• Title, Summary, Keyword: immunostimulation

Search Result 57, Processing Time 0.045 seconds

Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK1/2) Regulate Glucose Deprivation-Induced Cell Death in Immunostimulated Astrocytes

  • Yoo, Byoung-Kwon;Park, Ji-Woong;Yoon, Seo-Young;Jeon, Mi-Jin;Park, Gyu-Hwan;Chun, Hyun-Joo;Ko, Kwang-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
    • /
    • /
    • pp.83-83
    • /
    • 2003
  • In our previous study, glucose deprivation was reported to induce the potentiated death and ATP loss in immunostimulated astroglia. And this vulnerability to glucose deprivation was due to overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H$_2$O$_2$). In the present study, the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in the glucose deprivation-induced death of immunostimulated astroglia was examined. We showed that immunostimulation with LPS+IFN-ν activated the ERKl/2 signal pathway and produced a large amount of NO and H$_2$O$_2$. Generation of NO and H$_2$O$_2$ in immunostimulated astroglia was mediated via ERK1/2 signal pathways, since addition of the ERK kinase (MEKl) inhibitor PD98059 reduced NO and H$_2$O$_2$production. ERK1/2 activation-mediated NO and H$_2$O$_2$ production is due to an activation of iNOS and NADPH oxidase, respectively. Finally, we found that glucose deprivation caused ATP depletion and the augmented death in immunostimulated astroglia, which was also prevented by PD98059 treatment. These results demonstrate that the ERK1/2 signal pathways play an important role in glucose deprivation induced the death in immunostimulated astroglia by regulating the generation of NO and H$_2$O$_2$.

  • PDF

The Effect of Kuwonsimsin-hwan on Immunosuppression Induced by Methotrexate in Rat (구원심신환(究原心腎丸)이 methotrexate로 유발된 흰쥐의 면역기능저하(免疫機能低下)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Choi, Soon-Ho;Kang, Seok-Bong;Choi, Sun-Mi;Lee, Yeon-Kyeong
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
    • /
    • v.28 no.2
    • /
    • pp.126-136
    • /
    • 2007
  • Objectives : In the present study, the effect of Kuwonsimsin-hwan (KSS) was tested in methotrexate (MTX)-induced immunosuppressed SD rats. Methods : Methotrexate was fed to white rats once a day for 4 days. After the immune responses of the rats deteriorated, dried extracts of Kuwonsimsin-hwan mixed in water was fed to the rats once a day for 14 days. We then measured the number of lymphocytes in peripheral blood and the percentage of B-cells, T-cells, CD3+CD4+T-cells, CD3+CD8+ T-cells and IL-2 productivity sampled from spleen and peripheral region. Results : (1) The number of lymphocytes and the percentage of T-cells and CD3+CD4+ T-cellsin peripheral blood increased significantly in the KSS group as compared with the control group. (2) The percentage of B-cells, CD3+CD8+ T-cells, and CD4+/CD8+ T-cells in peripheral blood were not different statistically. (3) The percentage of T-cells in spleen and IL-2 productivity of spleen cells increased significantly in the KSS group as compared with the control group. (4) The percentage of CD3+CD4+ T-cells in spleen increased in KSS the group as compared with the control group but without statistical significance. (5) The percentage of B-cells, CD3+CD8+ T-cells, and CD4+/CD8+ T-cells in spleen were not different statistically. Conclusion : It is concluded that Kuwonsimsin-hwan has immunostimulating effect on MTX-induced immunosuppressed SD rats.

