• Title, Summary, Keyword: immunostimulation

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Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Illite on Humoral Immunity against Salmonella typhimurium Flagella Antigen in Laying Hens (산란계에 Illite 급여가 Salmonella typhimurium 편모항원에 대한 체액성 면역 반응에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, S.R.;Lee, S.;Chang, K.T.;Kim, J.W.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.201-206
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to investigate dietary effects of illite on humoral immune response against Salmonella typhimurium flagella in Hyline Brown laying hens. Total of twenty eight 36-week-old hens were divided into two groups; The first was fed commercial diet as control and the other was fed diet containing 2 % illite. Each group was divided into 2 sub-groups and then performed immunization of Salmonella flagella with different adjuvants which were Freund's adjuvant and croton oil. The rates of egg-production in all groups were normal range but no difference was found between illite-treated and untreated groups. The serum antibody titers of Freund's adjuvant-used subgroup in illite fed groups were significantly increased, especially from 6-to 9-week after $1^{st}$ immunization compared to those of control groups (p<0.05). And the antibody titers of croton oil-used subgroup in illite-fed groups were also significantly increased, especially at 4-, 6- and 7-week (p<0.05). The results demonstrated that the feeding illite stimulated the immune response against S. typhimurium flagella antigen in laying hens and suggest that the supplementation of illite to the poultry diets may support protective effects against bacterial infections such as Salmonellosis.

Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Immunostimulants Purified from Alkali Extract of Poria cocos Sclerotium (복령 균핵의 알칼리추출물에서 정제한 면역활성 증강물질의 작용과 화학구성)

  • Rhee, Sang-Dal;Cho, Soo-Muk;Park, Jeong-Sik;Han, Sang-Bae;Jeon, Young-Jin;Kim, Hwan-Mook;Kim, Gwang-Po
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.293-298
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    • 1999
  • An one percent sodium carbonate extract prepared from sclerotia of Poria cocos activated the proliferation of the T lymphocytes as measured by mixed lymphocyte responses(MLR). The active fraction, PCSC22, was isolated from an one percent sodium carbonate extract by a combination of fractionation procedures, including ethanol precipitation and chromatographies on column of DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G50. Carbohydrate and peptide contained in PCSC22 were 78 : 22% in ratio. On employing gel filtration high performance liquid chromatography, PCSC22 exhitited a homogeneous peak with an average molecular weight of 8 kDa. The sugar moiety of PCSC22 was composed with mannose (92%), galactose (6.2%) and arabinose (1.3%), which might be indicated as heteromannan. Fifteen amino acids were found in peptide moiety of the polysaccharide and aspartic acid, serine, and valine were major components. PCSC22 activated the primary proliferation of T lymphocytes measured by mixed lymphocyte responses, the antibody production of the B lymphocytes and the secretion of nitric oxide from macrophage cell line, RAW264.7.

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The Effect of Cordycepin on the Production of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages (코디세핀이 마우스 복강 대식세포에서 전염증성 사이토카인의 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Seo, Min-Jeong;Kang, Byoung-Won;Kim, Min-Jeong;Lee, Hye-Hyeon;Seo, Kwon-Il;Kim, Kwang-Hyuk;Jeong, Yong-Kee
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.68-72
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    • 2014
  • The effect of cordycepin purified from Cordyceps militaris on macrophage activation was investigated in peritoneal macrophages isolated from C57BL6 mice. Lipopolysaccharide-induced mouse peritoneal cells showed that cordycepin treatment increased the expression of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-$1{\beta}$, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$), leading to early inflammation-mediated reactions, the activation of immunological responses, and T lymphocyte activation. T lymphocytes, activated by a greater production of IL-6, resulted in antibody-generating immune reactions, suggesting that cordycepin was effective at inducing immunological responses. Consistent with the increase in the inflammation-mediating factors including nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide ($H_2O_2$), the toxic response of macrophages was activated and effectively induced inflammation. These findings demonstrate that cordycepin is involved in reducing cell injury provoked by inflammatory reactions. Therefore, these results suggest that cordycepin treatment of mouse peritoneal cells induces inflammation-mediated immunological responses and immunostimulation.

