• Title, Summary, Keyword: in vivo

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Contrast Enhancement of Laser Speckle Contrast Image in Deep Vasculature by Reduction of Tissue Scattering

  • Son, Taeyoon;Lee, Jonghwan;Jung, Byungjo
    • Journal of the Optical Society of Korea
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.86-90
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    • 2013
  • Various methods have been proposed for enhancing the contrast of laser speckle contrast image (LSCI) in subcutaneous blood flow measurements. However, the LSCI still suffers from low image contrast due to tissue turbidity. Herein, a physicochemical tissue optical clearing (PCTOC) method was employed to enhance the contrast of LSCI. Ex vivo and in vivo experiments were performed with porcine skin samples and male ICR mice, respectively. The ex vivo LSCIs were obtained before and 90 min after the application of the PCTOC and in vivo LSCIs were obtained for 60 min after the application of the PCTOC. In order to obtain the skin recovery images, saline was applied for 30 min after the application of the PCTOC was completed. The visible appearance of the tubing under ex vivo samples and the in vivo vasculature gradually enhanced over time. The LSCI increased as a function of time after the application of the PCTOC in both ex vivo and in vivo experiments, and properly recovered to initial conditions after the application of saline in the in vivo experiment. The LSCI combined with the PCTOC was greatly enhanced even in deep vasculature. It is expected that similar results will be obtained in in vivo human studies.

Cytocidal Effect of Hyperthermia on Tumor Cells in vivo (In vivo 腫瘍細胞에 미치는 溫熱處理의 細胞致死效果)

  • Kang, Man-Sik;Rhee, Jeong-Gile;Seymour H. Levitt;Chang W. Song
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.59-64
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    • 1981
  • The cytocidal effect of hyperthermia on subcutaneous SCK tumor cells growing in vivo was significantly greater than that on the SCK tumor cells cultured in vitro. When the tumors were left in situ after heating, the cell survival progressively decreased, and the functional intratumor vascular volume also decreased. The radiation survival curves of tumor cells heated either 30 min before or after X-irradiation in vivo were steeper than the radiation survival curves of unheated control tumors. It is concluded that the cytocidal effect of hyperthermia on tumor cells in vivo is greater than that in vitro due possibly to the intratumor environment.

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Fatty Acid Contents and Efficacy of In vivo and In vitro Cultured Entomopathogenic Nematodes (In vivo 및 in vitro로 배양된 곤충병원성 선충의 지방산 함량 및 효능)

  • 박선호;김효현
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.271-275
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    • 2002
  • Fatty Acid contents of entomopathogenic nematodes(EPNs) were examined by various types of nematodes and culture methods. Seven different types EPNs cultured by in vivo did not contain same fatty acid contents, but similar compositions. It was also found that Steinernema carpocapsae among EPNs cultured by in vivo and in vitro contained not only different fatty acid contents, but also revealed distinctive motilities in a soil. The addition of olive oil in the in vitro culture medium resulted in similar fatty acid contents of S. carpocapsae to in vivo and greatly improved the pathogenicity of nematodes compared to that of soy oil in the medium.

Effects of Iron, Chelators and Nitrate Concentration on in vivo Fluorescence and Nitrate Reductase of the Red Tide Organism Amphidinium carterae

  • Yang, Sung-Ryull;Song, Hwan-Seok;Pae, Se-Jin;Huh, Sung-Hoi
    • Journal of the korean society of oceanography
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.49-57
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    • 1999
  • A red tide organism, Amphidinium carterae was incubated under different iron/chelator and nitrate concentrations to investigate the factors controlling the growth. The chelation capacity played a critical role in regulating the nitrate reductase (NR) activity and in vivo fluorescence of this organism. However, there was a significant difference between the NR activity and in vivo fluorescence in response to trace metals and chelator treatments. In vivo fluorescence was the highest in FeEDTA 10 ${\mu}$M treatments and the lowest in DTPA 10 ${\mu}$M treatments. This indicates that the availability of the trace metal is important in regulating the in vivo fluorescence of this photosynthetic microalgae In contrast, NR activity showed the highest values in trace metal enriched treatments, and trace metal + DTPA treatments showed fairly high NR activities. This suggests that DTPA treatment did not hinder the NR activity as much as it did in vivo fluorescence. In vivo fluorescence and NR activity increased with nitrate concentration of up to 50 ${\mu}$M and remained relatively constant or the rate of increase decreased above that concentration, indicating that initial nitrate concentration of higher than a certain level would not accelerate the growth of A. carterae. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the reason for the difference in timing sequence between the NR and in vivo fluorescence in response to different metal treatments and chelation capacity.