  • PDF

Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines by Beta-glucan in Macrophage Cell Line (대식세포주에서 베타-글루칸에 의한 염증성 사이토카인의 발현)

  • Kim, Mi-Jeong;Ryu, Han-Wook;Cho, Gye-Hyung;Kim, Ha-Won
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
    • /
    • v.52 no.1
    • /
    • pp.73-78
    • /
    • 2008
  • Immune system can protect host attacking from a variety of microorganism and virus through innate and adaptive immunities. The innate immune system can be activated by recognition of conserved carbohydrates on the cell surface of pathogen resulting in protection, immunity regulation and inflammation. Immunostimulating and anti-tumor ${\beta}$-glucan, major cell wall component of many fungi, could be recognized as pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) by C-type lectin such as pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) of host innate immunity cells. In spite of many studies of basidiomycetes ${\beta}$-glucan on immunostimulation, little is known about the precise mechanism as molecular-level. Among C-type lectins, dectin-1 was cloned and reported as a ${\beta}$-glucan receptor. In this report, we demonstrated induction of cytokine gene transcription by Ganoderma lucidum ${\beta}$-glucan in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by RT-PCR analysis. The expression of murine dectin-1 (MD-1) on RAW264.7 macrophage by RT-PCR showing both the full length, 757 bp $(MD-1{\alpha})$ and alternative spliced form, 620 bp $(MD-1{\beta})$. Both $MD-1{\alpha}$ and $MD-1{\beta}$ mRNAs were induced by ${\beta $-glucan both in the absence and presence of LPS. To explore expression of inflammatory cytokines by ${\beta}$-glucan, RAW264.7 cells were treated with ${\beta}$-glucan for 12 hours. As a result, the expressions of IL-1 IL-6, IL-l0 and $TNF-{\alpha}$ were increased by ${\beta}$-glucan treatment in a dose-dependent fashion. From these results, ${\beta}$-glucan induced transcriptions of dectin-1 and immune activating cytokine genes, indicating induction of immune allertness by expressing dectin-1 and secreting inflammatory cytokines.

Bacterial strains isolated from Jeotgal (salted seafood) induce maturation and cytokine production in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (마우스 골수 유래 수지상세포의 성숙과 사이토카인 생산에 대한 젓갈 분리균의 효과 연구)

  • Moon, Sun-Young;Park, Eun-Jin;Joo, Hong-Gu
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
    • /
    • v.54 no.3
    • /
    • pp.139-146
    • /
    • 2014
  • Jeotgal (salted seafood) has been one of major fermented foods in Korea for long time. Although there are many studies about Jeotgal in various aspects of food, its immunological importance on hosts has not been elucidated yet. In this study, we investigated if several bacteria isolated from Jeotgal may modulate the function of dendritic cells (DCs), powerful antigen-presenting cells equipped with special immunological capabilities. 4 Jeotgal bacteria were selected as representatives and used for experiments. To treat viable DCs, those bacteria were killed at $60^{\circ}C$ for 30 min. The viability of DCs treated with Jeotgal bacteria was verified and two isolates significantly induced high production of interleukin-12, a representative cell-mediated cytokine of DCs. Surface activation and maturation markers (MHC class II, CD40, CD86) of DCs were analyzed by flow cytometer. In addition, the treated DCs showed significantly high lymphocyte stimulatory capability compared to control DCs based on allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions. These observations suggest that Jeotgal isolates can function as immunostimulating bacteria in hosts, like Lactobacillus. Taken together, these experimental evidences may broaden the use of Jeotgal isolates in immunological fields in addition to as a fermented food.

Extracranial systemic antitumor response through the abscopal effect induced by brain radiation in a patient with metastatic melanoma

