• Title, Summary, Keyword: immunosuppression

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Prophylactic Antiviral Treatment in Immunosuppressed Chronic Hepatitis B Patients (면역억제자에서 만성 B형간염의 예방적 치료)

  • Yoon, Eileen L.
    • The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology
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    • v.74 no.5
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    • pp.258-266
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    • 2019
  • Improved management of chronic hepatitis B patients with oral nucleos(t)ide analogues has increased the number of these patients who are getting older and have other accompanying comorbidities. These comorbidities frequently require various immunosuppression treatments and/or cytotoxic chemotherapy. Not only the patients who are positive for HBsAg, but also the patients who are positive for isolated anti-HBc are at risk for hepatitis B reactivation during immunosuppression. Prophylactic antiviral treatment with oral nucleos(t)ide analogues with high genetic barriers can decrease the risks of HBV reactivation, HBV reactivation-associated hepatitis, and mortality in these patients. It is crucial to screen HBV markers in all of the patients who have to undergo immunosuppression, be administered prophylactic antiviral treatment in the high risk groups, and be monitored for HBV reactivation during and after immunosuppression and/or cytotoxic chemotherapy. This study summarizes the recommendations from the recently updated guidelines from Korea, United States, and Europe.

Potential Immunotherapeutics for Immunosuppression in Sepsis

  • Shin, Jinwook;Jin, Mirim
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.569-577
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    • 2017
  • Sepsis is a syndrome characterized by systemic inflammatory responses to a severe infection. Acute hyper-inflammatory reactions in the acute phase of sepsis have been considered as a primary reason for organ dysfunction and mortality, and advances in emergency intervention and improved intensive care management have reduced mortalities in the early phase. However it has been recognized that increased deaths in the late phase still maintain sepsis mortality high worldwide. Patients recovered from early severe illness are unable to control immune system with sepsis-induced immunosuppression such as immunological tolerance, exhaustion and apoptosis, which make them vulnerable to nosocomial and opportunistic infections ultimately leading to threat to life. Based on strategies to reverse immunosuppression, recent developments in sepsis therapy are focused on molecules having immune enhancing activities. These efforts are focused on defining and revising the immunocompromised status associated with long-term mortality.

The Morphological Changes of Cryopreserved Rat Trachea After Heterotopic Transplantation (쥐의 초냉동기관 이소 이식 후 형태학적 변화)

  • 성숙환;서정욱;박종호;김경환
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.29 no.11
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    • pp.1182-1190
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    • 1996
  • The best treatment of congenital or acquired tracheal stenosis is resection and end to end anastomosis. Various prosthetic material and tissue graft replacement can be considered when the stenotic segment is too long, but their uses are still limited due to many serious complications. The present study examined the effect of immunosuppression and cryopreserved allograft trachea after intraperitoneal omental implantation for evaluation of the possibility of tracheal transplantation. Thirty tracheal segments were harvested from fifteen donor Wistar rats. Among them eighteen segments were implanted immediately(group I, II, III) and twelve segments were used for cryopreservation(group IV, V). Heterotopical intraperitoneal implantation was performed in five groups of rats(n=6); Group I was Wistar syngeneic controls and received no immunosuppression. Group II and III were those of Sprague-Dawley recipients, the former receiving no immunosuppression and the latter receiving immunosuppression(Cyclosporin A 15mg/kg/day, Methylprednisolone 2mg/kg/day). Group IV and V were groups of Sprague-Dawley recipients, the former receiving immunosuppression and the latter receiving no Immunosuppression. After 28 days, rats were sacrificed and the tracheal segments were histologically evaluated. Epithelial thickness was significantly decreased in group II, IV. Epithelial regeneration score was also significantly decreased in II. All rats maintained well their round tracheal contour. In conclusion; I) trachea could be preserved for a long time with cryo method, 2) epithelium could regenerate fully with omentopexy in cryopreserved trachea, 3) immunosuppresion was not necessary with cryopreserved trachea.

