastic displacement and strength of structures is also investigated. Soil structure interacting systems are modeled and analyzed with effective period, effective damping and effective ductility values differing from fixed-base case. For inelastic time history analyses, Newmark method for step by step time integration was adapted in an in-house computer program. New equations are proposed for strength reduction factor and inelastic displacement ratio of interacting system as a function of structural period($\tilde{T}$, T) ductility (${\mu}$) and period lengthening ratio ($\tilde{T}$/T).

Comparative Study on Evaluation of Inelastic Energy Absorption Capacity for Seismic Fragility Analysis of Structures (구조물의 지진취약도분석을 위한 비탄성에너지흡수능력의 평가 기법에 관한 비교 연구)

  • 조양희;조성국;박형기
    • Proceedings of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.135-142
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    • 2002
  • This paper introduces the technologies related to seismic resistance assessment of nuclear power plant structures by seismic fragility analysis(SFA). The inelastic energy absorption factor is considered in SFA to represent the effects due to the nonlinear behavior of structures and has a significant effect on the seismic fragility that is a probability of failure of structures by earthquake. Several practical methods to evaluate the inelastic energy absorption capacity of structures are investigated. The capacities determined by those methods are compared with each other. And an improved method that uses the inelastic demand capacity diagram is presented. Conclusively, some comments on each method for practical application are made.

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Analysis of Underground Box Structures with Inelastic Soil Spring (비탄성 지반 스프링을 이용한 지하 구조물의 해석)

  • Oh, Chi-Woong;Chung, Jae-Hoon;Yhim, Sung-Soon
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.91-96
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    • 2002
  • There are many methods for analyzing underground box structures. One is the method of Iterative removal of tensional spring. The other is the method of modeling of ground to 8-node elastic-plastic planar element. In this study, We use inelastic soil spring element for analyzing underground box structures. First, if N-value is over 50, the results of inelastic soil spring method is the same as the method of 8-node planar element in last stage. Second, as N is increasing, element forces in two methods are generally decreasing. Third, as N-value is increasing, element forces in two method are generally decreasing and displacement has decreasing incline. This is the same as the force-displacement curve of general underground structures.

Analytical study on the influence of distributed beam vertical loading on seismic response of frame structures

  • Mergos, P.E.;Kappos, A.J.
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.239-259
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    • 2013
  • Typically, beams that form part of structural systems are subjected to vertical distributed loading along their length. Distributed loading affects moment and shear distribution, and consequently spread of inelasticity, along the beam length. However, the finite element models developed so far for seismic analysis of frame structures either ignore the effect of vertical distributed loading on spread of inelasticity or consider it in an approximate manner. In this paper, a beam-type finite element is developed, which is capable of considering accurately the effect of uniform distributed loading on spreading of inelastic deformations along the beam length. The proposed model consists of two gradual spread inelasticity sub-elements accounting explicitly for inelastic flexural and shear response. Following this approach, the effect of distributed loading on spreading of inelastic flexural and shear deformations is properly taken into account. The finite element is implemented in the seismic analysis of plane frame structures with beam members controlled either by flexure or shear. It is shown that to obtain accurate results the influence of distributed beam loading on spreading of inelastic deformations should be taken into account in the inelastic seismic analysis of frame structures.