  • D'Andrea, Mark A.;Reddy, G.K.
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
    • /
    • v.37 no.4
    • /
    • pp.302-308
    • /
    • 2019
  • The abscopal effect is a term that has been used to describe the phenomenon in which localized radiation therapy treatment of a tumor lesion triggers a spontaneous regression of metastatic lesion(s) at a non-irradiated distant site(s). Radiation therapy induced abscopal effects are believed to be mediated by activation and stimulation of the immune system. However, due to the brain's distinctive immune microenvironment, extracranial abscopal responses following cranial radiation therapy have rarely been reported. In this report, we describe the case of 42-year-old female patient with metastatic melanoma who experienced an abscopal response following her cranial radiation therapy for her brain metastasis. The patient initially presented with a stage III melanoma of the right upper skin of her back. Approximately 5 years after her diagnosis, the patient developed a large metastatic lesion in her upper right pectoral region of her chest wall and axilla. Since the patient's tumor was positive for BRAF and MEK, targeted therapy with dabrafenib and trametinib was initiated. However, the patient experienced central nervous system (CNS) symptoms of headache and disequilibrium and developed brain metastases prior to the start of targeted therapy. The patient received radiation therapy to a dose of 30 Gy delivered in 15 fractions to her brain lesions while the patient was on dabrafenib and trametinib therapy. The patient's CNS metastases improved significantly within weeks of her therapy. The patient's non-irradiated large extracranial chest mass and axilla mass also shrank substantially demonstrating the abscopal effect during her CNS radiation therapy. Following radiation therapy of her residual chest lesions, the patient was disease free clinically and her CNS lesions had regressed. However, when the radiation therapy ended and the patient continued her targeted therapy alone, recurrence outside of her previously treated fields was noted. The disease recurrence could be due to the possibility of developing BRAF resistance clones to the BRAF targeted therapy. The patient died eventually due to wide spread systemic disease recurrence despite targeted therapy.

Effect of Jehotang Extract on the Growth of Intestinal Bacteria and Immunostimulation (제호탕의 장내 세균 및 면역 활성에 미치는 연구)

  • Ji, Myoung-Soon;Park, Min-Jung;Lee, Mi-Young;Kim, Jong-Goon;Ko, Byoung-Seob
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.38 no.1
    • /
    • pp.104-108
    • /
    • 2006
  • Water extracts of Jehotang were evaluated for their growth-promoting effects on Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus sp., L. acidophilus, and Clostridium perfringens. Addition of Jehotang water extract to modified EG media at 0.1 mg/mL increased growths of B. longum, Lactobacillus sp., and L. acidophilus, with 1.8-fold increase in growth of L. acidophilus compared to that of control. Studies on these strains by agar diffusion method showed Lactobacillus sp. and L. acidophilus were activated by addition of Jehotang extract at 10 mg/disc. Proliferation responses of mice splenocytes and Peyer's patch cells to ConA by LPS-stimulation at 500 mg/kg B.W./day Jehotang extract were investigated in vitro. Upon treatment of 1 mg/mL Jehotang water extract to mice, proliferations of splenocytes and Peyer's patch cells increased 1.4- and 1.6-fold compared to control, respectively. In mice administered Jehotang extract, production of intestinal secretory IgA (sIgA) increased 2.4-fold compared to control. These results indicate water extract of Jehotang stimulated intestinal immune system of mice. In mice treated with Jehotang extract, production of lymphocytes was 4% lower, whereas those of granulocytes and platelets were 4% and slightly higher than control, respectively.

Anti-oxidative and Immunomodulating Activities of Solvent Extracts from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) Sprouts (브로콜리 새싹 용매 추출물의 항산화 및 면역조절 활성)

  • Koh, Jong-Ho;Kim, Hoon;Hwang, Jong-Hyun;Yu, Kwang-Won
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
    • /
    • v.32 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-10
    • /
    • 2019
  • In order to examine the functionality of broccoli sprout (Brassica oleracea, BS), solvent extracts were prepared and their anti-oxidative and immunomodulating activities were compared with those of broccoli (B). EtOH extracts (E) were potently higher than hot-water extracts (HW) in the antioxidant contents and radical scavenging activity. In particular, the total polyphenolic contents in addition to ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity were significantly higher in EtOH extract of broccoli sprout (BS-E; 9.15 mg GAE/g, 4.52 mg AEAC/g, and 1.14 mg AEAC/g) compared with that of broccoli (B-E; 7.83 mg GAE/g, 3.63 mg AEAC/g, and 0.97 mg/AEAC/g). Whereas, total flavonoid content was significantly higher in B-E (1.60 mg QE/g) than BS-E (1.43 mg QE/g). Anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using LPS-induced cell line model at a concentration of $10{\sim}100{\mu}g/mL$, in which all solvent extracts of both broccoli sprouts and broccoli were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cell lines. In anti-inflammatory activity of broccoli sprouts, EtOH extracts also showed significantly more potent activity than hot-water extracts in all sample concentrations tested. In addition, BS-E ($100{\mu}g/mL$) inhibited nitric oxide (NO) and IL-6 production to 60.9% and 68.9% compared with the LPS inflammation group (without extracts), whereas B-E inhibited 49.6% and 54.9%. On the other hand, in immunostimulating activity by splenocytes and macrophages, hot-water extract showed significantly higher activity than EtOH extract. Especially, BS-HW stimulated the splenocyte proliferation (1.2-fold against saline group) and IFN-${\gamma}$ production (264.39 pg/mL) at $100{\mu}g/mL$, and the production of IL-6 (1.33-fold), IL-12 (1.09-fold) and TNF-${\alpha}$ (1.49-fold) from macrophages was also significantly enhanced over broccoli. In conclusion, broccoli sprouts showed more potent anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulating activity than broccoli, suggesting the possibility of using broccoli sprouts as functional food materials.