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Comparing In Vitro and In Vivo Genomic Profiles Specific to Liver Toxicity Induced by Thioacetamide

  • Kang, Jin-Seok;Jeong, Youn-Kyoung;Shin, Ji-He;Suh, Soo-Kyung;Kim, Joo-Hwan;Lee, Eun-Mi;Kim, Seung-Hee;Park, Sue-Nie
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.252-260
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    • 2007
  • As it is needed to assay possible feasibility of extrapolation between in vivo and in vitro systems and to develop a new in vitro method for toxicity testing, we investigated global gene expression from both animal and cell line treated with thioacetamide (TAA) and compared between in vivo and in vitro genomic profiles. For in vivo study, mice were orally treated with TAA and sacrificed at 6 and 24 h. For in vitro study, TAA was administered to a mouse hepatic cell line, BNL CL.2 and sampling was carried out at 6 and 24 h. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by analyzing hepatic enzymes and histopathological examination (in vivo) or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and morphological examination (in vitro). Global gene expression was assessed using microarray. In high dose TAA-treated group, there was centrilobular necrosis (in vivo) and cellular toxicity with an elevation of LDH (in vitro) at 24 h. Statistical analysis of global gene expression identified that there were similar numbers of altered genes found between in vivo and in vitro at each time points. Pathway analysis identified several common pathways existed between in vivo and in vitro system such as glutathione metabolism, bile acid biosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, butanoate metabolism for hepatotoxicty caused by TAA. Our results suggest it may be feasible to develop toxicogenomics biomarkers by comparing in vivo and in vitro genomic profiles specific to TAA for application to prediction of liver toxicity.

Screening of Genes Expressed In Vivo During Interaction Between Chicken and Campylobacter jejuni

  • Hu, Yuanqing;Huang, Jinlin;Jiao, Xin-An
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.217-224
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    • 2014
  • Chicken are considered as the most important source of human infection by Campylobacter jejuni, which primarily arises from contaminated poultry meats. However, the genes expressed in vivo of the interaction between chicken and C. jejuni have not been screened. In this regard, in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT) was applied to identify expressed genes in vivo during interaction between chicken and C. jejuni, a prevalent foodborne pathogen worldwide. Chicken sera were obtained by inoculating C. jejuni NCTC 11168 into Leghorn chickens through oral and intramuscular administration. Pooled chicken sera, adsorbed against in vitro-grown cultures of C. jejuni, were used to screen the inducible expression library of genomic proteins from sequenced C. jejuni NCTC 11168. Finally, 28 unique genes expressed in vivo were successfully identified after secondary and tertiary screenings with IVIAT. The genes were implicated in metabolism, molecular biosynthesis, genetic information processing, transport, regulation and other processes, in addition to Cj0092, with unknown function. Several potential virulence-associated genes were found to be expressed in vivo, including chuA, flgS, cheA, rplA, and Cj0190c. We selected four genes with different functions to compare their expression levels in vivo and in vitro using real-time RT-PCR. The results indicated that these selected genes were significantly upregulated in vivo but not in vitro. In short, the expressed genes in vivo may act as potential virulence-associated genes, the protein encoded by which may be meaningful vaccine candidate antigens for campylobacteriosis. IVIAT provides an important and efficient strategy for understanding the interaction mechanisms between Campylobacter and hosts.

In vitro/In vivo Correlation of Sustained Release Diltiazem (딜티아젬서방정을 이용한 In vitro/In vivo 상관성)

  • Choi, Myoeng-Sin;Kang, Chan-Soon;Choi, Bo-Kyung;Hong, Chong-Hui;Kim, Kil-Soo
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.321-325
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    • 2002
  • IVIVC (In vitro/in vivo correlation) is useful for predicting in vivo results from in vitro data. The aim of this study was to develop IVIVC of sustained release diltiazem. For this purpose, three types of diltiazem tablets with different in vitro dissolution rates were prepared. An in vitro dissolution testing method comprising of paddle apparatus, 50 rpm, water as dissolution medium was developed. Under these condition, we demonstrated that AUCinf could be predicted by evaluating $d_{70%}$ (time dissolved 70%) in vitro since the in vivo AUCinf was correlated with the in vitro $d_{70%}$ (r=-0.9981).

