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Vertical Distribution of the Heavy Metal in Paddy Soils of Below Part at Guundong Mine in Milyang, Korea (구운동 폐광산 하류 논토양의 토심별 중금속함량)

  • Yun, Eul-Soo;Park, Sung-Hak;Ko, Jee-Yeon;Jung, Ki-Yeol;Park, Ki-Do;Hwang, Jae-Bok;Park, Chang-Yeong
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.590-595
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to investigate form of pollution brought by residual of mine tailing in agricultural land, and get basic information need for environment restoration. Guundong mine was completely restored region by implementation the soil pollution prevention plan. The districts is soils in Guundong mine vicinity the Mahul-ri, Muan-myeon, Miryang city, Gyeongsangnam-do. The nature of soil studied is the Shinra series andesite and mineral deposits which contain brimstone and heavy metals such as gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc. The residual mine tailing and around agricultural land of heavy metals analyzed with 0.1N HCI solubility. The chemical properties of surface soil in upper part around mining area were pH 4.3-4.4, organic matter 19-21 g $kg^{-1}$, available $P_2O_5$ 85 mg $kg^{-1}$, exchangeable Ca 0.21-0.25 $cmol_c\;kg^{-1}$, exchangeable Mg 0.04 $cmol_c\;kg^{-1}$. The pH, exchangeable Ca, and Mg were increased with soil depth. The contents of 0.1N HCl extractable Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, and Ni in soil (siteI) which influenced by outflow water from mine tailing were 97, 0.6, 197, 0.28 및 0.12 mg $kg^{-1}$, respectively. The vertical distribution of heavy metals in soil varied considerably among the metals kind. In case of siteI, The content of Cu, Pb, and Cr in soil was highest at surface soil. However, the content of Cd, Zn, Ni, and Mn was high at middle part of soil profile.

Biodiversity Conservation and the Yellow Sea Large Marine Ecosystem Project (생물다양성 보전과 황해 광역 해양생태계 관리계획)

  • Walton, Mark
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.335-340
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    • 2010
  • The paper describes the objectives of Yellow Sea Large Marine Ecosystem (YSLME) project, focusing on procedural and practical aspects. YSLME is a highly productive sea yet possibly one of the most impacted large marine ecosystems, in terms of anthropogenic stressors, due the enormous coastal population. The aim of the YSLME project is the reduction of ecosystem stress through identification of the environmental problems in the Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis (TDA) that are then addressed in the Strategic Action Programme (SAP). One of the major problems found to be affecting biological diversity is habitat modification through wetland reclamation, conversion and degradation. Since the early 1900's more than 40% of intertidal wetlands have been reclaimed in Korea, and 60% of Chinese coastal wetlands have been converted or reclaimed. Damaging fishing practices, pollution and coastal eutrophication have further degraded the coastal environment reducing the biological diversity. To combat this loss, the YSLME project has mounted a public awareness campaign to raise environmental consciousness targeted at all different levels of society, from politicians at parliamentary workshops, local government officer training events, scientific conferences and involvement of scientists in the project research and reporting, to university and high school students in our visiting internship programmes and environmental camps. We have also built networks through the Yellow Sea Partnership and by liaising and working with other environmental organizations and NGOs. NGO's are recognised as important partners in the environmental conservation as they already have extensive local networks that can be lacking in international organisations. Effective links have been built with many of these NGOs through the small grants programme. Working with WWF's YSESP project and other academic and research institutions we have conducted our own biodiversity assessments that have contributed to the science-based development of the SAP for the YSLME. Our regional targets for biodiversity outlined in the SAP include: Improvements in the densities, distributions and genetic diversity of current populations of all living organisms including endangered and endemic species; Maintenance of habitats according to standards and regulations of 2007; and a reduction in the risk of introduced species. Endorsement of the SAP and its successful implementation, during the proposed second phase of the YSLEM project, will ensure that biological diversity is here to benefit future generations.

