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PARK Index and S-score Can Be Good Quality Indicators for the Preventable Mortality in a Single Trauma Center

  • Park, Chan Yong;Lee, Kyung Hag;Lee, Na Yun;Kim, Su Ji;Cho, Hyun Min;Lee, Chan Kyu
    • Journal of Trauma and Injury
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.126-130
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Preventable Trauma Death Rate (PTDR) using Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) has been most widely used as a quality indicator in South Korea. However, this method has a small number of deaths corresponding to the denominator. Therefore, it is difficult to check the change of quality improvement for annual mortality, and there is a disadvantage that variation is severe. Therefore, we attempted to improve the quality of the mortality evaluation by reducing the variation by applying the PARK Index (preventable major trauma death rate, PMTDR) which can increase the number of denominator significantly. And the Save score (S-score) was also examined as another quality indicator. Methods: In the PARK Index, the denominator is number of all patients who have survival probability (Ps) larger than 0.25. Numerator is the number of deaths among these. The PARK Index includes only patients with ISS >15. The S-score is calculated in the same way as the W-score, but the S-score includes only patients with ISS >15, which is a difference from the W-score. Results: PARK Index decreased annually and was 12.9 (37/287) in 2014, 9.6 (33/343) in 2015, and 7.3 (52/709) in 2016. S-score increased annually and was -0.29 in 2014, 4.21 in 2015, and 8.75 in 2016. Conclusions: PARK Index and S-score improved annually. This shows that both quality indicators are improving year by year. PARK Index (PMTDR) has 9.5-fold increase in denominator overall compared to PTDR by TRISS. The S-score used only ISS >15 patients as a denominator. Therefore, there is an advantage that the numerical value change is larger than the W-score. In addition, S-score is not affected by the ratio of major trauma patients to minor trauma patients.

Development of a Cardiovascular Index That Estimates Cardiovascular Health Degree by Survey and Noninvasive Examination (설문과 비침습적 검사를 통하여 심혈관계 건강 정도를 알려주는 심혈관지수의 개발)

  • Lee, Chong Sun;Chung, In Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.459-466
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    • 2014
  • An index was developed that estimates cardiovascular health degree with easily available physiological information such as survey and noninvasive measurement. The survey score was calculated by utilizing questions related to personal disease history, self-feeling, and management state. The measurement score was calculated using physiological parameters such as blood pressure, accelerated plethysmograph(APG), and heart rate variability(HRV), and augmentation index(AI). In order to evaluate effectiveness of the cardiovascular index and modify weighting factors used in each item, a clinical trial was done in a general hospital. The cardiovascular index showed a clear correlation of 0.685 with the doctor's score on the cardiovascular health degree. The correlation between the self-estimated score and doctor's score was as low as 0.217. The large gap between these two scores demonstrated necessity of more objective tools like the cardiovascular index. The cardiovascular score showed a significant difference between normal persons and patients suffering hypertension or diabetes. (p=0.000).

Comparative study on the Dental caries experience, Oral hygiene states and Caries activity test between the Normal and the Mental Handicapped children (정상아와 정신장애아의 치아우식경험도 및 구강환경상태와 우식활성검사 결과 간의 비교연구)

  • Kim, Mi-Hyung;Kim, Seon-Mi
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.187-200
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to obtain the basic data provide continuous and active dental treatment for the mental handicapped children. The authors studied on the dental caries experience, oral hygiene slates and caries activity test in the mental handicapped children of 9-11 years old, who are housed by rehabilitation school in Kwang-ju and in the 30 normal children of 9-11 years old as a control group. Correlation coefficiency was calculated among the caries experience, oral hygiene states and caries activity test for every children. The obtained results are as follows. 1. The mental handicapped children showed remarkably high score compared to normal children in DMFT index(The Index score was $2.43{\pm}1.98$ in the normal children and $5.26{\pm}4.11$ in the mental handicapped.). 2. Correlation coefficiency was reveled very high score between DT index and DMFT index of the normal children(P<0.01), and the mental handicapped was also high score(P<0.01) between ft index and dmft index. 3. The PMA Index of the mental handicapped children was comparatively higher than the normal(The Index score was $4.03{\pm}4.44$ in the normal children and $7.87{\pm}7.33$ in the mental handicapped.). 4. In the correlation coefficiency between the caries experience and modified snyder test, DMFT index of the normal children was revealed some high score(P<0.05). DMFT index of the mental handicapped was showed remarkably high score(P<0.01).