Assessment of Feasibility for Developing Toxicogenomics Biomarkers by comparing in vitro and in vivo Genomic Profiles Specific to Liver Toxicity Induced by Acetaminophen

  • Kang, Jin-Seok;Jeong, Youn-Kyoung;Suh, Soo-Kyung;Kim, Joo-Hwan;Lee, Woo-Sun;Lee, Eun-Mi;Shin, Ji-He;Jung, Hai-Kwan;Kim, Seung-Hee;Park, Sue-Nie
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.177-184
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    • 2007
  • As a possible feasibility of the extrapolation between in vivo and in vitro systems, we investigated the global gene expression from both mouse liver and mouse hepatic cell line treated with hepatotoxic chemical, acetaminophen (APAP), and compared between in vivo and in vitro genomic profiles. For in vivo study, mice were orally treated with APAP and sacrificed at 6 and 24 h. For in vitro study, APAP were administered to a mouse hepatic cell line, BNL CL.2 and sampling was carried out at 6 and 24 h. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by analyzing hepatic enzymes and histopathological examination (in vivo) or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and morphological examination (in vitro). Global gene expression was assessed using microarray. In high dose APAPtreated group, there was centrilobular necrosis (in vivo) and cellular toxicity with the elevation of LDH (in vitro) at 24 h. Statistical analysis of global gene expression identified that there were similar numbers of altered genes found between in vivo and in vitro at each time points. Pathway analysis identified glutathione metabolism pathway as common pathways for hepatotoxicty caused by APAP. Our results suggest it may be feasible to develop toxicogenomics biomarkers or profiles by comparing in vivo and in vitro genomic profiles specific to this hepatotoxic chemical for application to prediction of liver toxicity.

Replacement of the in vivo Bioassay for Erythropoietin with the in vitro Bioassay (Erythropoietin in vivo 시험법의 in vitro 대체 시험법 확립)

  • 백상훈;김진만;권기성;박송용;허재욱
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.255-260
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    • 2003
  • In vivo bioassays for biological medicines have been considered final resort to unequivocally assess the biological activities for them because there are some cases in which the biological activities obtained from in vivo bioassay and in vitro bioassay quite differ each other. The in vivo biological activity of EPO depends on its sialic acid contents which confer microheterogeneity-isoforms to this protein. We have devise a method which consists of a in vitro bioassay using BaF3 cell line and a capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) for the measurement of the EPO isoform distribution. The biological activity of EPO obtained using in vitro bioassay with BaF3 cell line showed good correlation (C.V.(%) 7.34, 5.85, 8,16, 8.08, 8.8) to EPO content measured either spectrophotometric assay (A280 0.1 % =0.743) or radio immunoassay. The assay validation results of in vitro bioassay with 3 lot of in house EPO showed good results to EPO content measured either in vivo assay or radio immunoassay. and also showed good results the robustness of our method in terms of precision, accuracy, repeatability. The isoform distribution for EPO-BRP (1 : 1 mixture of epoetin-${\alpha}$ and epoetin-${\beta}$, European Pharmacopoeia) by CZE method resulted in isoform 2 through isoform 8. The major peaks in electrophoregram were composed of isoform 3 through 7. Our recombinant EPO (epoetin-${\alpha}$) having equivalent in vivo biological activity showed the isoform distribution of isoform 3 through 9. The major peaks consisted of isoform 4 through 8. The peak area of isoform 4 was always smaller than that of isoform 5. The preparations of recombinant epoetin-${\alpha}$ with lower in vivo biological activity than EPO-BRP showed the isoform 2 through 8 in their electrophoregrams whose major peaks consisted of the isoform 3 through 7. The peak area of isoform 4 was larger than that of isoform 5.

In Vivo Non Invasive Molecular Imaging for Immune Cell Tracking in Small Animals

  • Youn, Hyewon;Hong, Kee-Jong
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.223-229
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    • 2012
  • Clinical and preclinical in vivo immune cell imaging approaches have been used to study immune cell proliferation, apoptosis and interaction at the microscopic (intra-vital imaging) and macroscopic (whole-body imaging) level by use of ex vivo or in vivo labeling method. A series of imaging techniques ranging from non-radiation based techniques such as optical imaging, MRI, and ultrasound to radiation based CT/nuclear imaging can be used for in vivo immune cell tracking. These imaging modalities highlight the intrinsic behavior of different immune cell populations in physiological context. Fluorescent, radioactive or paramagnetic probes can be used in direct labeling protocols to monitor the specific cell population. Reporter genes can also be used for genetic, indirect labeling protocols to track the fate of a given cell subpopulation in vivo. In this review, we summarized several methods dealing with dendritic cell, macrophage, and T lymphocyte specifically labeled for different macroscopic whole-body imaging techniques both for the study of their physiological function and in the context of immunotherapy to exploit imaging-derived information and immune-based treatments.