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THE IMMUNE SUPPRESSIVE EFFECT FROM THE STRESS OF MAXILLOFACIAL OPERATIONS (구강악안면 영역의 수술이 인체내 세포면역성 억제에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Soung-Min;Lee, Suk-Keun
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.108-115
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    • 2003
  • Suppression of cellular immunity is the host responses to surgical stress. When the body is exposed to surgical stress, decreased immunocyte function is one of the surgical stress-induced biologic responses. In all patients exposed to the surgical stress, peripheral blood lymphocyte numbers and function were suppressed until at least 2 weeks postoperatively. This immunosuppression was mainly due to a decrease of helper-inducer T cells, cytotoxic T cells, natural killer cells, and an increase of suppressor T cells. The blood levels of interleukin-6(IL-6) cytokine increase in response to surgical stress and cause an increase of so-called acute phase reactants, including C-reactive protein(CRP). In the previously damaged patients group, expected to early stress expose, immunosuppression was more developed than other normal groups. Cellular immunosuppression by surgical stress was mainly due to an increase of lymphocyte subsets that depress cellular immunity coupled with a decrease of the subsets that promote it. Overproduction of CRP in response to surgical stress may play an important role in the development of immunosuppression.

Sirolimus and Non-melanoma Skin Cancer Prevention after Kidney Transplantation: A Meta-analysis

  • Gu, Yu-Hong;Du, Jia-Xin;Ma, Man-Ling
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4335-4339
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    • 2012
  • Background: Whether sirolimus is useful in the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) remains unclear and we therefore performed this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to test the hypothesis that Sirolimus-based immunosuppression is associated with a decrease in NMSC. Methods: The main outcomes were NMSC, squamous-cell carcinoma and basal-cell carcinoma. The pooled risk ratio (RR) with its 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were used to assess the effects. Results: 5 randomized trials involving a total of 1499 patients receiving kidney transplantation were included. Patients undergoing Sirolimus-based immunosuppression had much lower risk of NMSC (RR = 0.49, 95%CI 0.32-0.76, P = 0.001). Subgroup analyses by tumor type showed that Sirolimus-based immunosuppression significantly decreased risk of both squamous-cell carcinoma (RR = 0.58, 95%CI 0.43-0.78, P < 0.001) and basal-cell carcinoma (RR = 0.56, 95%CI 0.37-0.85, P = 0.006). The quality of evidence was high for NMSC, and moderate for squamous-cell carcinoma and basal-cell carcinoma. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Conclusion: High quality evidence suggests that Sirolimus-based immunosuppression decreases risk of non-melanoma skin cancer, and Sirolimus has an antitumoral effect among kidney-transplant recipients.

Combined Effect of Korean Red Ginseng and EGb 761 on Ultraviolet B-induced Contact Hypersensitivity (UV-B조사로 유도된 접촉 과민반응에 대한 홍삼과 홍삼+EGb 761 혼합물의 억제 효과 비교)

  • Choi Wookhee;Kim Duksung;Ann Hyoungsoo;Lee Youngmi;Ahn Ryoungme
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.143-151
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    • 2005
  • Exposure of skin to UV-B radiation can cause inflammatory response and immunosuppression. It has been reported that Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) has several pharmacological and physiological effects such as antioxidant, anticancer and improving immune function. In this study, we investigated that topical KRG and KRG + EGb 761 (Ginkgo biloba extract) combination prevented UV-B induced inflammation and inhibition of contact hypersensitivity response. Topical application of KRG, f days prior to or 5 days after exposure to 1MED and 2MED of UV-B, reduced skin thickness compared to non -treated group and resulted in protection against immunosuppression. However, KRG+EGb 761 combination has a little protection against the only 1MED UV-B. In conclusion. Topical application of KRG was more effective than combination in protection against UV-B induced inflammation and immune suppression. Also, we suggest that KRG can provide protection from inflammation and immunosuppression by UV-B radiation.