Evaluation of Biological Activities of Fermented Hizikia fusiformis Extracts (톳 발효 추출물의 생리활성 검증)

  • Park, Seong Hwan;Lee, Sol Jee;Jeon, MyeongJeong;Kim, Seo-Yeon;Mun, Ok-Ju;Kim, Mihyang;Kong, Chang-Suk;Lee, Dong-Geun;Yu, Ki Hwan;Kim, Yuck Young;Lee, Sang-Hyeon
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.304-310
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    • 2014
  • Antioxidative, immunostimulating, and antihypertensive activities of hot water extracts of fermented Hizikia fusiformis were evaluated. Fermentation with lactic acid bacteria generally increased the biological activities of H. fusiformis. Fermentation with isolated Weissella sp. SH-1 resulted in 13.83-62.15% DPPH radical scavenging activity and 34.90-59.25% SOD-like activity. The maximal inhibition of ACE was 82.25%, and the maximal reduction in NO production was 46.53%. Fermentation with Lactobacillus casei resulted in 11.98-72.84% DPPH radical scavenging activity and 14.17-33.62% of SOD-like activity. The maximal inhibition of ACE was 73.31%, and the maximal reduction in NO production was 65.20%. These results hint at the applicability of fermentation with lactic acid bacteria to improve the diverse biological activities of H. fusiformis and to develop functional materials or foods.

Toxicity of lectin extracted from Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) in piglets and its effects on the immunogenicity of Aujeszky's disease virus vaccines (한국산 겨우살이(Viscum album coloratum)로부터 추출된 lectin의 돼지에 대한 독성 및 오제스키병 백신의 면역원성에 미치는 영향)

  • Yeo, Sang-Geon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.225-234
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    • 2006
  • In the present study toxicity and immunostimulating activity of the lectin(KML-C), which was extracted from Korean mistletoe(Viscum album coloratum) were investigated in swine. To determine the toxicity, lectin was injected into thigh or cervical muscles of 4-week-old piglets(Landrace) and observed clinically and pathologically. For determination of the immnunostimulating activity, lectin($0.7{\mu}g/kg$ of body weight)-adjuvanted vaccine of Aujeszky's disease virus(ADV)(NYJ1-87) which was inactivated by 0.2% formalin was injected into the cervical muscle of antibody-negative piglets in the same age group. Subpopulation of the immune cells and serum neutralizing(SN) antibodies in the piglets were examined after vaccination, and resistance of the piglets against challenge by virulent NYJ1-87 was further examined. The results were also compared with those from piglets injected with aluminum hydroxide [$Al(OH)_3$]-adjuvanted vaccine of inactivated NYJ1-87 and NYJ1-87 vaccine without adjuvant, and the results are as follows. By injection of lectin with $30{\mu}g/kg$ of body weight to the thigh muscle, all of 12 piglets died after signs such as dyspnea, fever, systemic erythema and subcutaneous hemorrhages, and lesions pertaining to poisonous hepatitis and dysfunction of kidney were observed. By injection of lectin with $7{\mu}g/kg$ of body weight to the thigh muscle, all of 12 piglets showed signs such as edema and cutaneous hemorrhage in the injected area, lameness and depression, and lesions pertaining to poisonous hepatitis and dysfunction of kidney were observed. By injection of lectin with 1, 3 and $5{\mu}g/kg$ of body weight to the thigh muscle of each one piglet, signs such as congestion, induration and grayish coloration in the injected area, depression and inappetence were observed in all piglets. Toxic changes were also observed in the liver and kidney of piglets by lectin of 3 and $5{\mu}g$. By injection of lectin with 0.5 and $0.7{\mu}g/kg$ of body weight to the cervical muscle of each 9 piglets, all piglets were clinically normal and there were no significant changes in blood counts and chemistry values. Whereas, epithelial swelling and vacuolation of convoluted tubules were observed from one piglet injected with lectin of $0.7{\mu}g$, and necrosis and fibrosis of muscular fiber were observed in the muscle of one piglet injected with lectin of $0.5{\mu}g$. Only population of sIgM+ B lymphocytes increased among immune cells in all of 15 piglets immunized with lectin($0.7{\mu}g/kg$ of body weight)-adjuvanted vaccine, while compared to those in $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccine and vaccine without adjuvant. No additional stimulation to the immune cells was recognized when lectin was added to $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccine. In piglets immunized with lectin-adjuvanted vaccine, SN titers in reciprocal values for loge were 1.3-4.0 at 1-4 weeks after vaccination, which was similar to those with 1.0-3.3 by vaccine without adjuvant but lower than those with 2.0-5.7 by $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccine. Also, no additional increase in the SN titers was recognized when lectin was added to $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccine. Piglets immunized with lectin-adjuvanted vaccine were resistant to challenge by the virulent NYJ1-87 at 4 weeks after vaccination, and the SN titers reached to 5.0 one week after challenge, which was higher than those with 4.0 by vaccine without adjuvant but somewhat lower than those with 7.7 by $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccine.