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Study on the Correlation Between the Imbalance of Muscle Strength and the Score of EMG-Biofeedback Game at Ankle Joint in Healthy Adults

  • Ko, Yu-Min;Park, Seol;Lim, Chang-Hun;Lee, Woo-Jin;Park, Ji-Won
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.386-391
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: This study investigated whether the strength imbalance between two muscles can affect the score of EMG based biofeedback game, and whether the EMG based biofeedback game score can be used as predictable indicator of the degree of muscle balance alternating the conventional strength measuring equipment. Methods: 40 participated in this study. Biodex was used to measure the peak torque/weight in order to calculate the muscle strength balance index between plantar flexor and dorsiflexor of ankle joint. And muscle balance index (MBI) was calculated. The EMG biofeedback game scores of dorsiflexor and plantar flexor were acquired, so that the EMG electrodes were attached at tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius. The relationship between the game score and the muscle balance index were analyzed. Results: There was negative correlation between the muscle balance index between plantar flexor and dorsiflexor and the peak torque/weight of plantar flexor (r=-0.70). And there was negative correlation between the muscle balance index between plantar flexor and dorsiflexor and the game score of plantar flexor (r=-0.83). Conclusion: The EMG biofeedback game score had significant relationship with muscle imbalance at ankle joint, so it seems that the game score can be used for predicting the degree of muscle imbalance as a parameter.

A Study on the Food Habit & The Health Responses of College Students to the Todai Health Index (대학생의 식습관과 건강상태에 관한 연구)

  • 장유경
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.43-51
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    • 1988
  • This study is intended to investigate the demographic characteristics and socio-economic status of students, and to reveal the correlations between food habit and health condition by Todai health Index. The results of this study were summerized as followes: 1) the sex ratio of the subjects was 309 males: 129 females. Mean score of the food habit was 7,56 in males and 8.88 in females. The subjects were included in Fair and Poor group generally. Food habit score of students living their own home were significantly higher generally. Food habit score of students living their own home were significantly higher than those of the others (Lodging & Relatives, Self-Boarding, Dormitory, and so forth). 2) In males and females, mean of height and weight were 171.6cm, 62.1kg and 159.9cm, 50.9kg, respectively. Though there was insignificant difference in the physical index according to food habit score in general, there was a special trend in case of male that the higher food habit score they have, the higher physical index they get. The subjects with low food habit score showed the higher THI point in Life-irregularity, Straight-forwardness, depression and Sufferings than those with high food habit score. The female subjects with high food habit score showed the lower THI point in depression, on the contrary, showed higher in vanity. There was significant correlation between instant food, drinking and smoking and THI point.

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The Reliability and Validity of Korean Version of the Wheelchair User's Shoulder Pain Index in Wheelchair Users (휠체어 사용자를 위한 한국어판 WUSPI의 신뢰도와 타당도)

  • Park, Ji-Yeon;Cho, Sang-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Physical Medicine
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.573-582
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    • 2013
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to establish the reliability and validity of the Wheelchair User's Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI), which was translated into Korean for long-term wheelchair users. This index measured 15 functional activities, including transfer, self-care, wheelchair mobility and general activities. METHODS: To assess test-retest reliability, 23 long-term wheelchair users completed this self-administered index twice within the same day. Reliability was determined by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Cronbach's alpha was used to measure internal consistency. To examine concurrent validity, 21 long-term wheelchair users completed the questionnaire, and we examined the correlation between the index score and the shoulder range of motion measurements. RESULT: The results showed that the intraclass correlation for test-retest reliability of the total index score ranging from .88 to .99 was good to excellent. Additionally, Cronbach's alpha was .96. The internal consistency indicated excellent. Concurrent validity showed negative correlations of total index score to range of motion measurements of shoulder flexion (rho=-.58), extension (rho=-.09), abduction (rho=-.59), external rotation (rho=-.07) and internal rotation (rho=-.3), suggesting a relationship of total index score to loss of shoulder range of motion. CONCLUSION: The Korean WUSPI shows not only high reliability and internal consistency, but also concurrent validity with loss of shoulder flexion and abduction.

Which Information is Commonly Used for Patients with Stroke at Rehabilitation Settings?