Immunomodulating activities of water extract from xanthium strumarium 2

  • Moon, Eun-Yi;Park, Seung-Yong;Ahn, Mee-Ja;Ahn, Jong-Woong;Zee, Ok-Pyo;Park, Eun-kyue
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
    • /
    • v.14 no.3
    • /
    • pp.217-224
    • /
    • 1991
  • One of water and/or methanol extracts from 14 herbal deugs which were screened using murine splenocytes showed immunosuppressive activities previously. After water extract from Xanthium strumarium was treated with chloroform. $100 \mu{g/ml}$ of water layer (XS-WCI) has very strong immunosimulating activities tested by $^3H$-thmidine incorporation (control as $100 \mu{g/ml}$, 26345 cpm was 69515 cpm). MLR also appears to be simulated strongly (control vs $100 \mu{g/ml}$, 4962 cpm vs 78688 cpm). When $100 \mu{g/ml}$ of XS-WCI and $0.8 \mu{g/ml}$ of concanavalin a (ConA) were added. more $^3H$-thymidine were incorporated significantly, compared with $0.8 \mu{g/ml}$ of ConA only. In contrast with ConA. results from $5 \mu{/ml}$ of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and $100 \mu{g/ml}$ of XS-WCI were not different. compared with $5\mu{/ml}$of LPS only. These results indicated the responses of XS-WCI to B cell and T cell may be different. XS-WCI was injected intraperitoneally (10 mg/kg. 50mg/kg/ 100 mg/kg) for 4 days or 10 days and tested secretion of IgM or IgG by direct and indirect hemolytic plaque-forming cell assays, respectively. Numbers of hemolytic plaques for both IgM and IgG were increased significantly. Especially, secretion of IgGs was increased more than 10 times. After administration of XS-WCI for 7 days (50 mg/kg. 100 mg/kg) splenomegaly deu to graft vs host reaction was observed. Human lymhocytes separated from whole blood by Ficoll-Hypaque method were also proliferated after treatment of $10 \mu{g/ml}$ and $50 \mu{g/ml}$ of XS-WCI. As seen in murine lymphocytes, human lymphocyte proliferation was increased synergistically after treatment with both of XS-WCI and phytohemagglutinin (PHA). It appears that XS-WCI may have potential immunosimulating activities and that it remains to be purified further for isolation of active components.

  • PDF

Toxicity of lectin extracted from Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) in chicks and its immunoadjuvant activity on Newcastle disease virus vaccines (한국산 겨우살이(Viscum album coloratum)로부터 추출된 lectin의 닭에 대한 독성 및 뉴캐슬병 백신의 특이면역 증강 효과)