Optimum Conditions for the Culture of Hericium erinaceum in a Jar Fermenter with the Addition of Ginseng Extract in the Liquid Medium (수삼추출물을 이용한 노루궁뎅이버섯 균사체의 jar fermenter에서의 발효조건 최적화)

  • Park, Chang-Kyu;Tu, Qi;Cho, Ju-Hyun;Yu, Kwang-Won;Jeong, Heon-Sang;Lee, Hyeon-Yong;Jeong, Jae-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.82-89
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    • 2010
  • To obtain functional materials from a submerged culture of Hericium erinaceum, a suitable basal medium for flask culture was screened and the optimal culture conditions in a jar fermenter were investigated with the addition of ginseng extracts (GE) to the basal liquid medium. Of all tested basal liquid media, the mushroom complete medium (MCM) supplemented with 0.5% of GE produced the highest mycelial dry weight (MDW) of 5.91 g/L in the flask, which reached a plateau at $25^{\circ}C$, pH 5.5 after 10 days. The submerged culture conditions for the mass production of mycelia in a 50 L jar fermenter were also optimal at $25^{\circ}C$, pH 5.5, 120 rpm agitation speed and 0.4 vvm aeration rate. Under these conditions, the maximum MDW was produced, which reached a value of 4.28 g/L within 5 days. When we investigated the effects of the amount of GE in the MCM on the production of MDW in the jar fermenter, the addition of 5% GE (HE-GE-5) under the optimal culture conditions produced the maximum MDW (4.93 g/L). In addition, the crude polysaccharide of HE-GE-5 contained mainly neutral sugars (63.2%) with considerable amounts of uronic acid (19.3%) and a small amount of proteins (8.8%) and it had potent immunostimulation properties.

Immune Stimulation and Anti-Metastasis of Crude Polysaccharide from Submerged Culture of Hericium erinaceum in the Medium Supplemented with Korean Ginseng Extracts (수삼추출물 첨가 배지에서 배양된 노루궁뎅이버섯 균사체 심부발효물 조다당획분의 면역 및 암전이 억제활성)

  • Kim, Hoon;Park, Chang-Kyu;Jeong, Jae-Hyun;Jeong, Heon-Sang;Lee, Hyeon-Yong;Yu, Kwang-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.11
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    • pp.1535-1542
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    • 2009
  • To find the new use of Korean ginseng and mushroom, crude polysaccharides were prepared from submerged cultures of Hericium erinaceum in the medium supplemented with Korean ginseng extracts. When we fractionated crude polysaccharides (HE-GE-CP-1, 3, and 5) from hot-water extracts of submerged cultures of H. erinaceum with ginseng extracts (1%, 3%, and 5% addition of total medium), the yields of HE-GE-CP-1, 3, and 5 were identified at 5.7, 5.1, and 4.8%, respectively. Among crude polysaccharide fractions, HE-GE-CP-5 was significantly higher (1.89-fold of the saline control) than those of HE-GE-CP-1 (1.64-fold) or HE-GE-CP-3 (1.76-fold) on mitogenic activity of splenocytes. HE-GE-CP-5 also had the more potent bone marrow cell proliferation (1.83-fold) rather than HE-CP or HE-GE-CP-1 or HE-GE-CP-3 (1.59- or 1.44- or 1.69-fold, respectively), and anti-metastatic activity as anti-cancer effect showed the highest prophylactic value (72.4% inhibition of tumor control) in 5% supplementation of ginseng extract. However, the lysosomal phosphatase of macrophage was significantly stimulated after HE-GE-CP-3 treatment (2.03-fold). In addition, the immunostimulating and anti-metastatic crude polysaccharide, HE-GE-CP-5, contained mainly neutral sugars (63.2%) with considerable amounts of uronic acid (19.3%) and a small amount of proteins (8.8%). HE-GE-CP-5 can stimulate immune system to inhibit tumor metastasis, and its anti-tumor metastasis may be associated with macrophages, splenocytes and Peyer's patch cells activation.