  • Lee, Haejung;Song, Jumin
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.392-399
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: This study investigated whether the strength imbalance between two muscles can affect the score of EMG based biofeedback game, and whether the EMG based biofeedback game score can be used as predictable indicator of the degree of muscle balance alternating the conventional strength measuring equipment. Methods: 40 participated in this study. Biodex was used to measure the peak torque/weight in order to calculate the muscle strength balance index between plantar flexor and dorsiflexor of ankle joint. And muscle balance index (MBI) was calculated. The EMG biofeedback game scores of dorsiflexor and plantar flexor were acquired, so that the EMG electrodes were attached at tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius. The relationship between the game score and the muscle balance index were analyzed. Results: There was negative correlation between the muscle balance index between plantar flexor and dorsiflexor and the peak torque/weight of plantar flexor (r=-0.70). And there was negative correlation between the muscle balance index between plantar flexor and dorsiflexor and the game score of plantar flexor (r=-0.83). Conclusion: The EMG biofeedback game score had significant relationship with muscle imbalance at ankle joint, so it seems that the game score can be used for predicting the degree of muscle imbalance as a parameter.

Correlation Analysis between Cold-Heat Score and Acoustic Analysis Index (한열과 음성분석지표의 상관성 연구)

  • Yang, Dong-Hoon;Yoo, Seung-Yeon;Cho, Shin-Woong;Park, Chan-Kyu;Park, Young-Jae;Park, Young-Bae
    • The Journal of the Korean Medicine Diagnostics
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.72-80
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    • 2009
  • Objective: We performed this study to check relationship of Cold-Heat attribute analyzed quantitatively by questionnaire with acoustic analysis index. Method : We checked a questionnaire composed of 15 items about the contents of Cold-Heat and asked 83 subjects to answer in the form Likert-like 7-points score. And then, we extracted Cold-Heat attribute from heat score, cold score, heat index and cold index. we measured the acoustic analysis indexes of cardinal vowels by Dr. speech program. Afterward, the data were analyzed by correlation analysis. Results : All cardinal vowels is positive correlated with cold score, heat score and cold index. NNE of vowel /a/ is negative correlated with cold index. Shimmer and F0 tremor of vowel /e/ is negative correlated with cold index. Jitter of vower /u/ is positive correlated with Cold score.

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A study on individual achievement index of foreign language ability (외국어능력 개별성취도지표 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Chang, Duk-Joon;Heo, Sun-Yeong
    • Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.629-637
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    • 2009
  • This study suggests two types of indices to evaluate individual student's achievement of foreign language abilities between two time points. One, named uniform achievement index, is defined as the ratio of additional score between two time points to the total score range of a test. The second one, named relative achievement index, is defined as the ratio of additional scores between two time points to the remaining score at the base time point to the full score if the score is improved during the given period of time, and if not, is defined as the ratio of the amount of losing scores to the difference of the score at the base time point from the least score of the test. Two indices are both having values between -1 to 1, and easy to interpret. Also, they are eligible to compare scores from different tests at the same time. However, relative achievement index will be more useful to compare student having different base scores because it is consider each student's test score at the base time.

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METHYL MERCAPTAN CONCENTRATION DURING EXPERIMENTAL GINGIVITIS IN MAN (실험적 치은염에서 구강내 휘발성 메틸머캅단 농도 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Young-Jun
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.35-44
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    • 1995
  • The purpose of present study was to evaluate the relationship between the early change of gingival condition and methyl mercaptan concentration during experimental gingivitis. Ten men(23-25 years old) whose gingiva were clinically healthy were selected. The participants have ceased to perform all forms of oral hygiene during 14 days and then did thorough plaque control for 7 days. For each subject, the methyl mercaptan concentration was measured by $B.B.Checker^{(R)}$ (Bad Breath Checker with printer, Tokuyama Soda Co.,LTD., Japan)before experiment and 1,4,7,14,21 days during experiment. Plaque index(Silness & $L\ddot{o}e$), gingival sulcus depth and sulcus bleeding index($M\ddot{u}hlemann$ & Son)score were recorded. The results were as follows. 1. Methyl mercaptan concentration increased continuously from the first day to the 14th day, decreased on the 21th day but it was still higher(P<0.001). 2. Plaque index score and sulcus bleeding index score tended to increase on the 4th day, markedly increased on the 14th day and returned to baseline level on the 21th day. 3. There was parallel relationhsip among methyl mercaptan concentration, plaque index score and sulcus bleeding index score. This result suggests that methyl mercaptan concentration increased with deterioration in gingival health, but decreased during recovery of normal health condition.

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