  • Yeo, Sang-Geon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
    • /
    • v.46 no.3
    • /
    • pp.215-224
    • /
    • 2006
  • In order to search the availability of the lectin extracted from Korean mistletoe(Viscum album coloratum) as an adjuvant for the avian vaccines, attempts were made to determine toxicity of the lectin in chicks and its immunostimulating activity on the inactivated vaccines against Newcastle disease virus(NDV). For the determination of toxicity, the lectin was injected into the thigh muscle of SPF chicks(Charles River) of 1-week-old and observed hematologically and pathologically. For the determination of immunostimulating effects, lectin-adjuvanted, inactivated NDV vaccines were injected into the thigh muscle of SPF chicks in the same age group. Sera of the chicks were examined for the hemagglutination-inhibition(HI) antibodies induced, their HI titers and reaction to the NDV antigens. The data were further compared with those from aluminum hydroxide [$Al(OH)_3$]-adjuvanted vaccines and vaccines without adjuvant, and the results are as follows. There were no significant changes observed in the values of RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH, MCHC, AST, ALT, BUN, creatinine and total proteins in the chicks administered with lectin of 1.1, 2.2 and $22.2{\mu}g/kg$ body weight, which means the lectin has no effects on blood values and functions of liver and kidney. In histopathologic observation, no lesions were observed in the brain, heart, liver, lung, spleen, kidney, thymus and bursa of Fabricius of the chicks administered with lectin of 1.1, 2.2 and $22.2{\mu}g/kg$ body weight. There were inflammatory lesions, such as congestion, hemorrhage, edema, infiltration of macrophages and coagulation necrosis observed in the thigh muscle of chicks administered with lectin of $22.2{\mu}g/kg$ body weight, whereas no changes were observed in 1.1 and $22.2{\mu}g/kg$ lectin administered chicks. In chicks immunized with lectin($4.4{\mu}g/kg$ of body weight)-adjuvanted B1, LaSota and Ulster 2C vaccines, HI titers in reciprocal values for $log_2$ were 1.8-2.2 at 1 week after vaccination, which was similar with those of 1.5-2.9 by $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines. The HI titers by the lectin-adjuvanted vaccines reached to 3.9-5.3 at 4 weeks, whereas those by the $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines were more high as 7.3-9.3. Meanwhile, the immunostimulating effects of the lectin were recognized while compared to the HI titers with 2.4-3.7 in chicks immunized with vaccines without adjuvants at 4 weeks after vaccination. The chicks immunized with lectin-adjuvanted vaccines were enough to resist challenges by Kyojeongwon strain, a very virulent NDV at 4 weeks after vaccination as well as chicks immunized with $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines. The HI titers by the lectin-adjuvanted vaccines reached to high level as 8.7-10.3 as those with 8.2-9.6 by the $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines at 6 weeks after vaccination, which may be the booster effects by the challenge virus. Antibodies specific to the HN and F antigens of NDV were observed in the sera of both chicks immunized with lectin-adjuvanted vaccines and $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines.

Effect of Ginsenoside Rb1 on Cell Adhesion, Surface Molecule Expression and Morphological Changes (Ginsenoside Rb1의 세포간 유착, 세포표면 단백질 발현 및 세포형태변화에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Byung-Hun;Cho, Jae-Youl
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
    • /
    • v.33 no.4
    • /
    • pp.330-336
    • /
    • 2009
  • Cell-cell adhesion managed by various adhesion molecules is known to be one of important phenomena found in numerous immunological responses or diseases such as immunostimulation, rheumatoid arthritis and allergic diseases. In this study, we examined the regulatory role of ginsenosides (G)-Rb1, reported to display immunostimulatory and anticancer effects, on cell adhesion, the up-regulation of surface adhesion molecules and morphological changes using monocytic U937 and macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. G-Rb1 significantly up-regulated U937 cell-cell adhesion mediated by both CD29 and CD43. It also enhanced U937 cell-fibronectin adhesion, while CD29 blocking antibody P5D2 strongly suppressed it. In agreement, this compound also significantly increased the surface level of CD29 as well as CD43. Furthermore, this compound differentially modulated CD82 up-regulation and morphological changes triggered by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Therefore, these results suggest that G-Rb1 may have differential modulatory function on cell adhesion events, surface molecule expression and morphological changes responsible for immune responses.