A Study on the Selection of Evaluation Indicators of Amenities (국토 어메니티 평가지표 개발)

  • Lee, Jae-Joon;Choi, Seok-Hwan;Kim, Sun-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.25-38
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    • 2010
  • This study aims to, first, classify the approach system of utilizing national and local amenities into three groups: evaluation of the level of the amenity, evaluation of the value of amenity resources, and utilization of amenity resources. Secondly, the study aims to derive an evaluation index which is required according to the approach system. As for a strategy of utilizing amenities, the self-diagnosis based on the evaluation of the level of local amenities is required. In this study, three sectors, ten items and 43 detailed items have been derived though specialists, FGIs(Focus Group Interview), and the cases within and outside of the country. In the survey with specialists, a unit-space key index which can be used in accordance with the unit-space characteristics(such as urban and rural area, fishing villages, mountain villages, and littoral areas), environmental area, important index and optional index have been derived. As for the evaluation index which is needed for the development of typical local amenities resources, 14 detailed evaluation indexes from three sectors have been derived. These have been classified again into six key indexes, six important indexes and two optional indexes. In the evaluation index of amenity resources, natural and environmental value-such as ecological value of preservation, uniqueness of aesthetic landscape and ecological value of restoration-historic and cultural value of preservation and individuality of the resources, and aesthetic and cultural values are derived as being important. As for utilization of amenity resources, 15 items from three sectors-such as reservation, restoration, intentional use, and industrial use-have been derived. Also, through a survey with specialists, key indexes and important indexes were derived by unit-space. As a result, in urban areas, seven items-including creative development of space, aesthetic landscape control and development of cultural contents-have been derived as key indexes; in rural areas, mountain villages, fishing villages and littoral areas, eight items-including brand of region, brand of the products, and brand of tourism resources-have been derived. In environmental areas, six items-including reservation of natural resources, historic and cultural heritage, and restoration of ecosystem-have been derived. Indexes derived from this study can be utilized in order to establish a strategy for amenity plans and an implementation strategy, but can be readjusted, allowing for various regional characteristics. It is, thus, advisable that local governments selectively utilize indexes according to regional characteristics or newly develop them for the maximum utilization of regional amenities.

Utilization of a Ubiquitous Environmental Sculptures Analysis (유비쿼터스 환경 조형물의 이용의식 실태 분석)

  • Kim, Dong-Chan;Cho, Hwee-In
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.15-22
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    • 2010
  • Today's rapid shifts toward a new paradigm are combining city spaces with reality and technology, which is known as a ubiquitous environment. An ubiquitous environment means that 'whenever' and 'wherever' become connected. It is a great possibility that this will change our future lifestyle. Korea has the biggest advantage in the implementation of this new environment, such as having an excellent network infrastructure. Using these attributes of a ubiquitous environment, changes are being made toward ubiquitous cities within developing fields of construction, landscaping, streets, art, and the environment. This research is based on background of research that activated media pole in public city space has been done research about reality of digital skill, fusion, and sense of ubitizen, and Kang-Nam U-street applied by ubiquitous technique. While reflecting an environment that can be utilized in a modern digital society, the application of ubiquitous technology to media pole can be a space for the two-way communication of the current paradigm. It would also be meaningful to create a new cultural space through media pole. Through evaluation, citizens of the ubiquitous age are going to interact to raise the satisfaction that media pole in city space can prevent giving direction to develop and trial and error about service ability, identity, and publicity. Finally, the media pole can be used as a fundamental element to suggest directions for change when viewed as future development.