Role of Metabolic Activation by Cytochrome P450s in Chemical- induced Immunosuppression

  • Jeong, Tae-Cheon;Lee, Eung-Seok;Chae, Whi-Gun
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.201-205
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    • 2002
  • It is generally accepted that the immune system is one of the major target organs for many toxic chemicals. In addition, many toxic chemicals require metabolic activation by cytochrome P450s for their toxicity. Although the immune cells possess a limited amount of drug metabolizing capacity, metabolic activation of certain toxicants in liver and immune organs may have a significant role in immunosuppression. In the present studies, the possible role of metabolic activation by cytochrome P450s in chemical-induced immunosuppression was reviewed, with a particular emphasis on the methodological techniques to detect immunotoxicants requiring metabolic activation in vivo and in vitro. (omitted)

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Effect of Panax ginseng on morphine- and steroids-induced immunosuppression

  • 김영란;김경만
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.223-223
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    • 1996
  • Effects of Panax ginseng were tested on morphine-and steroids-induced immunosuppression, focusing on mechanism and identification of active components. To investigate overall effects of morphine and ginseng total saponin (GTS) on immune system, body weight and lymphoid organ weight were measured. Morphine significantly reduced body weight, spleen/body weight, and thymus/body weight ratio. GTS, at 100mg/kg (oral), restored spleen/body weight ratio. Because morphine is known to increase corticosterone level, serum corticosterone level was measured by radioimmunoassay. Serum corticosterone was increased by morphine and it was restored to the control level by GTS 100mg/kg (oral). In vitro proliferation studies were also conducted to study the effects of ginseng on steroids-induced immunosuppression. While ginsenoside Rg$_1$ and ginseng alkaloids were effective on proliferation and dexamethasone-induced death of thymocytes, 50% ginseng ethanol extract and polysaccharides were effective on splenocytes. In vivo mprohine-induced apoptosis of thymus was partly protected by GTS.

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Topical Irradiation of UVA to The Eye Induces Immunosuppression in The Mice via Nitric-Oxise Dependent Neuronal Pathways

  • Hiramoto, Keiichi;Yanagihara, Nobuyo;Sato, Eisuke F.;Inoue, Masayasu
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.470-471
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    • 2002
  • It has been well documented that dermal irradiation by ultraviolet A (UVA) locally decreases the number of Langerhans cells and suppresses contact hypersensitivity of the skin. We found that topical irradiation of UVA to the eye systemically decreased the number of Langerhans cells (LC) in the dorsalskin and lymph nodes and elicited lymphocyte apoptosis in the latter tissues but not in the thymus. Optic nerve resection, but not ciliary ganglionectomy, eliminated the UVA-induced decrease in dermal Langerhans cells by a mechanism that was partially inhibited by hypophysectomy. The immunosuppressive effect of UVA was not observed in knockout mice lacking inducible-type of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). These results suggested that topical irradiation of UVA to the eye induced immunosuppression via NO-dependet neuronal pathways.

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The Efficacy of an Immunosuppression on Pregnancy Rate and its Outcome of IVF-ET Cycles (체외 수정 시술에서 면역 억제가 임신율 및 그 결과에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, An-Na;Kim, Sun-Haeng;Ku, Pyong-Sahm
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.221-225
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    • 1995
  • A prospective study was undertaken to test whether immunosuppression improves implantation, pregnancy rates and their outcomes in an in-vitro fertilization-embryo transfer( IVF-ET) cycles in patients with tubal factor infertility. The implantation and pregnancy rates was not significantly higher in patients recieving prednisolone than in control patients in routine IVF-ET cycles and unstimulated IVF-ET cycles. It can be concluded that prednisolone dose not support implantation and pregnancy outcomes of in routine IVF-ET cycles at least.

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