A Study on Design of Agent based Nursing Records System in Attending System (에이전트기반 개방병원 간호기록시스템 설계에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Hwan
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.73-94
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    • 2010
  • The attending system is a medical system that allows doctors in clinics to use the extra equipment in hospitals-beds, laboratory, operating room, etc-for their patient's care under a contract between the doctors and hospitals. Therefore, the system is very beneficial in terms of the efficiency of the usage of medical resources. However, it is necessary to develop a strong support system to strengthen its weaknesses and supplement its merits. If doctors use hospital beds under the attending system of hospitals, they would be able to check a patient's condition often and provide them with nursing care services. However, the current attending system lacks delivery and assistance support. Thus, for the successful performance of the attending system, a networking system should be developed to facilitate communication between the doctors and nurses. In particular, the nursing records in the attending system could help doctors monitor the patient's condition and provision of nursing care services. A nursing record is the formal documentation associated with nursing care. It is merely a data repository that helps nurses to track their activities; nursing records thus represent a resource of primary information that can be reused. In order to maximize their usefulness, nursing records have been introduced as part of computerized patient records. However, nursing records are internal data that are not disclosed by hospitals. Moreover, the lack of standardization of the record list makes it difficult to share nursing records. Under the attending system, nurses would want to minimize the amount of effort they have to put in for the maintenance of additional records. Hence, they would try to maintain the current level of nursing records in the form of record lists and record attributes, while doctors would require more detailed and real-time information about their patients in order to monitor their condition. Therefore, this study developed a system for assisting in the maintenance and sharing of the nursing records under the attending system. In contrast to previous research on the functionality of computer-based nursing records, we have emphasized the practical usefulness of nursing records from the viewpoint of the actual implementation of the attending system. We suggested that nurses could design a nursing record dictionary for their convenience, and that doctors and nurses could confirm the definitions that they looked up in the dictionary through negotiations with intelligent agents. Such an agent-based system could facilitate networking among medical institutes. Multi-agent systems are a widely accepted paradigm for the distribution and sharing of computation workloads in the scientific community. Agent-based systems have been developed with differences in functional cooperation, coordination, and negotiation. To increase such communication, a framework for a multi-agent based system is proposed in this study. The agent-based approach is useful for developing a system that promotes trade-offs between transactions involving multiple attributes. A brief summary of our contributions follows. First, we propose an efficient and accurate utility representation and acquisition mechanism based on a preference scale while minimizing user interactions with the agent. Trade-offs between various transaction attributes can also be easily computed. Second, by providing a multi-attribute negotiation framework based on the attribute utility evaluation mechanism, we allow both the doctors in charge and nurses to negotiate over various transaction attributes in the nursing record lists that are defined by the latter. Third, we have designed the architecture of the nursing record management server and a system of agents that provides support to the doctors and nurses with regard to the framework and mechanisms proposed above. A formal protocol has also been developed to create and control the communication required for negotiations. We verified the realization of the system by developing a web-based prototype. The system was implemented using ASP and IIS5.1.

The Study on Aviation Crime in Aviation Safety and Security Act of Korea ("항공안전 및 보안에 관한 법률"에 있어서 항공범죄에 관한 연구)

  • Hwang, Ho-Won
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.27-54
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    • 2010
  • Soon after September 11 attacks in 2001, there were strong demands in Korea on making relevant laws and regulations on aviation security, and Korean parliament legislated "Aviation Safety and Security Act"to fulfill the demands on safety and security of aircrafts during aviation. However, the current Aviation Safety and Security Act seems to have many problems which do not meet the practical needs in Korea, because there were not enough considerations on the practical needs and extinguishable national circumstances on civil aviation system in Korea, but only regarded the relevant international conventions and foreign practices on it. In this context, it is necessary to amend several provisions in Aviation Safety and Security Act to enhance more practical efficiencies in its implementation through systematization of the provisions on crimes which may happen during aviation. In this context, this article argues two main issues. First, Article 39 of Aviation Safety and Security Act does not express whether it is possible to punish the attempt of crime of causing damage to aircraft. Therefore, regarding a principle of legality, it is impossible to punish the perpetrator even when coincidently failed to destruct or damage aircraft. In this context, this article argues that the necessity to introduce the possibility to punish the attempt of crime of causing damage to aircraft. Second, regarding Article 160 of Civil Aviation Act of Korea, current Aviation Safety and Security Act should be amended by guaranteeing the culpability of negligence of crime of causing damage to aircraft.

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Exploring the Theoretical Trends of an Integrated Environmental Design (통합적 환경설계 이론 기초 연구)

  • Ahn, Myung-June;Pae, Jeong-Hann
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.14-25
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    • 2009
  • We live in an age which is exponentially growing as the knowledge paradigm is changing. New sites are subject to contemporary landscape architecture function as "fields" in which this hybrid aspect is both actively practiced and becoming a catalyst for change in the area of landscape architecture. With this as its background, this study attempts to deal with how the aspect of integration in environmental design is manifested. For this purpose, the tendencies for the discussion of integration in various fields of practice were examined: planning theories, urban theories, architecture, public environment, engineering, and landscape architecture. As yet, the discussions of interdisciplinary integration, which occur in practice in these respective fields, mainly tend to be oriented toward the effective implementation of the merits of other related fields. Seen from these examples of practice, integrated design approaches can be found in the following three aspects: design objects, respective professional areas, and methodologies of approaches and design. In terms of design objects, the positions of individual design subjects present themselves as most obvious, and integration or combination of the physical targets that come to exist through design can be easily seen. Most examples of integration turn out to be this, in almost every case of which the theme and the target of expression are integrated via a small number of certain methods. In terms of professional areas, what can be mainly evidenced is how the individual subject acts when the subject designs. The strong points of professionals from each field seem to create synergy, achieving through integration optimum results. In terms of methodologies of approaches and design, there are attempts to create integrated approaches as ways of effective decision-making, in which case the integration of all of the interest parties is of primary concern. As yet, few instances have been found in which integrated design has had enough strength to be seen as a concrete design methodology based on practical examples. However, it is encouraging that theoretical approaches and the necessity for integrated design have been identified from multiple perspectives, and that a practical movement such as landscape urbanism has come into active being. The authors of this study find this point in time to be ripe for discussions on integrated practices in terms of environmental design, on the basis of the synthetic approaches mentioned above.

4-way Search Window for Improving The Memory Bandwidth of High-performance 2D PE Architecture in H.264 Motion Estimation (H.264 움직임추정에서 고속 2D PE 아키텍처의 메모리대역폭 개선을 위한 4-방향 검색윈도우)

  • Ko, Byung-Soo;Kong, Jin-Hyeung
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SD
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.6-15
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    • 2009
  • In this paper, a new 4-way search window is designed for the high-performance 2D PE architecture in H.264 Motion Estimation(ME) to improve the memory bandwidth. While existing 2D PE architectures reuse the overlapped data of adjacent search windows scanned in 1 or 3-way, the new window utilizes the overlapped data of adjacent search windows as well as adjacent multiple scanning (window) paths to enhance the reusage of retrieved search window data. In order to scan adjacent windows and multiple paths instead of single raster and zigzag scanning of adjacent windows, bidirectional row and column window scanning results in the 4-way(up. down, left, right) search window. The proposed 4-way search window could improve the reuse of overlapped window data to reduce the redundancy access factor by 3.1, though the 1/3-way search window redundantly requires $7.7{\sim}11$ times of data retrieval. Thus, the new 4-way search window scheme enhances the memory bandwidth by $70{\sim}58%$ compared with 1/3-way search window. The 2D PE architecture in H.264 ME for 4-way search window consists of $16{\times}16$ pe array. computing the absolute difference between current and reference frames, and $5{\times}16$ reusage array, storing the overlapped data of adjacent search windows and multiple scanning paths. The reference data could be loaded upward and downward into the new 2D PE depending on scanning direction, and the reusage array is combined with the pe array rotating left as well as right to utilize the overlapped data of adjacent multiple scan paths. In experiments, the new implementation of 4-way search window on Magnachip 0.18um could deal with the HD($1280{\times}720$) video of 1 reference frame, $48{\times}48$ search area and $16{\times}16$ macroblock by 30fps at 149.25MHz.

A Study on the Moderating Effect of Perceived Voluntariness in the Organizational Information System Usage and Performance (정보시스템 사용과 성과에 있어서 자발성의 조절효과에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Seung-Chang;Lee, Ho-Geun;Jung, Chang-Wook;Chung, Nam-Ho;Suh, Eung-Kyo
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.195-221
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    • 2009
  • According to an industry report, a large number of organizations have invested in Organizational Information System(OIS) in the past few years. Several research results indicate that successful investments in OIS lead to productivity enhancement, while failed ones result in undesirable consequences such as financial losses and dissatisfaction among employees. In spite of huge investments, however, many organizations have failed in achieving the hoped-for returns from OIS. Thus, understanding user acceptance, adoption, and usage of new IS(Information Systems) is an important issue for IS practitioners. Indeed, study of the user acceptance of new information system has been one of the most important research topics in the contemporary IS literature. Several theoretical models are tested to examine 'user acceptance' and 'usage behavior' in IS context. While many research models incorporate 'ease of use' or 'usefulness' as important factors in explaining user acceptance, Technology Acceptance Model(TAM) has been one of the most widely applied models in user acceptance and usage behavior. Even in recent IS studies that employ theories of innovation diffusion in the area of IS implementation, a major focus has been on the user's perception of information technologies. In this research, we study 'voluntariness' as an important factor in IS acceptance by users. Voluntariness is defined as "the degree to which the use of the innovation is perceived as being voluntary, or of free will" When examining the diffusion of accepting OIS, a thoughtful consideration should be given to 'perceived voluntariness.' Current article has following research questions: 1) What models are appropriate to explain the success of OIS? and 2) How does the 'voluntariness' affect the success of OIS? In order to answer these questions, a research model is proposed to describe the detailed nature of association among three independent variables (IT usage level, task interdependency, and organizational support), a mediating variable (IS usage), a dependent variable (perceived performance), and a moderating variable(perceived voluntariness). The central claim of this article is that organizations hardly realize expected returns from OIS investments unless perceived voluntariness is effectively managed after operating OIS. As an example of OIS in this study we have selected the Intranet of Republic of Korea Air Force (ROKAF). ROKAF has implemented the Intranet in an attempt to improve communication and coordination within the organization. To test our research model and hypotheses, survey questionnaires were first sent out to 400 Intranet users. With the assistance of ROKAF, Intranet users were initially identified among its members, and subjects were randomly drawn from the pool. 377 survey responses were finally returned. The unit of measurement and analysis in this research is a personal level. Path analysis based on structural equation modeling was used to test research hypotheses. Construct validity represents accordance between the theoretical base concept of constructs and its measurement items. Tests for the reliability and discriminant validity are accepted, thus verifying our survey instrument. In this research, we have proposed a conceptual framework to highlight the importance of perceived voluntariness after organization deploys OIS. The results of our analysis present several key finding. First, all three independent variables (IT usage level, task interdependency, and organizational support) have significant effects on IS usage, which will eventually improve performance. Thus, IS usage plays a mediating role between antecedent variables (IT usage level. task interdependency, and organizational support) and performance improvement. Second, the effect of the task dependency was the highest for IS usage among the three antecedent variables. This is highly plausible since one of the Intranet's major capabilities is to facilitate communication among members within an organization. Accordingly, we conclude that the higher the task dependency, the higher Intranet usage. The effect of user's IT usage level was the second, while the effect of the organizational support was the third. Finally, the perceived voluntariness plays a pivotal role in enhancing perceived performance in personal level after launching the Intranet. Relationships among investigated variables were significantly different between groups with a high level and a low level of voluntariness. The impact of the Intranet usage on the performance was greater in the higher level voluntariness group than in the lower one. For the lower level voluntariness group, the user's IT usage had the highest effect on the Intranet usage among the three antecedent variables. In short, our study suggests that the higher the perceived voluntariness is the more IS usage will be. Perceived voluntariness was found to have a moderating effect on the relationships among user IT usage level, task interdependency, IS usage, and perceived performance, supporting all the hypotheses on the moderating effect. Most of all, user IT usage level has the strongest influence on IS usage, indicating that users with superior IT usage are more likely to enjoy a high level of perceived performance.

A Survey of Perceptions of Elementary School Teachers on the Small-Scale Chemistry (미량화학(Small-Scale Chemistry)에 대한 초등학교 교사들의 인식)

  • Kim, Sung-Kyu;Kong, Young-Tae
    • Journal of Science Education
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.291-305
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    • 2010
  • The aim of this study was to survey the perceptions of the elementary school teachers on the smallscale chemistry(SSC) following its training session. The teachers participating in the survey were 266 teachers in the Gyeongnam province. They were given a questionnaire that focused on the nine areas of the SSC: Needs for the teacher training and its application, its benefits, issues of safety and danger as well as treatment of environmental pollution, its economic efficiency and the development of investigative skills. The designed questionnaire was checked by an authority, and the responses to each question were tallied and analyzed. The results are as follows. The biggest problems of the traditional experimental methods as rated by the teachers were, in the order of importance, the preparation time, the legal liability of teachers for the safety and accidents, financial issues, disposal of the experimental wastes and the lack of relevant data. Since most of the teachers had not experienced the SSC lab programs in the field, they responded positively to the questions of need for its introduction and training. The implementation of the experimental SSC lab programs should proceed in the following order: introduction into the textbook, teacher training program, after-school education and the invitation of instructors. The most useful materials for the SSC program were CDs, videos, books and various printed materials, in that order. The responses regarding benefits of the SSC program included its simplicity, convenience, time savings, diversity, qualitative and quantitative aspects, integration into the regular class and use of toys. In particular, the teachers mentioned the increased safety due to the small amount of experimental reagents needed and the durability of plastic instruments. The familarity from the use of everyday tools as well as easy access to and the low-cost of the instruments were other important benefits. The teachers in general rated the educational content of the program highly, but many also found it to be average. Some pointed out the lack of sufficient discussion due to the individual or pair groupings as a potential shortcoming. The potential for development of problem solving ability and improvement of skills was rated positively. The number of teacher who rated the development of creativity positively was just over the half. As for the area of improving investigative skills, many found its assessment difficult and confusing because of the lack of its systemic definition and categorization. Based on the findings of this study, I would like to recommend the application and a wider dissemination of the small-scale chemistry lab program into the elementary school science curriculum.

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